Konetontli, González-Santillán & Prendini, 2013

González-Santillán, Edmundo & Prendini, Lorenzo, 2013, Redefinition And Generic Revision Of The North American Vaejovid Scorpion Subfamily Syntropinae Kraepelin, 1905, With Descriptions Of Six New Genera, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 2013 (382), pp. 1-71 : 35-36

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https://doi.org/ 10.1206/830.1



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scientific name


gen. nov.

Konetontli , gen. nov.

Figures 4 View Fig , 7 View Fig , 15 View Fig A–C, 16D, 25B, C, 28B; table 1 View TABLE 1

Vaejovis pattersoni Williams and Haradon in Williams, 1980 [= Konetontli pattersoni (Williams and Haradon in Williams, 1980), comb. nov.], type species, here designated.

Vaejovis eusthenura group (part): Williams, 1980: 65, figs. 56F, 69, 75, tables 1 View TABLE 1 , 2 View TABLE 2 ; 1986: 358; Sissom, 2000: 530, 531; Francke and PonceSaavedra, 2005: 67.

Vaejovis mexicanus group (part): Sissom 2000: 542; Soleglad and Fet, 2008: 1, 2, 5, 13, 26, 37, 40, 46, 71, 73, 89, 99, 100, figs. 126, 196, 207, tables 2 View TABLE 2 , 9.

ETYMOLOGY: The generic name is a noun in apposition, masculine in gender, taken from the Nahuatl language, meaning ‘‘infant’’ or ‘‘small creature,’’ and referring to the small adult body size of the species in this genus.

DIAGNOSIS: Konetontli , gen. nov., differs from all other genera of Syntropinae in the presence of a spiniform subaculear tubercle, slightly compressed laterally with a rounded tip, and sometimes associated with smaller accessory tubercles situated anteriorly along the vm carina of the telson vesicle (fig. 25B, C). Additional diagnostic characters of the genus are as follows. Species of Konetontli , gen. nov., are very small, with total body length (adult) 14–25 mm. The tergites are entirely infuscated and most of the integument uniformly finely granular (matte; fig. 16D). Pedipalp chela trichobothrium it is situated between RD6 and the macroseta situated at the position of RD7 (which is absent), and trichobothrium ib proximal to the macroseta at the position of RD7. Metasomal segments I, II, and, in some cases, III are wider than long. The vl carinae of metasomal segment V are obsolete to absent in several species.

Konetontli , gen. nov. shares with Kuarapu , Maaykuyak , gen. nov., Syntropis , Vizcaino , gen. nov., Chihuahuanus bilineatus , comb. nov., C. coahuilae , comb. nov., and Thorellius cristimanus the presence of a secondary hook on the hemispermatophore, created by an extension of the axial carina of the distal lamina, that forms a pronounced bifurcation with the primary hook.

Konetontli , gen. nov., resemble Mesomexovis , gen. nov., in the dense infuscation of the carapace and sternites I–VII, and the partially to completely infuscate mesosomal sternite VII, but adults of Mesomexovis , gen. nov., are much larger. Konetontli , gen. nov., shares with Maaykuyak waueri , comb. nov., and P. pumilis a single pair of ventrodistal spinules on the telotarsi (fig. 22B, C). However, both M. waueri , comb. nov., and P. pumilis are separated from Konetontli , gen. nov., by the absence of a subaculear tubercle, and P. pumilis further by the neobothriotaxic pedipalp chela and uniformly pale, immaculate coloration.

INCLUDED SPECIES: Konetontli acapulco ( Armas and Martín-Frías, 2001) , comb. nov.; Konetontli chamelaensis ( Williams, 1986) , comb. nov.; Konetontli kuarapu ( Francke and Ponce-Saavedra, 2005) , comb. nov.; Konetontli nayarit ( Armas and Martín-Frías, 2001) , comb. nov.; Konetontli pattersoni (Williams and Haradon in Williams, 1980), comb. nov.

