Monanthotaxis ferruginea (Oliv.) Engl. & Diels, Kew Bull. 25(1): 26, 1971

Couvreur, Thomas L. P., Dagallier, Leo-Paul M. J., Crozier, Francoise, Ghogue, Jean-Paul, Hoekstra, Paul H., Kamdem, Narcisse G., Johnson, David M., Murray, Nancy A. & Sonke, Bonaventure, 2022, Flora of Cameroon - Annonaceae Vol 45, PhytoKeys 207, pp. 1-532 : 196-197

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Monanthotaxis ferruginea (Oliv.) Engl. & Diels, Kew Bull. 25(1): 26, 1971


Monanthotaxis ferruginea (Oliv.) Engl. & Diels, Kew Bull. 25(1): 26, 1971

Map 7E View Map 7

≡ Unona ferruginea Oliv., Fl. Trop. Afr. 1: 35, 1868. Popowia ferruginea (Oliv.) Engl. & Diels: Monogr. Afrik. Pflanzen.-Fam. 6: 46, 1901.

= Unona eminii Engl., Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C: 179, 1895. Syntypes: Stuhlmann F.L. 1556, n.v., Stuhlmann F.L. 4022, n.v.

= Popowia djumaensis De Wild., Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, Bot. sér. 5, 3[1]: 76, 1909. Type. Democratic Republic of the Congo. Bandundu, vallée de la Dju Gillet J. 2803, Jul. 1907: holotype: BR[BR0000008803160, BR0000008803962].


Angola. Cuanza Norte; Golungo Alto, Welwitsch F.M.J. 761, Jul 1855: lectotype, designated by Paiva (1966), p. 41: LISU[LISU206061]; isolectotypes: B[B100153029]; BM[BM000553834, BM000553835]; BR[BR0000008805324]; COI[COI00004905]; G[G00308369]; K[K000198968]; LISU[LISU206062]; P[P00362602] .


Shrub to liana, 3-6 m tall, d.b.h. unknown. Indumentum of simple hairs; old leafless branches glabrescent, young foliate branches densely pubescent with dense erect reddish brown hairs 0.5-0.9 mm long. Leaves: petiole 4-8 mm long, 1-2 mm in diameter, densely pubescent, cylindrical, blade inserted on top of the petiole; blade 3.6-17.2 cm long, 1.8-6.8 cm wide, obovate to oblong-elliptic, apex acute, base subcordate, papyraceous, below pubescent with erect reddish brown hairs when young, sparsely pubescent when old, above sparsely pubescent when young, glabrous when old, discolorous, whitish below; midrib impressed, above pubescent when young and old, below densely pubescent when young, pubescent when old; secondary veins 7 to 15 pairs, glabrous above; tertiary venation percurrent. Individuals bisexual; inflorescences ramiflorous on old leafless branches, leaf opposed to extra axillary. Flowers with 9 perianth parts in 3 whorls, 1 per inflorescence; pedicel 13-36 mm long, 0.5-1 mm in diameter, pubescent; in fruit 5-27 mm long, 1 mm in diameter; bracts 2, one basal, soon falling, and one upper towards the middle of pedicel or lower half of pedicel, basal bract not seen, upper bract 2-6 mm long, 1-5 mm wide; sepals 3, valvate, free, 2-3 mm long, 3 mm wide, ovate to semiorbicular, apex rounded, base truncate, sparsely pubescent outside, glabrous inside, margins flat; petals free, outer petals longer than inner, inner petals entirely covered in bud; outer petals 3, 5.8-6.7 mm long, 4.5-6 mm wide, ovate, apex obtuse, base truncate, pale yellow, margins flat, densely pubescent outside, pubescent towards the margins inside; inner petals 3, valvate, 3-5.4 mm long, 2.7-2.9 mm wide, elliptic to ovate, apex obtuse, base truncate, pale yellow, margins flat, densely pubescent outside, pubescent with a glabrous base inside; stamens 22 to 25, in 3 rows, 1-2 mm long, obovate; connective truncate, glabrous; staminodes absent; carpels free, 12 to 24, ovary 1-2 mm long, stigma elongate, glabrous. Monocarps stipitate, stipes 3-7 mm long, 2-3 mm in diameter; monocarps 2 to 17, 12-35 mm long, 6-9 mm in diameter, moniliform, ellipsoid, apex rounded to apiculate, glabrous, verrucose to weakly torulose, constricted around seeds when more than 1, orange to red when ripe; seeds 1 to 3(to 5) per monocarp, 7-8 mm long, 5-6 mm in diameter, ellipsoid; aril absent.


A widespread species in Central and East Africa, with a disjunct distribution between Cameroon, Gabon, the Republic of the Congo and western Democratic Republic of the Congo and eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, Ethiopia, and western Tanzania and Kenya; in Cameroon known from the East and South regions.


A fairly uncommon species in Cameroon, known from three collections to date; in gallery forests, lowland rain forest, brachystegia woodlands, forest edges, old secondary forests, montane forests and rocky plateaus. Altitude 300-700 m a.s.l.

Local and common names known in Cameroon.

None recorded.

Preliminary IUCN conservation status.

Least Concern (LC) ( Hoekstra et al. 2021).

Uses in Cameroon.

None reported.


Monanthotaxis ferruginea is distinguished by its pubescent branches, petioles and underside of leaf blades with dense erect reddish brown hairs, and its flowers with 22-25 stamens and glabrous carpels. In the vegetative state, it resembles M. bokoli , but M. ferruginea has acute leaf apices (for specimens in Cameroon and Gabon), while these are obtuse in M. bokoli .

Specimens examined.

East Region: Letta vers Bertoua, 4.55°N, 13.49°E, 07 February 1960, Letouzey R. 2955 (P,P,YA). South Region : 25 km on the road from N’Koemvone to Akoakas Akoakas rock, 2.71°N, 11.28°E, 18 July 1975, de Wilde J.J.F.E 8371 (BR,MO,P,WAG); Rocher d’Ako’Akas 25 km SE d’Ebolowa sur piste d’Evindissi, 2.43°N, 11.18°E, 04 February 1970, Letouzey R. 10007 (IFAN,MO,P,YA) GoogleMaps .