Kochius Soleglad and Fet, 2008

González-Santillán, Edmundo & Prendini, Lorenzo, 2013, Redefinition And Generic Revision Of The North American Vaejovid Scorpion Subfamily Syntropinae Kraepelin, 1905, With Descriptions Of Six New Genera, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 2013 (382), pp. 1-71 : 29-30

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1206/830.1

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4627431

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/174CE445-FFEE-2E73-08B8-9D39943FFEDD

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Kochius Soleglad and Fet, 2008
status

 

Kochius Soleglad and Fet, 2008

Figures 1B View Fig , 2B View Fig , 5 View Fig , 7 View Fig , 9–11 View Fig View Fig View Fig , 16C View Fig , 18A, B View Fig , 22A View Fig , 23A View Fig , 24A View Fig , 25A View Fig ; table 1 View TABLE 1

Buthus punctipalpi Wood, 1983 [= Kochius punctipalpi (Wood, 1983) ], type species, by original designation.

Vaejovis punctipalpi group (part): Williams, 1971a: 37; 1971b: 44; 1980: 80; Sissom and Francke, 1985: 1; Sissom, 1989: 180; 1991: 26; Stockwell, 1992: 408, 409; Sissom, 1993: 68; Lourenço and Sissom, 2000: 135; Sissom, 2000: 532, 548, 551; Armas and Martín-Frías, 2001: 1; Hendrixson, 2001: 1; Ponce-Saavedra and Sissom, 2004: 539, 541; Sissom and Hendrixson, 2005a: 131; 2005b: 35; Soleglad and Fet, 2005: 4, 6, 7; Graham and Fet, 2006: 7, 8, 10; Fet et al., 2006a: 9, table 1 View TABLE 1 ; 2006b: 8; 2006c: 7; Soleglad and Fet, 2006: 6, 26, tables 2 View TABLE 2 , 3 View TABLE 3 ; Graham and Soleglad, 2007: 11, 12; Francke and González-Santillán, 2007: 586, 587, 590; Soleglad et al., 2007: 134, 135; Soleglad and Fet, 2008: 1, 26, 57, 60, 94, 95, 102; McWest, 2009: figs. 322–326, tables 1 View TABLE 1 , 53, 89, 91, 93, 101– 105, 108, 123.

Kochius Soleglad and Fet, 2008: 1 , 3, 34, 38, 51, 53, 54, 57, 58, 60–69, 71, 73, 74, 76, 79, 91–96, 102, 104, figs. 192, 193–196, 204, tables 2 View TABLE 2 , 4, 6, 9 (part); Ayrey and Soleglad, 2011: 1 (part).

DIAGNOSIS: Kochius differs from all other genera of Syntropinae in possessing the longest macrosetae on the telson vesicle of the female and, in some species, of both sexes (fig. 25A); some macrosetae are as long as or longer than the aculeus, becoming narrower and translucent terminally. Species of Kochius are also characterized by a raised, whitish boss, restricted to the posteromedial third of mesosomal sternite VII (fig. 23A). Although other genera of Syntropinae possess whitish glandular surfaces on sternite VII (fig. 23B), the structure in Kochius , which is noticeably more elevated and usually shaped like a truncate triangle, is unique. Most Syntropinae also display a glandular surface posteromedially on sternite V, but it is more pronounced in Kochius (fig. 23A). Additional diagnostic characters of Kochius are as follows. Species of Kochius possess more pronounced, granular carinae on the pedipalp chela manus, especially the drs, drsa, and rlm carinae (fig. 18A, B), and the pedipalp patellar rlds and rlm carinae are more coarsely granular than in other genera of Syntropinae . The pedipalp carinae of Kochius are also distinctive in comprising moniliform granules (fig. 18A, B), rather than clustered granules, as in other genera (fig. 17A–D). The patellar dorsal intercarinal surface (between the dpl and drl carinae) is flat in Kochius , compared to other genera in which it is slightly concave. The densely and coarsely granular (shagreened) carapace (fig. 16C), markedly shagreened mesosomal posttergites I–VII and sternite VII (fig. 23A), and uniformly finely granular (matte) ventral intercarinal surfaces of the pedipalp chela manus, retrolateral intercarinal surfaces of the pedipalp patella and intercarinal surfaces of metasomal segments I–V (fig. 24A) are also characteristic for the genus. Pedipalp chela trichobothrium esb is situated at RD6 and/or its associated macroseta, and trichobothrium Db is situated dorsal to the drl carina, compared with Paravaejovis , in which esb is situated between RD6 and RD5 (fig. 19D), and Mesomexovis , gen. nov., in which Db is situated on the drl carina (fig. 19A). The macrosetae of legs I–IV also tend to be shorter and stouter in Kochius than in other genera (fig. 22A).

