Chihuahuanus, González-Santillán & Prendini, 2013

González-Santillán, Edmundo & Prendini, Lorenzo, 2013, Redefinition And Generic Revision Of The North American Vaejovid Scorpion Subfamily Syntropinae Kraepelin, 1905, With Descriptions Of Six New Genera, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 2013 (382), pp. 1-71 : 24-27

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1206/830.1

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4627429

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/174CE445-FFEB-2E4D-0B61-9CE6976DFBC7

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Chihuahuanus
status

gen. nov.

Chihuahuanus , gen. nov.

Figures 1A View Fig , 2A View Fig , 4 View Fig , 7 View Fig , 16B View Fig , 17A, B View Fig , 21A View Fig , 26A View Fig , 27A View Fig ; table 1 View TABLE 1

Vaejovis bilineatus Pocock, 1898 [= Chihuahuanus bilineatus (Pocock, 1898) , comb. nov.], type species, here designated.

Vejovis first section (part): Hoffmann, 1931: 134, 139.

Vejovis spinigerus group (part): Williams, 1968: 16; 1970d: 238.

Vejovis eusthenura group (part): Williams, 1970a: 395, 396

Vejovis punctipalpi group (part): Williams, 1971a: 44–47; figs. 1, 2; table 1 View TABLE 1 .

Vaejovis eusthenura group (part): Williams, 1980: 55; Sissom and Francke, 1985: 1; Sissom, 1991: 26; Stockwell, 1992: 408, 409; Sissom, 1993: 68; Yahia and Sissom, 1996: 86; Lourenço and Sissom, 2000: 135; Sissom, 2000: 530, 532, 551; Armas and Martín-Frías, 2001: 8; McWest, 2009: 8, 48, 52, 56, 61, 64, 98, 101–103, 108, table 1 View TABLE 1 ; Ponce-Saavedra and Sissom, 2004: 541; González-Santillán, 2004: 29; Francke and Ponce-Saavedra, 2005: 67; Sissom and Hendrixson, 2005a: 131; 2005b: 33, 34; Graham and Fet, 2006: 8, 9; Fet et al., 2006a: 9, table 1 View TABLE 1 ; 2006b: 8; 2006c: 7; Graham and Soleglad, 2007: 9, 11, 12; Soleglad et al., 2007: 134, 135; Santibáñez- López and Sissom, 2010: 49.

Vaejovis punctipalpi group (part): Williams, 1971a: 37; 1971b: 44; 1980: 80; Sissom and Francke 1985: 1; Sissom, 1989: 180; 1991: 26; Stockwell, 1992: 408, 409; Sissom, 1993: 68; Lourenço and Sissom, 2000: 135; Sissom, 2000: 548, 549, 551; Armas and Martín-Frías, 2001: 1; Hendrixson, 2001: 1; McWest, 2009: figs. 322–326, tables 1 View TABLE 1 , 53, 89, 91, 93, 101–105, 108, 123; Ponce- Saavedra and Sissom, 2004: 539, 541; Sissom and Hendrixson, 2005a: 131; 2005b: 35; Soleglad and Fet, 2005: 4, 6, 7; Graham and Fet, 2006: 7, 8, 10; Fet et al., 2006a: 9, table 1 View TABLE 1 ; 2006b: 8; 2006c: 7, tables 1 View TABLE 1 , 9; Soleglad and Fet, 2006: 6, 26, tables 2 View TABLE 2 , 3 View TABLE 3 ; Graham and Soleglad, 2007: 11, 12; Soleglad et al., 2007: 134, 135.

Hoffmannius (part): Soleglad and Fet, 2008: 1, 4, 26, 34, 38, 51, 53, 54, 57, 60, 62, 66, 67, 69, 71, 73, 74, 89–92, 96, 102; Ayrey and Soleglad, 2011: 1.

Kochius (part): Soleglad and Fet, 2008: 1, 26, 57, 60, 89, 91, 94–96, 102; Ayrey and Soleglad, 2011: 1.

ETYMOLOGY: The generic name is a noun in apposition, masculine in gender, referring to the Chihuahuan Desert to which this genus is endemic.

DIAGNOSIS: Species of Chihuahuanus , gen. nov., may be distinguished from all other Syntropinae by the presence in adults of a small fusiform, whitish glandular area on the dorsal surface of the telson, near the base of the aculeus (fig. 26A). Species of Maaykuyak , gen. nov., also possess a gland on the dorsal surface of the telson, but it is larger, less defined, and situated medially (fig. 26B). The pedipalp chela fixed finger of Chihuahuanus , gen. nov., consistently exhibits five primary subrows of median denticles and five prolateral denticles in the median denticle row, and trichobothrium et is situated midway between RD3 and RD4 (fig. 17B). The carapace is shagreened, comprising coarse, rounded and fine, scattered granules in most species of Chihuahuanus , gen. nov. (fig. 16B).

