Phaedrotoma rugulifera Li & van Achterberg

Li, Xi-Ying, Achterberg, Cornelis van & Tan, Ji-Cai, 2013, Revision of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from Hunan (China), including thirty-six new species and two new genera, ZooKeys 268, pp. 1-186: 91-93

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Phaedrotoma rugulifera Li & van Achterberg

sp. n.

Phaedrotoma rugulifera Li & van Achterberg   ZBK   sp. n. Figs 275-285

Type material.

Holotype, ♀ (ZUH), "S. China: Hunan, nr Zhangjiajie, Badagong Mts, Bamaoxi, 2-3.VI.2009, 540 m, Xi-Ying Li, RMNH’09”. Paratypes (RMNH): 2 ♀ + 1 ♂, same label data; 1 ♀ id., but Tian Ping Mt., 9-13.VII.2009, c 1400 m; 1 ♂, id., but Longtanping, 4-5.VI.2009, 550 m; 1 ♀ + 1 ♂, "S. China: Hunan, nr Chengbu, Nan Mt., Shaoyang, 1500 m, 10-11.VI.2009, Xi-Ying Li, RMNH’09”.


Malar suture largely absent (Fig. 282); clypeus medium-sized (Fig. 281); second submarginal cell of fore wing medium-sized (Fig. 276); setose part of ovipositor sheath 0.6-0.8 times as long as hind tibia; pronotum with large round pronope (Fig. 285); epicnemial area crenulate; propodeum usually largely densely rugose (Fig. 277); second and third metasomal tergites superficially granulate (Fig. 278).


Holotype, ♀, length of body 2.6 mm, of fore wing 2.8 mm.

Head. Antenna with 34 segments and 1.5 times as long as fore wing; length of third segment 1.3 times fourth segment, length of third, fourth and penultimate segments 4.7, 3.7 and 2.7 times their width, respectively (Fig. 280); length of maxillary palp 1.3 times height of head; labial palp segments normal, elongate; occipital carina rather close to hypostomal carina and dorsally absent (Fig. 282); hypostomal carina medium-sized; length of eye in dorsal view 3.5 times temple; frons glabrous, smooth and strongly shiny and flattened medially, slightly convex laterally; face largely smooth between sparse punctures, but slightly micro-sculptured medio-ventrally and dorso- laterally, medially slightly elevated (Fig. 281); width of clypeus 2.9 times its maximum height and 0.5 times width of face; clypeus moderately convex and punctate, ventrally not protruding forwards and its ventral margin rather sharp and straight (Fig. 281); hypoclypeal depression comparatively large (Fig. 281); malar suture largely absent, slightly impressed near eye (Fig. 282); malar space comparatively short (Fig. 282), half as long as basal width of mandible; mandible gradually widened basally, with narrow and non-protruding ventral carina (Fig. 282).

Mesosoma. Length of mesosoma 1.3 times its height; dorsal pronope large and round (Fig. 285); pronotal side largely smooth and posterior groove largely absent (Fig. 275); epicnemial area crenulate; precoxal sulcus subanteriorly and medially impressed, narrow and comparatively deep, distinctly crenulate (Fig. 275); pleural sulcus smooth; anterior groove of metapleuron crenulate ventrally; notauli absent on disc, only anteriorly indicated by deep and smooth depressions (Fig. 277); meso-scutum glabrous except for a few setae along imaginary notaulic courses and about as long as wide (Fig. 277); medio-posterior depression of mesoscutum absent; lateral carina of mesoscutum largely absent anteriorly, only as a row of punctures; scutellar sulcus distinctly crenulate; scutellum smooth or nearly so and flattened; surface of propodeum coarsely and densely rugose, without distinct transverse or median carinae (Fig. 277).

Wings. Fore wing (Fig. 276): pterostigma rather wide elliptical, narrowed apically; 1-R1 reaching wing apex and 1.3 times as long as pterostigma; r:3-SR:SR1 = 3:27:73; r slender; 2-SR:3-SR:r-m = 20:27:7; 1-M straight; SR1 slightly curved; m-cu distinctly postfurcal; cu-a just postfurcal and 1-CU1 widened; first subdiscal cell closed, CU1b short. Hind wing (Fig. 276): M+CU:1-M:1r-m = 21:15:9; cu-a straight; m-cu absent.

Legs. Length of femur, tibia and basitarsus of hind leg 3.7, 9.8 and 5.7 times as long as wide, respectively; hind femur with long setae and of tibia medium-sized (Fig. 279).

Metasoma. Length of first tergite 0.9 times its apical width, its surface weakly and gradually convex and with widely spaced rugae and with granulate interspaces, dorsal carinae irregular and up to its posterior fifth (Fig. 278); second and third tergites superficially granulate, division of tergites slightly elevated; length of ventrally visible setose part of ovipositor sheath 0.27 times fore wing, 2.5 times first tergite and 0.8 times hind tibia (Figs 275, 284); apex of hypopygium acute (Fig. 283).

Colour. Black; palpi, malar space, mandible, coxae and trochanters ivory; legs pale yellowish (but hind tibia apically and hind tarsus slightly infuscate); antenna (but scapus and pedicellus largely yellowish), pronotal side ventrally propleuron largely, mesopleuron ventrally, apical half of metasoma dorsally, pterostigma and veins more or less dark brown; wing membrane subhyaline; tegula brown; head (except black stemmaticum and dark brown middle of vertex), metasoma ventrally and second and third tergites brownish-yellow.

Molecular data. COI, 16S, 28S (CVA4237, CVA4248).

Variation. Length of body 2.2-3.1 mm, of fore wing 2.4-3.2 mm; antenna of female with 32 (1), 33 (1), 34 (1) or 36 (1) segments, of male with 30 (1) or 34 (2) segments; mesosoma completely black or dark brown and laterally partly brownish-yellow; head largely dark brown to nearly completely brownish-yellow.


*China (Hunan).




Name derived from “rugulum” (Latin for "small ruga or wrinkle") and “ferum” (suffix in Latin meaning “carrying” or “having”), because of the densely rugulose propodeum.


The new species does not run well in the key by Chen and Weng (2005), but if the length of the mesosoma is considered to be variable, it runs to Phaedrotoma abortiva   (Weng & Chen, 2005) comb. n. Phaedrotoma rugulifera   differs by having the mesosoma 1.3 times as long as high (1.5-1.6 times in Phaedrotoma abortiva   ), the malar suture largely absent, only shallowly impressed near the eye (deep and almost complete) and the length of the maxillary palp 1.3 times height of head (equal).