Four species of Chihuahuanus , gen. nov. ( C. cazieri , comb. nov., C. crassimanus , comb. nov., C. kovariki , comb. nov., and C. russelli , comb. nov.) resemble Kochius in possessing a raised, whitish boss in the posteromedial third of mesosomal sternite VII (fig. 23A), but may be separated from the latter by the small fusiform, whitish glandular area, anterior to the base of the aculeus, on the dorsal surface of the telson vesicle of adults; the shorter macrosetae on the telson vesicle of females; the less-developed (lower and smoother) pedipalp chelal rlm and rlvs carinae, and patellar rlds and rlm carinae; and the clustered instead of moniliform granules of the pedipalp carinae.

Species of Thorellius resemble Kochius with respect to the incrassate pedipalp chela manus and generally pronounced carination of the manus, especially the markedly granular rlm and rlvs carinae (figs. 17C, D, 18A, B), and metasoma, but can be separated from the latter by their considerably larger size and by the clustered instead of moniliform granules of the pedipalp carinae.

INCLUDED SPECIES: Kochius barbatus (Williams, 1971) , stat. nov.; Kochius bruneus (Williams, 1970) ; Kochius cerralvensis (Williams, 1971) , stat. nov.; Kochius insularis (Williams, 1971) ; Kochius hirsuticauda (Banks, 1910) ; Kochius magdalensis (Williams, 1971) ; Kochius punctipalpi (Wood, 1863) ; Kochius sonorae (Williams, 1971) ; Kochius villosus (Williams, 1971) , stat. nov.

DISTRIBUTION: Kochius is endemic to Mexico (recorded from Baja California, Baja California Sur, and Sonora) and the United States (recorded from Arizona, California, and Nevada; fig. 5). All except K. hirsuticauda and K. sonorae , occurring in the Mojave and Sonoran (including Colorado) deserts on the North American mainland, are endemic to the Baja California Peninsula and adjacent islands.

NATURAL HISTORY: Species of Kochius inhabit desert to semidesert habitats from sea level to 1350 m altitude. They have been collected under stones or other available debris on the ground, and on the surface at night, with UV light detection. Although Sissom (2000) suggested that these scorpions are burrowers, the absence of fossorial adaptations suggests otherwise. The cheliceral fingers are not enlarged, the pedipalp chela fingers are fairly slender, the tarsi are not laterally compressed and lack setal combs, and the metasoma lacks enlarged carinal processes and lobes. The habitat and habitus of Kochius are consistent with the lapidicolous ecomorphotype ( Prendini, 2001a).

REMARKS: As redefined here, this genus accommodates species previously assigned only to Williams’ (1971a) punctipalpi group of Vaejovis , for which Soleglad and Fet (2008) devised the name Kochius , without quantitatively testing its monophyly or composition. Kochius , as defined by Soleglad and Fet (2008), was consistently polyphyletic, and the group of species hereby assigned to it consistently monophyletic, in the phylogenetic analyses of González-Santillán and Prendini (in press) based on morphology and those based on morphology and DNA. The following species are therefore transferred to other genera in the present contribution: Mesomexovis atenango , comb. nov., previously assigned to the punctipalpi group ( Francke and González-Santillán, 2007) and then to Kochius ( Soleglad and Fet, 2008) ; C. cazieri , comb. nov., C. crassimanus , comb. nov., and C. russelli , comb. nov., previously assigned to the punctipalpi group ( Williams, 1971a, b; Sissom, 2000) and then to Kochius ( Soleglad and Fet, 2008) ; C. kovariki , comb. nov., previously assigned to Kochius ( Soleglad and Fet, 2008) .

The analyses of González-Santillán and Prendini (in press) identified sufficient, consistent diagnostic character differences to elevate to the rank of species, K. barbatus , stat. nov., and K. cerralvensis , stat. nov., previously considered subspecies of K. punctipalpi , and K. villosus , stat. nov., previously considered a subspecies of K. bruneus ( Williams, 1971a, 1980; Sissom, 2000). Vaejovis bruneus loretoensis Williams, 1971 , was not found to differ consistently from K. villosus , stat. nov., with which it is hereby synonymized: Vaejovis bruneus loretoensis Williams, 1971 = Kochius villosus (Williams, 1971) , syn. nov.