Chihuahuanus bilineatus , comb. nov., C. coahuilae , comb. nov., C. glabrimanus , comb. nov., and C. globosus , comb. nov., resemble Mesomexovis , gen. nov., and Paravaejovis in the relative obsolescence of carinae on the pedipalp chela manus and metasoma (e.g., vl and vsm carinae). The pedipalp chelal carinae of Mesomexovis , gen. nov., and, with few exceptions, Paravaejovis are obsolete and smooth (fig. 19A–D), unlike the carinae of most species of Chihuahuanus , gen. nov., which are costate or crenulate (fig. 17A, B). The vsm carinae of metasomal segments III and IV are costate to granular, at least in the distal half, in Chihuahuanus , gen. nov. (fig. 27A), but obsolete and smooth in Mesomexovis , gen. nov., and Paravaejovis (fig. 27B, C), with few exceptions (e.g., M. atenango , comb. nov.; M. occidentalis , comb. nov.; P. confusus , comb. nov.; P. pumilis ; and P. waeringi , comb. nov.). Four species of Chihuahuanus , gen. nov. ( C. bilineatus , comb. nov.; C. coahuilae , comb. nov.; C. glabrimanus , comb. nov.; C. globosus , comb. nov.) resemble the species of Mesomexovis , gen. nov. (except M. atenango , comb. nov.) and two species of Paravaejovis ( P. gravicaudus , comb. nov.; P. spinigerus , comb. nov.) in the extensive infuscation of the carapace, tergites, and metasoma.

INCLUDED SPECIES: Chihuahuanus bilineatus (Pocock, 1898) , comb. nov.; Chihuahuanus cazieri ( Williams, 1968) , comb. nov.; Chihuahuanus coahuilae ( Williams, 1968) , comb. nov.; Chihuahuanus crassimanus (Pocock, 1898) , comb. nov.; Chihuahuanus glabrimanus (Sissom and Hendrixson, 2005) , comb. nov.; Chihuahuanus globosus (Borelli, 1915) , comb. nov.; Chihuahuanus kovariki ( Soleglad and Fet, 2008) , comb. nov.; Chihuahuanus russelli (Williams, 1971) , comb. nov.

DISTRIBUTION: Chihuahuanus , gen. nov., is endemic to the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango , Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas) and the United States (Arizona, New Mexico, Texas; fig. 4).

NATURAL HISTORY: Species of Chihuahuanus , gen. nov., occur in diverse habitats including sand dunes, shrubland, and pineoak forest, at altitudes from 530–2380 m, and have been collected under stones and on the surface at night, using UV light detecion. Although most species of the genus are lapidicolous, some species exhibit psammophilous adaptations, e.g., setal combs on the basitarsi in C. globosus , comb. nov. (fig. 21A), which are more developed in females.

REMARKS: This genus accommodates species previously assigned to Williams’ (1970a, 1971a) eusthenura and punctipalpi groups of Vaejovis , many of which were originally part of Hoffmann’s (1931) ‘‘first section’’ of that genus. Soleglad and Fet (2008) devised the names Hoffmannius and Kochius for the eusthenura and punctipalpi groups, respectively, without quantitatively testing their monophyly and composition. Both genera, as defined by Soleglad and Fet (2008), were consistently polyphyletic, and the group of species hereby assigned to Chihuahuanus , gen. nov., consistently monophyletic, in the phylogenetic analyses of González-Santillán and Prendini (in press) based on DNA and those based on morphology and DNA. Chihuahuanus bilineatus , comb. nov., C. coahuilae , comb. nov., C. glabrimanus , comb. nov., and C. globosus , comb. nov., were previously assigned to the eusthenura group ( Williams, 1970a; Lourenço and Sissom, 2000; Sissom, 2000) and then to Hoffmannius ( Soleglad and Fet, 2008) ; C. cazieri , comb. nov., C. crassimanus , comb. nov., and C. russelli , comb. nov., to the punctipalpi group ( Williams, 1971a; Lourenço and Sissom, 2000; Sissom, 2000) and then to Kochius ( Soleglad and Fet, 2008) ; and C. kovariki , comb. nov., to Kochius ( Soleglad and Fet, 2008) .

