Ischyropsalis dentipalpis Canestrini, 1872, Canestrini, 1872

Schönhofer, Axel L. & Martens, Jochen, 2010, On the identity of Ischyropsalis dentipalpis Canestrini, 1872 and description of Ischyropsalis lithoclasica sp. n. (Opiliones: Ischyropsalididae), Zootaxa 2613, pp. 1-14: 4-8

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.197843

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/181AEE5C-532C-4065-4EA4-5F9FDAA0FF3C

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Ischyropsalis dentipalpis Canestrini, 1872
status

 

Ischyropsalis dentipalpis Canestrini, 1872  

Figs 5 –10 View FIGURES 5 – 14 , 22–28 View FIGURES 15 – 28 , 33–38, 39

Ischyropsalis dentipalpis Canestrini, 1872: 9   ; Roewer 1923: 686; Dresco 1959: 383; Martens 1969 a: 137, 165, 170, 177, 189– 190, 192, 194, 201–204, 208, 217, 219, 240, 259; Martens 1978: 1978: 197, 200, 206, 212, 218 (partim); Isaia et al. in press.

I. (Odontopalpa) dentipalpis: Hadži, 1931: 117   , 152.

Ischyropsalis helvetica Roewer, 1916: 152   (new synonym); Roewer 1923: 691 (partim: only diagnosis and description of Ψ); Hadži 1928: 15; Roewer 1950: 13, 17, 20, 38; Avram 1964: 245, 255; Martens 1969 a: 191, 201–204, 217, 240; Martens 1978: 49 –50, 188– 189, 197, 199, 212, 218 – 222; Breuss 1993: 251 –255; Breuss 1995: 227, 233, 234, 239; Rhoner & Trüssel 1997: 76 –81; Breuss 2002: 227 –228, 230– 232; Blick & Komposch 2004: 3; Breuss 2004: 133; Komposch & Gruber 2004: 485, 489–490, 508, 527; Komposch 2009 a: 398 –399, 420, 441– 442, 464, 466, 472, Komposch 2009 b: 494.

Neotype: ITALY, Prov. Aosta, Gressoney, Pozzo A di Punta Jolanda ( Ao / Ao 2075), 2256 m, N: 45.84 ° E: 7.84 °, 1 ɗ, E. Lana leg. 23.08. 2006 (CJM 5918); SWITZERLAND, Kanton Tessin (Ticino), holotype of I. helvetica   , 1 Ψ ( SMF RI / 1282, Roewer 1916, Martens 1969 a). The original type locality is Gressoney-St. Jean, Italy, N: 45.78 °, E: 7.83 °. The original type (1 ɗ, A. Grecco leg. Aug. 1871; Canestrini 1872) was lost during the 1970 flood in Genova. Roewer (1950) declared the ɗ of SMF RII / 229 / 5 (South Tyrol, Dolomites, Rosengarten, N: 46.47 ° E: 11.65 °, 1 ɗ 1 Ψ) to be the allotype of " I. helvetica   ". This is not a valid action because it was not proposed in the original description. Martens (1969 a) revealed this material to belong to Ischyropsalis manicata L. Koch, 1865   and the locality appears to be a false geographic indication by Roewer (see discussion in Martens 1969 a; Helversen & Martens 1972). The name “ helvetica   ” has been used for I. manicata   by several authors (see Martens 1969 a).