MATERIAL EXAMINED: Kochius barbatus (Williams, 1971) , stat. nov.: MEXICO: Baja California Sur: Municipio de La Paz : Las Cruces , 25 ft, 29.vii.1968, S.C. Williams and M.A. Cazier, holotype ♀ of Vaejovis punctipalpi barbatus Williams, 1971 ( CAS Type No. 10469), paratype ♀ ( AMNH); Las Cruces, 4 km NW, 24 ° 13.5108 ′ N 110 ° 7.41 ′ W, 31 m, 24.vi.2008, H. Montaño and E. González, 18 ( AMNH [ ARA 2884 ]), GoogleMaps 18 ( IBUNAM [ ARA 2274 ]). Kochius bruneus (Williams, 1970) : MEXICO: Baja California Sur: Municipio de Comondú : San José de Comondú , 5 mi. SW, 1000 ft, 2.vii.1968, S.C. Williams and M.A. Cazier, holotype ♂ ( CAS Type No. 10410); San José de Comondú, 30 km N, between Rosarito and San Isidro , 26 ° 21.2520 ′ N 111 ° 50.10 ′ W, 258 m, 27.vi.2008, H. Montaño and E. González, 28, 2♀ ( AMNH [ ARA 2854 ]). GoogleMaps Kochius cerralvensis (Williams, 1971) , stat. nov.: MEXICO: Baja California Sur: Municipio de La Paz : Isla Cerralvo , Bahía Limona , 31.v.1969, S.C. Williams, holotype ♂ ( CAS Type No. 11470); Isla Cerralvo, Piedras Gordas , 17.v.1970, S.C. Williams and V. F. Lee, 18, 1♀ paratypes ( AMNH); Isla Cerralvo , SW side, 24 ° 10.9332 ′ N 109 ° 53.2332 ′ W, 50 m, 27.v.2008, E. González and I.G. Nieto, 18, 1♀ ( AMNH [ ARA 2880 ]). GoogleMaps Kochius hirsuticauda (Banks, 1910) : U.S.A.: Arizona: Yuma Co. : Palm Canyon, Kofa Mountains , 12.x.1968, M.A. Cazier et al., 18, 1♀ ( AMNH). California: San Diego Co.: Anza-Borrego Desert State Park: Pinyon Mountain Road , ca. 4.8 km towards Pinyon Mountain Valley from junction with Route S2, 33 ° 03.043 ′ N 116 ° 23.270 ′ W, 870 m, 30.viii.2005, R. Mercurio and L. Prendini , 18, 1♀ ( AMNH). Kochius insularis (Williams, 1970) : MEXICO: Baja California Sur: Municipio de La Paz : Isla Partida , Central Valley , 10.vii.1968, S.C. Williams, M. Bentzien, and B. Fox, holotype ♂ ( CAS Type No. 10422), allotype ♀ ( CAS). Municipio de La Paz : Isla Espíritu Santo, Playa Bonanza , 24 ° 27.3636 ′ N 110 ° 18.47 ′ W, 50 m, 31.v.2008, E. González and I.G. Nieto, 18, 1♀ ( AMNH [ ARA 2875 ]), GoogleMaps 18, 1♀ ( IBUNAM [ ARA 2260 ]). Kochius magdalensis (Williams, 1971) : MEXICO: Baja California Sur: Municipio de La Paz : La Paz , 75 mi. NW, 200 ft, 4.vii.1968, S.C. Williams and M.A. Cazier, holotype ♂ ( CAS Type No. 10468); El Pilar, ca. 20 km NE Las Pocitas , 24 ° 28.7616 ′ N 111 ° 1.12 ′ W, 92 m, 25.vi.2008, H. Montaño and E. González, 18, 1♀ ( AMNH [ ARA 2874 ]), GoogleMaps 18, 1♀ ( IBUNAM [ ARA 2259 ]); Junction Route 1 and road to Juan de la Costa , 5 km N, 24 ° 08.500 ′ N 110 ° 28.566 ′ W, 30 m, 9.vi.2005, E. González, W.E. Savary, R. Mercurio, and L. Prendini , 18 ( AMNH). GoogleMaps Kochius punctipalpi (Wood, 1863) : MEXICO: Baja California Sur: Municipio de Los Cabos: Santiago , 23 ° 26.4 ′ N 109 ° 43.5666 ′ W, 225 m, 9.vii.2004, O.F. Francke, E. González, and A. Valdez, 18, 1♀ ( AMNH [ ARA 1471 ]); San José del Cabo, ca. 10 km S off Route 1, 23 ° 1.7622 ′ N 109 ° 43.49 ′ W, 50 m, 10.vii.2005, W.E. Savary, E. González, and R. Mercurio , 18, 1♀ ( AMNH [ ARA 1473 ]). GoogleMaps Municipio de La Paz: La Paz , 15 km SE, 24 ° 3.7332 ′ N 110 ° 10.53 ′ W, 476 m, 8.vii.2004, O.F. Francke, E. González, and A. Valdez, 18 ( AMNH [ ARA 1472 ]). GoogleMaps Kochius sonorae (Williams, 1971) : MEXICO: Sonora: Municipio de Alamos : Alamos , 11.2 mi. W, 23.i.1966, R. Winokur, C. Mays , and M.A. Nikerson, holotype ♂ ( CAS Type No. 10472). Municipio de Navojoa: Microwave antenna Cerro Prieto , 15 km E Navojoa , 27 ° 4.9830 ′ N 109 ° 17.4498 ′ W, 375 m, 23.viii.2009, E. González and J.L. Castelo, 18, 1♀ ( AMNH [ ARA 3157 ]); GoogleMaps Navojoa, 32 km S, 12.ix.1966, J. and W. Ivie, 18, 1♀ ( AMNH). Municipio de Soyopa: Sierra el Encinal, 9 km from Hwy MEX 16 on dirt road to El Encinal , 28 ° 35.4120 ′ N 109 ° 27.1476 ′ W, 380 m, 24.vi. 2006, E. González and P. Berea, 28 ( AMNH [ ARA 2539 ]); dirt road between El Encinal and Tonichi , 28 ° 33.2388 ′ N 109 ° 21.64 ′ W, 645 m, 1.vii.2006, E. González and P. Berea, 28 ( AMNH [ ARA 3015 ]). GoogleMaps Kochius villosus (Williams, 1971) , stat. nov.: MEXICO: Baja California Sur: Municipio de Comondú : San Miguel Comondú , 5–10 mi. SW, 800–1000 ft, 3.vii.1968, S.C. Williams and M.A. Cazier, holotype ♂ of Vaejovis bruneus villosus Williams, 1971 ( CAS Type No. 10467), 18, 1♀ paratypes ( AMNH). Municipio de La Paz : San Evaristo , 10–15 km S, dirt road, 24 ° 47.7570 ′ N 110 ° 40.5018 ′ W, 50 m, 12.vii.2008, H. Montaño and E. González, 18 ( IBUNAM [ ARA 2275 ]), GoogleMaps 18, 1♀ ( AMNH [ ARA 2888 ]). Municipio de Loreto: Juncalito , 25 ° 49.8918 ′ N 111 ° 19.6908 ′ W, 5 m, 20.v.2004, R. Mercurio and M. Nishiguchi, 18, 1♀ ( AMNH [ ARA 3132 ]). GoogleMaps Municipio de Mulegé: San Ignacio , 152 m, 24.vi.1968, S.C. Williams and M.A. Cazier, holotype ♂ of V. b. loretoensis ( CAS Type No. 10466), allotype ♀, 18, 1♀ paratypes ( AMNH).