MATERIAL EXAMINED: Chihuahuanus bilineatus (Pocock, 1898) , comb. nov.: MEXICO: Tamaulipas: Municipio de Jaumave : El Salto , between Palmillas and Jaumave , 23 ° 21.4398 ′ N 99 ° 30.9408 ′ W, 1115 m, 23.viii. 2006, O.F. Francke, W.D. Sissom, G. Casper, T. Anton , V. Torti, H. Montaño , and C. Santibáñez, 18, 1♀ ( CAS [ ARA 1883 ]). GoogleMaps Chihuahuanus cazieri ( Williams, 1968) , comb. nov.: MEXICO: Coahuila: Municipio de Cuatro Ciénegas : Cuatro Ciénegas de Carranza , 0.5 km S of town, 740 m, 28.vii.1967, S.C. Williams and W.S. Brown, holotype ♂ ( CAS Type No. 10169); Cuatro Ciénegas de Carranza, 0.5 km SW, 740 m, 28.vii.1967, S.C. Williams and W.S. Brown, 18, 1♀ paratypes ( AMNH). Chihuahuanus coahuilae ( Williams, 1968) , comb. nov.: MEXICO: Coahuila: Municipio de Cuatro Ciénegas : Cuatro Ciénegas de Carranza , 0.5 km SW, 740 m, 28.vii.1967, holotype ♂ ( CAS Type No. 10170); Ojo de Agua, Ejido El Oso , 27 ° 0.0558 ′ N 102 ° 0.2262 ′ W, 1039 m, 19.vii.2006, O.F. Francke, W.D. Sissom, K. McWest, B. Hendrixson, S. Grant, A. Jaimes, and M. Córdova, 28, 2♀ ( IBUNAM [ ARA 84 ]). GoogleMaps Chihuahuanus crassimanus (Pocock, 1898) , comb. nov.: MEXICO: Coahuila: Municipio de Cuatro Ciénegas: Dunas de Yeso , 26 ° 51.7650 ′ N 102 ° 10.47 ′ W, 776 m, 18.vii.2006, O.F. Francke, W.D. Sissom, M. Córdova, A. Jaimes, and A. Ballesteros, 18 ( AMNH [ ARA 1105 ]); Sierra San Marcos II, 26 ° 54.7998 ′ N 102 ° 8.25 ′ W, 761 m, 18.vii. 2006, E. González, B. Hendrixson, K.J. McWest, and S. Grant, 1♀ ( AMNH [ ARA 1110 ]). GoogleMaps Durango: Municipio de Tlahualilo: Tlahualilo de Zaragoza , ca. 15 km NW, junction Montes Claros–Tlahualilo de Zaragoza , 26 ° 9.2418 ′ N 103 ° 31.28 ′ W, 1107 m, 6.viii.2005, O.F. Francke, W.D. Sissom, K.J. McWest, C. Lee, H. Montaño, J. Ballesteros, and L. Jarvis, 18 ( AMNH [ ARA 3170 ]). GoogleMaps U.S.A.: Texas: Hudspeth Co.: Sierra Blanca , 9 mi. W, 18.viii.1962, C.A. Triplehorn, 1♀ ( OSAL). Chihuahuanus glabrimanus (Sissom and Hendrixson, 2005) , comb. nov.: MEXICO: Guanajuato: Municipio de San Diego de la Unión : San Diego de la Unión , 8 km S, 21 ° 23.1444 ′ N 100 ° 53.4522 ′ W, 2078 m, 28.vii.2006, E. González, M. Córdova, A. Jaimes, A. Ballesteros, and O.F. Francke, 18 ( AMNH). GoogleMaps San Luis Potosí: Municipio de Villa de Arista: Villa de Arista , 10 km E, 22 ° 30.760 ′ N 100 ° 45.499 ′ W, 30.viii.2006, O.F. Francke, W.D. Sissom, G. Casper, T. Anton , V. Torti, H. Montaño , C. Santibáñez, and A. Ballesteros, 48, 1♀ ( CAS [ ARA 1909 ]). GoogleMaps Chihuahuanus globosus (Borelli, 1915) , comb. nov.: MEXICO: Coahuila: Municipio de Cuatro Ciénegas : Gypsum dunes, 13 km SW Cuatro Ciénegas de Carranza , 780 m, 27.vii.1967, S.C. Williams and W.S. Brown, holotype ♂ of Vaejovis gilvus Williams, 1968 ( CAS Type No. 10172). Municipio de Cuatro Ciénegas : Cuatro Ciénegas , 16 mi. SW, W point of Laguna Grande dunes, 9.viii.1968, S.C. Williams, M. Bentzien, J. Bigelow, and W.L. Minckley, 18, 1♀ ( AMNH). Municipio de Viesca: Dunas de Bilbao , 25 ° 25.5858 ′ N 102 ° 53.6538 ′ W, 1098 m, 20.vii.2006, O.F. Francke, K.J. McWest, M. Córdova, A. Jaimes, and A. Ballesteros, 48, 1♀ ( CAS [ ARA 1879 ]). GoogleMaps Chihuahuanus kovariki ( Soleglad and Fet, 2008) , comb. nov.: MEXICO: Durango: Municipio de San Juan del Río: Hwy 137, marker km 4, between Once de Marzo and San Juan del Río , San Francisco de Lajas , 24 ° 51.764 ′ N 104 ° 38.846 ′ W, 1893 m, 10.viii.2005, O.F. Francke, W.D. Sissom, K.J. McWest, C. Lee, H. Montaño, J. Ballesteros, L. Jarvis, and C. Durán, 18 ( AMNH). GoogleMaps Yerbanis, 80 mi. NW Durango, 19.viii.1947, W.J. Gertsch, 1♀ ( AMNH). Chihuahuanus russelli (Williams, 1971) , comb. nov.: U.S.A.: Arizona: Cochise Co. : Portal , 4770 ft, 26.viii.1965, S.C. Williams and G. Fernald, holotype ♂ ( CAS Type No. 11471). New Mexico: Rodeo, 10 mi. N, 22.ix.1963, V. Roth , 1♀ ( AMNH). Texas: Brewster Co.: Big Bend National Park, Pine Canyon Trail , Chisos Mountains , 29.2678 ° N 103.2371 ° W, 1.viii.2008, W.D. Sissom, G. Casper, and T. Anton , 28 ( AMNH). GoogleMaps