Other material investigated: ITALY, Prov. Aosta, Aosta Valley, Brusson, Miniera, 1400 m, N: 45.76 ° E: 7.71 °, 1 juv., Gobetti leg. June 1971 (CJM 1497); Piemonte, Prov. Torino, Brosso, Valchiusella Valley, Buca del Ghiaccio della Cavallaria (Pi/To 1609), 1550 m, N: 45.52 ° E: 7.80 °, 2 Ψ, E. Lana leg. 15.10. 2006 (CJM 5920); 1 juv., same locality, E. Lana leg. 26.07. 2003 (CJM 5921); 1 Ψ, same locality, E. Lana leg. 20.10. 2003 (CJM 5922); Ceres, Stura di Ala-Valley, Cava "B" di pietra ollare del Servais, 1390 m, N: 45.32 ° E: 7.33 °, 1 ɗ 1 Ψ, E. Lana leg. 29.09. 2002 (CJM 5930); Ribordone, Locana-Valley, Boo' d' la Faia (Pi/To 1596), 1780 m, N: 45.47 ° E: 7.51 °, 2 ɗ 2 Ψ, E. Lana leg. 12.08. 2001 (CJM 5928); Sparone, Locana-Valley, Grotta "La Custreta" (Pi/To 1593), 1350 m, N: 45.45 ° E: 7.55 °, 2 ɗ, E. Lana leg. 23.07. 2000 (CJM 5923). - SWITZERLAND, Kanton Graubünden, Dischma-Tal, 2180 m, N: 46.77 ° E: 9.87 °, N slope, ridge area, 1 ɗ, B. Wartmann leg. 10.06. 1979, M. Wolf ded. Sept. 1983 (CJM 2144); Misox Valley, Calanca Valley, near Selma, N: 46.32 ° E: 9.12 °, small cave, 1 Ψ, M. Wolf leg. 30.04. 1977 (CJM 2145); Kanton Obwalden, Melchsee-Frutt, Kerns, cave system M 37 -M 40 -M68, 1775 m, N: 46.90 ° E: 8.28 °, sector M 68 MP 57.3, 1 Ψ, M. Trüssel leg. 0 8.09. 1994 (CJM 3766); Obere Grosswaldhöhle M34, 1593 m, N: 46.90 ° E: 8.28 °, entrance region MP 1 /3, 1ɗ, infested with Gregarinida, M. Trüssel leg. 11.09. 1994 (CJM 3767); Kanton Tessin (Ticino), Sonogno, Fiadariö dal Ràgn, N: 46.35 ° E: 8.78 °, 1 Ψ, D. Ferrini leg. 0 3.08. 1957 (CJM 1481); Valle Verzasca, Frasco, Cà di Vecc, N: 46.33 ° E: 8.80 °, 1 ɗ, D. Ferrini leg. Aug. 1956 (CJM 1480); Bellinzona, Bocca di Gaggio above Mte Carasso, 1950 m, 1 Ψ, P.M. Giachino leg. 22.07. 1984 ( MTSN).

