Pseudocentrobolus Wesener, 2009

Wesener, Thomas, Enghoff, Henrik & Sierwald, Petra, 2009, Review of the Spirobolida on Madagascar, with descriptions of twelve new genera, including three genera of ' fire millipedes' (Diplopoda), ZooKeys 19 (19), pp. 1-128 : 56-62

publication ID 10.3897/zookeys.19.221

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Pseudocentrobolus Wesener

gen. nov.

Pseudocentrobolus Wesener View in CoL , gen. n.

Type species: Pseudocentrobolus aureus View in CoL sp. n.

Other species included:

P. vohibasiensis View in CoL sp. n.

Diagnosis: posterior gonopods are unique, distinct ( Figs 35 View Figure 35 C–F): telopodite basally with a membranous process carrying sperm canal; telopodite apically with a distinct, unique rounded disc, which is covered with numerous spine-like structures ( Figs 35B, E View Figure 35 ); coxite basally at sperm canal with an obligate finger-shaped process, which is not curved but straight like in Granitobolus gen. n. Natural coloration conspicuously contrasting, with golden, black or red pattern ( Figs 31A, C, D View Figure 31 , 36B). Gnathochilarium with a subdivided mentum and a single sclerotized ledge on each stipites ( Figs 32 View Figure 32 D–F), like in Flagellobolus , Riotintobolus , Granitobolus gen. n., Caprobolus gen. n., Alluviobolus gen. n., Ostinobolus gen. n. Shares numerous characters only with species of the genus Granitobolus gen. n.: a stout preanal process, which prominently extends beyond anal valves ( Figs 31C View Figure 31 , 36B), well-developed lips on the anal valves, thick moniliform body rings which overlap each widely to the metazonite ( Fig. 31C View Figure 31 ), rectangular extensions ( Figs 33B, C View Figure 33 ) on the posterior margins of the rings and a greatly enlarged collum, which is ventrally longer than the body ring 2. The habitus and shape of the anterior gonopod ( Figs 34A, B View Figure 34 ) are also very similar to species of Granitobolus gen. n.

Distribution and ecology: two species of Pseudocentrobolus are recorded from the dry spiny and subhumid forests in Southwestern Madagascar ( Fig. 30 View Figure 30 ). A third species, whose external characters fit very well into Pseudocentrobolus but where no mature male could be collected, was discovered in the spiny forest of Andohahela in Southeastern Madagascar ( Fig. 30 View Figure 30 ).

Description. Males: length up to 48 mm, diameter up to 4.5 mm. 38–40 podous rings. Females: length up to 48 mm, diameter up to 5.1 mm. 39 or 40 podous rings. Apodous rings absent in all adult specimens.

Colour (after short time in alcohol): mesozona golden ( Fig. 31A View Figure 31 ) or greenish (fad- ed to grey in some specimens), metazona blackish ( Fig. 31A View Figure 31 ) or golden ( Fig. 36B View Figure 36 ). Head, antennae, gonopods, legs and at least posterior part of telson golden ( Fig. 31C View Figure 31 ) or reddish ( Fig. 36B View Figure 36 ).

Head: each eye with circa 38–42 ocelli arranged in 7 or 8 vertical rows ( Figs 31D View Figure 31 , 36A). Labrum with standard three irregular teeth and one row of 10–12 stout marginal setae ( Fig. 36A View Figure 36 ). Clypeus with two setiferous foveolae on each side. Antennae short or very short, reaching back to ring 2 or 4 ( Figs 31D View Figure 31 , 36A). Relative lengths of antennomeres: 1<2=3=4=5=6 ( Fig. 32B View Figure 32 ). Terminal antennomere with four large sensory cones located together inside a membranous area ( Fig. 32A View Figure 32 ). Antennomere 5 latero-apically with four rows, antennomere 6 with two rows ( Figs 32A, C View Figure 32 ) of sensilla basiconica.

Gnathochilarium unusual ( Fig. 32D View Figure 32 ). Lamellae linguales each with two standard setae located behind one another. Stipites each with three apical setae ( Fig. 32D View Figure 32 ). Mentum basally subdivided by a well-developed suture ( Figs 32D, F View Figure 32 ). Stipites each towards mentum with a wide sclerotized ledge ( Fig. 32D View Figure 32 ). Palpi of gnathochilarium with numerous sensilla. Hypopharyngeal crest with a field of spine-like structures ( Fig. 32E View Figure 32 ). Central pads of endochilarium separated into two areas: a group of 8–10 sensilla located apically, and medial palps with numerous sensilla each, located closely towards hypopharyngeal crest ( Fig. 32G View Figure 32 ).