CAS

USA, California, San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences

AMNH

USA, New York, New York, American Museum of Natural History

OSAL

USA, Ohio, Columbus, Ohio State University Acarology Laboratory

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

IBUNAM

Instituto de BiIología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

OSAL

Ohio State University Acarology Laboratory

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Scorpiones

Family

Vaejovidae

Loc

Chihuahuanus

González-Santillán, Edmundo & Prendini, Lorenzo 2013
2013
Loc

Hoffmannius

Ayrey, R. F. & M. E. Soleglad 2011: 1
Soleglad, M. E. & V. Fet 2008: 1
2008
Loc

Kochius

Ayrey, R. F. & M. E. Soleglad 2011: 1
Soleglad, M. E. & V. Fet 2008: 1
2008
Loc

Vaejovis eusthenura

McWest, K. J. 2009: 8
Graham, M. R. & M. E. Soleglad 2007: 9
Soleglad, M. E. & G. Lowe & V. Fet 2007: 134
Graham, M. R. & V. Fet 2006: 8
Fet, V., M. E. & M. S. Brewer 2006: 9
Francke, O. F. & J. Ponce-Saavedra 2005: 67
Sissom, W. D. & B. E. Hendrixson 2005: 131
Sissom, W. D. & B. E. Hendrixson 2005: 33
Ponce-Saavedra, J. & W. D. Sissom 2004: 541
Gonzalez-Santillan, E. 2004: 29
Armas, L. F. de & E. Martin-Frias 2001: 8
Lourenco, W. R. & W. D. Sissom 2000: 135
Sissom, W. D. 2000: 530
Yahia, N. & W. D. Sissom 1996: 86
Sissom, W. D. 1993: 68
Stockwell, S. A. 1992: 408
Sissom, W. D. 1991: 26
Sissom, W. D. & O. F. Francke 1985: 1
Williams, S. C. 1980: 55
1980
Loc

Vejovis punctipalpi

Williams, S. C. 1971: 44
1971
Loc

Vaejovis punctipalpi

Graham, M. R. & M. E. Soleglad 2007: 11
Soleglad, M. E. & G. Lowe & V. Fet 2007: 134
Graham, M. R. & V. Fet 2006: 7
Fet, V., M. E. & M. S. Brewer 2006: 9
Soleglad, M. E. & V. Fet 2006: 6
Sissom, W. D. & B. E. Hendrixson 2005: 131
Sissom, W. D. & B. E. Hendrixson 2005: 35
Soleglad, M. E. & V. Fet 2005: 4
Armas, L. F. de & E. Martin-Frias 2001: 1
Hendrixson, B. E. 2001: 1
Lourenco, W. R. & W. D. Sissom 2000: 135
Sissom, W. D. 2000: 548
Sissom, W. D. 1993: 68
Stockwell, S. A. 1992: 408
Sissom, W. D. 1991: 26
Sissom, W. D. 1989: 180
Sissom, W. D. & O. F. Francke 1985: 1
Williams, S. C. 1980: 80
Williams, S. C. 1971: 37
Williams, S. C. 1971: 44
1971
Loc

Vejovis eusthenura

Williams, S. C. 1970: 395
1970
Loc

Vejovis spinigerus

Williams, S. C. 1968: 16
1968
Loc

Vejovis

Hoffmann, C. C. 1931: 134
1931
Loc

Vaejovis bilineatus

Pocock 1898: 24
1898