Further material not investigated: The following records were compiled from confirmed published data, personal communication of authors and photographs. Furthermore the previous references confirm the presence of I. dentipalpis   from close-by localities. We list all these data to outline the distribution of I. dentpalpis   more accurately. AUSTRIA, Tyrol: Samnaun mountain group, Idalpe near Ischgl, in Kar of the Vellilbach, SW exposed ridge, coarse rocky debris in the background, 2570 m, N: 46.99 ° E: 10.33 °, 1 ɗ, K.H. Steinberger leg. by pitfall traps 15.08.– 28.08.1991 ( CWB, Breuss 1993); Vorarlberg, Montafon, Garneratal, 1600 m, N: 46.91 ° E: 10.00°, 1 ɗ, K.H. Steinberger leg. by pitfall traps 1998–2001 ( CWB, Breuss 2002). - ITALY, Valle d'Aosta, La Salle, Borna d’la Glace or Grotta ghiacciata di Chabaudey (2001 Ao / AO) 1545 m, N: 45.73 ° E: 7.06 °, 1 specimen, R. Monti leg. 11.09. 1901 ( Pavesi 1904; Gozo 1908; Martens 1969 a); Piemonte, Prov. Torino, Ceres, Borna del Servais B (old soapstone mine), 1350 m, N: 45.32 ° E: 7.33 °, 1 juv., M. Isaia, M. Paschetta photographed 14.10. 2009 (Isaia et al. in press); Galleria Santa Barbara, Miniere di talco di Fontane, Comune di Prali, N: 44.93 ° E: 7.08 °, 1 ɗ 1 Ψ M. Isaia, M. Paschetta photographed 25.02. 2008 (Isaia et al. in press); Prov. Vercelli, Pozzo di S. Quirico, Borgosesia (2567 Pi/VC, as “Grotta del Pozzo, sul Monte Fenera”), 640 m, N: 45.705 ° E: 8.315 °, 1 Ex., Calderini leg. autumn 1897 (as Ischyropsalis luteipes, Gozo 1908   ; Martens 1969 a). - SWITZERLAND, Kanton Graubünden: Rätikon, S slope of Sulzfluh, Herrenhöhle (2113 / 17), 30 m from entrance, 2330 m, N: 47.01 ° E: 9.84 °, 1 ɗ 1 Ψ, W. Breuss leg. 0 6.10. 1992 ( NHMW, Breuss 1993); 1 juv., W. Breuss leg. Oct. 1992 ( Breuss 1995); Kleinhöhle gegenüber Abgrundhöhle (2113 / 16), in potholes 5 m from entrance, 2310 m, N: 47.01 ° E: 9.84 °, 2 ɗ 2 Ψ, W. Breuss leg. 0 6.10. 1992 ( CWB, Breuss 1993, 1995); Seehöhle in der Sulzfluh, 2300 m, N: 47.01 ° E: 9.84 °, 1 Ψ, Hauser leg. 24.05. 1961 ( MHNG, Martens 1969 a); Kanton Nidwalden, Wolfenschiessen, Veloständerhöhle, 1955 m, N: 46.90 ° E: 8.38 °, 1 ad, Höhlengruppe Hergiswil leg. 25.07. 1997, A. Rhoner det. ( CAR, Rhoner & Trüssel 1997); Kanton Obwalden, Melchsee-Frutt, near Arviböden, Neotektonikhöhle (M 40), 1775 m, N: 46.78 ° E: 8.27 °, eggs, M. Trüssel leg. 13.08. 1995 ( CAR, Rhoner & Trüssel 1997); eggs, M. Trüssel leg. 10.08. 1996 ( CAR, Rhoner & Trüssel 1997); near Bettenalp, Bettenhöhle (M 39), 1815 m, N: 46.78 ° E: 8.27 °, 1 ad, A. Rohner leg. 13.02. 1995 ( CAR, Rhoner & Trüssel 1997); Kerns, Tausendfüsserhöhle M29, 2075 m, N: 46.90 ° E: 8.28 °, 1 ad, K. Fischer vid. et det. 06.10.2007; 1 ad, U. Fischer vid. 14.12. 2003, M. Trüssel det.; Cave M77, 2090 m, 1 specimen, M. Trüssel vid. et det. 26.07.2000; Obere Grosswaldhöhle M34, 1593 m, N: 46.90 ° E: 8.28 °, 1 ɗ, M. Trüssel vid. 22.10.2004; 1 Ψ, M. Trüssel vid. 22.10.2007; Cave S 4 at Schwarzhorn, 2422 m, N: 46.90 ° E: 8.28 °, eggs, M. Trüssel vid. et det. 04.04.2002; Alpnach, Mondmilchloch at Pilatus, 1710 m, N: 46.94 ° E: 8.27 °, 1 specimen, M. Trüssel leg. 18.08. 2002, A. Rohner det. ( CAR); Lungern, Klein Melchtal, Laucherhöhle, 1902 m, N: 46.79 ° E: 8.16 °, 1 specimen, M. Trüssel leg. 19.10. 2001, A. Rohner det. ( CAR); Engelberg, Bärenhöhle Hohfad, N: 46.82 ° E: 8.40 °; 1 ad, 2 juv. M. Trüssel leg. 0 2.09. 2006, A. Rohner det. (2 specimen CAR); Schwarzhorn/Graustock, Fikenloch, 2406 m, N: 46.78 ° E: 8.27 °, 2 ad, M. Trüssel leg. 0 4.07. 1995 ( CAR, Rhoner & Trüssel 1997); Kanton Schwyz, Muotathal, Wasserberg, Unteres Böllenloch, 1378 m, N: 46.97 ° E: 8.76 °, 1 ad, F. Auf der Maur leg. 21.07. 1996 ( CAR, Rhoner & Trüssel 1997); Silberen, Schilttloch, 2000 m, N: 46.99 ° E: 8.90 °, 1 ad, P. Morel leg. 0 6.09. 1996 ( CAR, Rhoner & Trüssel 1997); Kanton Tessin, Frasco, Cà di Vecc, N: 46.33 ° E: 8.80 °, 1 ɗ, D. Ferrini leg. 15.04. 1957 ( MNHN, Dresco 1959); 1 juv., E. Dresco, L. Dresco, D. Ferrini leg. 21.08. 1957 ( MNHN, Dresco 1959); Frasco, cave Frigee, N: 46.33 ° E: 8.80 °, 1 ɗ, D. Ferrini leg. 18.07. 1957 ( MNHN, Dresco 1959).