Mandible: external tooth simple, rounded; mesal tooth with three cusps ( Fig. 33A View Figure 33 ). Six pectinate lamellae. Mesal margin of pectinate area (intermediate area) with circa four rows of small, slender spines. Molar plate with numerous (10 or 11) transverse furrows ( Fig. 33A View Figure 33 ).

Collum: smooth, laterally longer than body ring 2 ( Figs 31D View Figure 31 , 36A). Lobe enlarged, laterally covering antenna and part of head ( Fig. 31D View Figure 31 ).

Body rings: moniliform, overlapping one another up to anterior half of mesozona. Metazona of swollen appearance, width greater than those of pro- or mesozona. Transverse impressions covering mesozona ( Fig. 33B View Figure 33 ), metazona with irregular punctations ( Fig. 33C View Figure 33 ). Posterior margin of rings slightly excavated into rectangular extensions ( Fig. 33C View Figure 33 ). Ozopores starting at ring 6, touching suture between mesozona and metazona ( Fig. 31C View Figure 31 ).

Telson: anal valves with well-developed lips and micropunctation but with neither grooves nor setae. Preanal process well-rounded or sharp, extending beyond anal valves ( Fig. 31C View Figure 31 ). Subanal scale inconspicuous.

Legs: coxae 1 and 2 elongated and fused with sternum, podomeres from prefemur to tarsus in both sexes each with 4–10 ventral/mesal setae ( Fig. 31E View Figure 31 ). Length of midbody legs circa 0.6 times body diameter in both sexes ( Fig. 31F View Figure 31 ). Each podomere with an apical, ventral seta. Coxae 3 and beyond of rectangular shape ( Fig. 31F View Figure 31 ). Tarsus with a stout dorso-apical setae and a pair of stout ventro-apical ones in males, in females with three pair of setae, apical pair stout, others successively much smaller.

Male sexual characters: tarsi 3 and beyond with a tarsal pad not protruding past base of claw. Coxae 3–7 with species-specific modifications.

Anterior gonopods: median sternal projection triangular, with a wide rectangular tip ( Figs 35A View Figure 35 , 49C View Figure 49 ). Sternite protruding almost as high as coxite and telopodite ( Fig. 35A View Figure 35 ). Coxite wide, smoothly rounded, laterally curving around telopodite, on posterior side visible laterally as a small, triangular sclerite ( Fig. 35B View Figure 35 ). Coxite anteriorly almost entirely covering telopodite ( Fig. 35A View Figure 35 ). Telopodite with a short, well-rounded process. Process curved laterally, not or only slightly projecting above telopodite margin ( Fig. 35B View Figure 35 ). Mesal margin elevated, laterally with a sharp ridge ( Fig. 35B View Figure 35 ).

Posterior gonopods in situ almost completely covered by anterior gonopod. Suture separating coxite and telopodite well-visible. Sternite sclerotized and well-visible ( Figs 31H View Figure 31 , 34D). Finger-shaped process of coxite ( Fig. 34D View Figure 34 ) not curved apically, but coaxial to coxite. Coxite mesally with a single groove, basally wide, protruding into a short stem towards telopodite. Telopodite as long and as wide as coxite ( Fig. 31G View Figure 31 ). Telopodites arranged face-to-face with one another ( Figs 31G, H View Figure 31 ). A rounded disc present on apical part of telopodite ( Figs 31G, H View Figure 31 ), disc covered with numerous tiny sclerotized teeth ( Figs 34B, E View Figure 34 ), basally with a membranous process, into which sperm canal is discharging ( Figs 34A, D, E View Figure 34 ).

Female sexual characters: vulva simple, bivalve-like, with a small, poorly sclerotized operculum at base ( Fig. 33D View Figure 33 ). Anterior valve apically overlapping posterior one, both valves smooth, lacking sensory cones. Towards opening on each valve basally with two or three rows of setae ( Fig. 33D View Figure 33 ).

Etymology: Pseudocentrobolus , masculine, refers to the superficial resemblance of species of this genus to some species of the South African genus Centrobolus .












Pseudocentrobolus Wesener

Wesener, Thomas, Enghoff, Henrik & Sierwald, Petra 2009

P. vohibasiensis

Wesener & Enghoff & Sierwald 2009
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