DISTRIBUTION: Konetontli , gen. nov., is endemic to Mexico and recorded from six states: Baja California Sur, Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacán, and Nayarit (fig. 4). This genus has a disjunct distribution: Konetontli pattersoni , comb. nov., inhabits the Cape region of the Baja California Peninsula, isolated from the other four species on the Mexican mainland by the Gulf of California. The mainland species are distributed along the Pacific coast, Sierra Madre del Sur, and the Balsas Depression.

NATURAL HISTORY: The species of Konetontli , gen. nov., from mainland Mexico inhabit tropical deciduous forest from sea level to 936 m altitude, unlike K. pattersoni , comb. nov., which inhabits pine-oak forest from 850–1800 m in the Sierra de la Laguna, Baja California Sur. Described species for which habitat data are available, were mostly collected under rocks and other debris, in areas with a dense layer of leaf litter ( Armas and Martín-Frías, 2001; Baldazo-Monsivais, 2003; González-Santillán, 2004), whereas two undescribed species were collected inside caves, in all cases suggesting a requirement for high relative humidity. The very small size and cryptic coloration of these scorpions, taken together with available habitat data, are consistent with the humicolous and lapidicolous ecomorphotypes ( Prendini, 2001a).

REMARKS: The species of Konentontli , gen. nov., are united, among other characters, by the possession of a subaculear tubercle on the telson, an uncommon character among vaejovid scorpions. Only eight vaejovids with a subaculear tubercle have been described to date ( Haradon, 1974; Williams, 1980, 1986; Sissom, 1993; Armas and Martín-Frías, 2001; Baldazo-Monsivais, 2003; Francke and PonceSaavedra, 2005; Webber et al., 2012). Although the subaculear tubercle at first offered a potential diagnostic synapomorphy, Sissom (1993) noted that Vaejovis mumai Sissom, 1993 , and Vaejovis spicatus Haradon, 1974 , appeared to be more closely related to Serradigitus than to the other species with a subaculear tubercle, deferring a decision pending further analysis. Soleglad and Fet (2008) subsequently created Wernerius to accommodate the latter two species (a third was added by Webber et al., 2012), retaining the others in Vaejovis (i.e., the mexicanus group, the paraphyletic assemblage that remained after ‘‘new’’ names were assigned to the other putatively monophyletic groups). Not all previous authors considered these species related to members of the mexicanus group, however. Williams (1980, 1986) placed Vaejovis pattersoni and Vaejovis chamelaensis Williams, 1986 , in the eusthenura group. Sissom (2000: 542) retained V. chamelaensis in the eusthenura group but transferred V. pattersoni to the mexicanus group based on the opinion ‘‘that it is closely related to members of the mexicanus group (e.g., V. granulatus Pocock ) from mainland Mexico.’’ The species described subsequently by Armas and Martín-Frías (2001), Baldazo-Monsivais (2003), and Francke and Ponce-Saavedra (2005) were also placed in the mexicanus group by Soleglad and Fet (2008), without testing their phylogenetic position or possible relationship to Hoffmannius , the ‘‘new’’ name proposed for Williams’ (1970a) eusthenura group.

The species hereby assigned to Konetontli , gen. nov., were consistently monophyletic in the phylogenetic analyses of González-Santillán and Prendini (in press) based on morphology, and those based on morphology and DNA. These species were not related to the exemplar species of the mexicanus group or Wernerius included in the analyses, forming a monophyletic group with Maaykuyak , gen. nov., instead (fig. 7). The creation of a new genus for these species is based on their phylogenetic position and unique, diagnostic character combination. The subaculear tubercle appears to have evolved at least twice among Vaejovidae , in Wernerius and Konetontli , gen. nov., respectively.