Diagnosis: A species of the dentipalpis   group (see Martens 1969 a) with long and slender chelicerae. Among the species of the southern Alps it shares several characters with I. lithoclasica   sp. n. and I. ravasinii Hadži, 1942   : apophyses present on the patellae of the pedipalps and a rounded prominent apophysis distally on the proximal cheliceral article. In the field these three species cannot be told apart by morphological characters but only by their allopatric ranges. Males of I. dentipalpis   are characterised by shovel-shaped ventrad-pointing pedipalpal apophyses ( Figs 6, 8, 10 View FIGURES 5 – 14 ), rounded, knob-like dorso-distal apophyses on the proximal cheliceral article with rounded bristle areas restricted to the front of the apophyses ( Figs 5, 7, 9 View FIGURES 5 – 14 ), and by their distinct penis morphology ( Figs 22–28 View FIGURES 15 – 28 ). Females are discernible by the presence of a large dorsal spine in the distal fifth of the proximal cheliceral segment, which is as large as the other large dorsal spines (Figs 36–38, see arrows), and by inconspicuous short and thick bristles on the opisthosomal sclerites. I. dentipalpis   is locally sympatric with I. carli Lessert, 1905   , which lacks an apophysis on the pedipalpal patella in ɗ, possesses an inconspicuous rounded cheliceral apophysis with a small circular glandular field ( Martens 1978: figs 364–366), and is in general smaller, more compact, short-legged and blackish due to a stronger sclerotisation. Females of I. carli   have a scutum parvum (dorsal abdominal sclerites fused, see Martens 1978: fig. 361) in contrast to the scutum laminatum (dorsal sclerites isolated) in I. dentipalpis   .

Description: Measurements: ɗ (n= 9), Ψ (in parentheses, n= 9). Body length: 3.52–5.20 (3.28–7.76); leg II: 21.0– 36.3 (23.5–33.8), femur 4.96–7.84 (5.28–7.44), patella 1.36–1.60 (1.36–1.76), tibia 3.44–6.64 (4.40– 6.56), metatarsus 6.08–10.64 (6.64–9.60), tarsus 5.20–9.60 (5.84–8.48); basal article of chelicera 3.20–4.80 (4.00– 4.72). Ψ show a wider range in body length due to different states of gravidity but their chelicerae are less variable in size than in ɗ.

Penis morphology ( Figs 22–28 View FIGURES 15 – 28 ): Truncus penis ( Figs 24, 27, 28 View FIGURES 15 – 28 ) from base to below glans gradually narrowing, below glans slightly widening, noticeably bulged dorsally in the region of the glans, thereby strongly constricting distal third of glans (lateral view, Figs 22, 25, 28 View FIGURES 15 – 28 ). Glans variable in length, slightly constricted in midsection or almost parallel-sided, distal end hemispherically rounded (ventral view, Figs 23, 26 View FIGURES 15 – 28 ), sclerite of glans long and narrow, almost parallel-sided, basal end tapering ( Fig. 23 View FIGURES 15 – 28 ) or divided into two inconspicuous lobes ( Fig. 26 View FIGURES 15 – 28 ), median keel missing or very weakly developed, bristle cover dense, widely separated into two lateral areas (ventral view, Figs 23, 26 View FIGURES 15 – 28 ), stylus remarkably long.

Chelicerae ( Figs 5, 7, 9 View FIGURES 5 – 14 , 33– 38): ɗ basal article long and slender; spination variable, individual spines irregularly arranged and offset to one another; dorsally with an irregular row of 6 spines, in most specimens dorso-distal spine as large as largest dorsal spines (Figs 33–35), 6 ventro-lateral and 5 ventro-medial spines of different size; dorso-distally a bulging, knob-like apophysis ( Figs 5, 7, 9 View FIGURES 5 – 14 ), in lateral view protruding over article border and thus strongly influencing shape of apophysis; dorso-distal circular area on apophysis with sparse cover of bristles (brush-like) often marked by lighter brownish colour, in dorsal view area of bristles not reaching dorsal side of apophysis, in lateral view restricted to a small dorso-distal part of the apophyis ( Figs 5, 7, 9 View FIGURES 5 – 14 ); Ψ as in ɗ but without apophysis and bristle area (Figs 36–38).

Legs: Robust, of medium length, dark brown, metatarsus and tarsus of lighter colour, base of femora whitish to yellowish.

Pedipalps ( Figs 6, 8, 10 View FIGURES 5 – 14 ): ɗ with broad, shovel-shaped apophysis at ventro-distal end of patella pointing ventrad, apophysis absent in Ψ.

Prosoma: Cephalothorax flat, no ascent from thoracic tergite II, with some fine granules, matt; thoracic tergite II with 7–9 spines of different sizes; ocularium weakly developed, eyes widely separated, lenses small.