CAS

USA, California, San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences

AMNH

USA, New York, New York, American Museum of Natural History

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

IBUNAM

Instituto de BiIología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Scorpiones

Family

Vaejovidae

Loc

Kochius Soleglad and Fet, 2008

González-Santillán, Edmundo & Prendini, Lorenzo 2013
2013
Loc

Kochius

Ayrey, R. F. & M. E. Soleglad 2011: 1
Soleglad, M. E. & V. Fet 2008: 1
2008
Loc

Vaejovis punctipalpi

Soleglad, M. E. & V. Fet 2008: 1
Graham, M. R. & M. E. Soleglad 2007: 11
Francke, O. F. & E. Gonzalez-Santillan 2007: 586
Soleglad, M. E. & G. Lowe & V. Fet 2007: 134
Graham, M. R. & V. Fet 2006: 7
Fet, V., M. E. & M. S. Brewer 2006: 9
Soleglad, M. E. & V. Fet 2006: 6
Sissom, W. D. & B. E. Hendrixson 2005: 131
Sissom, W. D. & B. E. Hendrixson 2005: 35
Soleglad, M. E. & V. Fet 2005: 4
Ponce-Saavedra, J. & W. D. Sissom 2004: 539
Armas, L. F. de & E. Martin-Frias 2001: 1
Hendrixson, B. E. 2001: 1
Lourenco, W. R. & W. D. Sissom 2000: 135
Sissom, W. D. 2000: 532
Sissom, W. D. 1993: 68
Stockwell, S. A. 1992: 408
Sissom, W. D. 1991: 26
Sissom, W. D. 1989: 180
Sissom, W. D. & O. F. Francke 1985: 1
Williams, S. C. 1980: 80
Williams, S. C. 1971: 37
Williams, S. C. 1971: 44
1971