MATERIAL EXAMINED: Konetontli acapulco ( Armas and Martín-Frías, 2001) , comb. nov.: MEXICO: Guerrero: Municipio de Acapulco : Colonia Francisco Villa , Acapulco , 25.v.1999, E. Martín and A. Losoya, holotype ♂ ( IBUNAM). Municipio de José Azueta: Colonia Agua de Correa , 17 ° 38.6982 ′ N 101 ° 31.0932 ′ W, 72 m, 1.viii.2008, O.F. Francke, H. Montaño, J. Ponce, and A. Quijano, 1♀ ( IBUNAM). GoogleMaps Konetontli chamelaensis ( Williams, 1986) , comb. nov.: MEXICO: Jalisco: Municipio de La Huerta : Estación de Biología de Chamela , UNAM, 10– 13.vii.1985, S.C. Williams, holotype ♂ ( CAS Type No. 15744), allotype ♀ ( CAS), 31.v.1990, N. Martínez, 1♀ ( IBUNAM), 1.vi.1994, N. Martigera, 1♀ ( IBUNAM); 19 ° 29.875 ′ N 105 ° 02.608 ′ W, 97 m, 24.x.2005, E. González and J.L. Castelo, 28 ( IBU- NAM), 30.viii.2007, O.F. Francke et al., GoogleMaps 1♀ ( AMNH [ LP 7675]); Rincón de Ixtlán, Chamela , 19 ° 32 ′ N 105 ° 04 ′ W, 25.x.2005, E. González, 1♀ ( IBUNAM). GoogleMaps Konetontli kuarapu ( Francke and Ponce-Saavedra, 2005) , comb. nov.: MEXICO: Michoacán: Municipio de Parácuaro: El Valle , 19 ° 8.8488 ′ N 102 ° 13.2228 ′ W, 21.x.2000, J. Ponce et al., 18 ( AMNH), 1♀ ( IBUNAM). Konetontli nayarit ( Armas and Martín-Frías, 2001) , comb. nov.: MEXICO: Nayarit: Municipio de Compostela : Felipe Carrillo Puerto , 4 km NE, 16.vii.1999, J.A. Fernández, holotype ♂ ( IBUNAM). Municipio de El Nayar: Río Santiago , 16.v.1996, E. Barrera, 1♀ ( IBU- NAM). Konetontli pattersoni (Williams and Haradon in Williams, 1980), comb. nov.: MEXICO: Baja California Sur: Municipio de Los Cabos : La Laguna , Sierra de la Laguna , 1–3.viii.1974, R. M. Haradon, V. F. Lee, and W.E. Savary, holotype ♂ ( CAS Type No. 12250), allotype ♀ ( CAS); Sierra de la Laguna, 23 ° 41.1666 ′ N 109 ° 56.6832 ′ W, 850 m, 9.vii.2004, A. Valdez and E. González, 1♀ ( AMNH [ ARA 3083 ]); GoogleMaps 23 ° 14.2848 ′ N 109 ° 57.1314 ′ W, 782 m, 10.vii.2004, A. Valdez, E. González, O.F. Francke, and W.E. Savary, 1♀ ( AMNH [ ARA 3082 ]); GoogleMaps Sierra de la Laguna , nucleus zone, 23 ° 33.0162 ′ N 109 ° 59.4498 ′ W, 1800 m, 20.vii.2006, A. Valdez, E. González, O.F. Francke, and W.E. Savary, 28 ( AMNH [ ARA 3064 ]). GoogleMaps


Mexico, Mexico D.F., Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico


USA, California, San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences


USA, New York, New York, American Museum of Natural History


Instituto de BiIología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México


Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico


California Academy of Sciences


Facultés Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix


American Museum of Natural History


Laboratory of Palaeontology


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium













González-Santillán, Edmundo & Prendini, Lorenzo 2013

Vaejovis mexicanus

Sissom, W. D. 2000: 542
Soleglad and Fet, 2008: 1

Vaejovis eusthenura

Francke, O. F. & J. Ponce-Saavedra 2005: 67
Sissom, W. D. 2000: 530
Williams, S. C. 1980: 65
Williams, S. C. 1980: 358

Vaejovis pattersoni