Opisthosoma: Areae   finely spotted and granular, with transverse rows of inconspicuous small tubercles, each carrying a thick and short bristle. ɗ with scutum parvum, Ψ with scutum laminatum (in rare cases opisthosomal tergites I and II fused).

Distribution: ( Fig. 39 View FIGURE 39 ). I. dentipalpis   occurs in a large area in the northwestern Alps, roughly along the border zone between Switzerland and Italy, from the eastern border in southwestern Austria (western Tyrol) reaching to the Gran Paradiso Massiv in Italy. No records from France are known at present. This large distributional area so far appears fragmented into four smaller areas: 1) southwestern border zone of Austria (Vorarlberg and western Tyrol) and Switzerland (Kanton Graubünden), Rätikon and Silvretta Mountain group; 2) southern Lepontine Alps, only Swiss part with Kanton Tessin and neighbouring southern part of Kanton Graubünden; 3) central Swiss Pre-Alps, Kanton Schwyz and Obwalden; 4) Alpine area of northwestern Italy, Pennine, Graian and Cottian Alps. Here, three Italian distributional outliers are to be mentioned. The Gran Paradiso Massiv record represents the southwestern-most record and La Salle the northwestern-most record. The record from Borgosesia is remarkable for its low altitude (640 m). New records and denser sampling are needed to confirm the geographic isolation of these populations and single records (see Conservation).

Ecology: The present records suggest that I. dentipalpis   , like I. lithoclasica   sp. n., is a troglophilous species rather than a true troglobiont. It has been recorded several times in deep gravel beds and is probably able to disperse via this habitat, resulting in its large present distributional area. Caves are frequently inhabited for their cool, moist and dark microclimate. In Switzerland I. dentipalpis   was recorded in caves at altitudes between 1378 m and 2406 m, most frequently above 2000 m. Epigeic records from Switzerland and Austria encompass altitudes from 1600 m to 2570 m. In Italy only cave records do exist, all being located between 1350 m to 1780 m. The lowest record at 640 m is an exception.

Conservation: Komposch (2009 a) listed I. dentipalpis   as critically endangered (threatened by extinction) in Austria. Although this might be true for the Austrian peripheral populations, the species itself is probably not threatened due to its large distributional area. On the other hand this large distribution appears fragmented and should be investigated for possible cryptic differentiation and general vulnerability of haplotype diversity of this in general rare opilionid. Furthermore, in view of the species’ restriction to high altitudes and low temperatures, global warming could lead to drastic reduction of suitable habitats in the near future.

Remarks: Although Pavesi (1904) mentioned Ischyropsalis dentipalpis   from a cave in the Aosta Valley (Borna de la Glace), Gozo (1908), who did not see this material, stated that the species is not “cavernicolous”. In any case, the troglophilous I. carli   is present in the Aosta Valley as well, and there are recent records (Gressoney-Saint-Jean, 1550–2000 m, alongside ski piste and streams, N: 45.76 ° E: 7.83 °, 1 ɗ, M. Negro leg.

30.6. 2006, CJM 5933; 1 ɗ, 5 juv., A. Schönhofer leg. 13.– 14.09.2008, CJM 6328). The identity of Pavesi’s (1904) specimen could not be clarified because we could not locate it.

SMF

Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg

CWB

Kharkov State University

NHMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

MHNG

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

CAR

Museo de Historia Natural La Salle

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Opiliones

Family

Ischyropsalididae

Genus

Ischyropsalis

Loc

Ischyropsalis dentipalpis Canestrini, 1872

Schönhofer, Axel L. & Martens, Jochen 2010
2010
Loc

I. (Odontopalpa) dentipalpis: Hadži, 1931 : 117

Hadzi 1931: 117
1931
Loc

Ischyropsalis helvetica

Komposch 2009: 398
Komposch 2009: 494
Blick 2004: 3
Breuss 2004: 133
Komposch 2004: 485
Breuss 2002: 227
Rhoner 1997: 76
Breuss 1995: 227
Breuss 1993: 251
Martens 1978: 49
Martens 1969: 191
Avram 1964: 245
Roewer 1950: 13
Hadzi 1928: 15
Roewer 1923: 691
Roewer 1916: 152
1916
Loc

Ischyropsalis dentipalpis

Martens 1978: 1978
Martens 1978: 197
Martens 1969: 137
Dresco 1959: 383
Roewer 1923: 686
Canestrini 1872: 9
1872