Pseudophoxinus cilicicus, Saç & Özuluğ & Geiger & Freyhof, 2019

Saç, Gülşah, Özuluğ, Müfit, Geiger, Matthias F. & Freyhof, Jörg, 2019, Pseudophoxinus cilicicus, a new spring minnow from southern Anatolia (Teleostei Leuciscidae), Zootaxa 4671 (1), pp. 105-118: 111-114

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Pseudophoxinus cilicicus

new species

Pseudophoxinus cilicicus   , new species

( Figs. 3–7 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 )

Holotype. IUSHM 2018-1405, 82 mm SL; Turkey: Adana prov.: River Seyhan below water regulation doors at Yüreyir , south of Adana, 36.9757°N, 35.3354°E. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes. IUSHM 2018-1406, 10, 64–88 mm SL; FSJF   2417, 22, 52–113 mm SL; same data as holotype GoogleMaps   .

Additional material. IUSHM 36700-133, 25, 30–77 mm SL   ; FSJF 2451, 28, 35–71 mm SL; Turkey: Hatay prov.: Stream Arsuz east of Arsuz , 36.3992°N, 35.8860°E GoogleMaps   .— IUSHM 2018-1407, 1, 87 mm SL   ; FSJF 2970, 4, 49–62 mm SL; Turkey: Osmaniye prov.: a tributary to Ceyhan, between Tecirli and Kadirli north of Koçyurdu , 37.2215°N 36.0471°E GoogleMaps   .— IUSHM 2018-1408, 4, 49–78 mm SL   ; FSJF 2961, 4, 51– 85 mm SL; Turkey: Adana prov.: a tributary to stream Kırksu about 20 km southwest of Kadirli , 37.3152°N, 35.8833°E GoogleMaps   .— FSJF 2985, 1, 138 mm SL; Turkey: fish marked at Ceyhan River north of Sakarcalık , 37.1933°N 36.0828°E GoogleMaps   .

Material for molecular genetic analysis. FSJF DNA 341; Turkey: Hatay prov.: Stream Arsuz east of Arsuz , 36.3991667°N, 035.8859667°E. (GenBank accession numbers: KJ554542, KJ 554197) GoogleMaps   FSJF DNA 367; Turkey: Adana prov.: River Seyhan below water regulation doors at Yüreyir , south of Adana, 36.9756833°N, 35.3354167°E. (GenBank accession numbers: KJ554313, KJ 554367) GoogleMaps   .— FSJF DNA-1469; Turkey: Osmaniye prov.: a tributary to Ceyhan River, between Tecirli and Kadirli north of Koçyurdu , 37.22150°N 36.04709°E. (GenBank accession num- bers: KJ554170, KJ554253, KJ554425, MK 370396) GoogleMaps  

Diagnosis. Pseudophoxinus cilicicus   is distinguished from all other species of the P. zeregi   species group by having the lower lip slightly projecting beyond the tip of the upper lip in most individuals, both lips projecting equally in the remainder (vs. upper lip always projecting beyond lower lip). It is further distinguished from all other species of the P. zeregi   species group except P. zekayi   and P. zeregi   by having a complete (vs. incomplete) lateral line.

Pseudophoxinus cilicicus   is further distinguished from P. zekayi   ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 ), with which it co-occurs in the Ceyhan River drainage by having the uppermost point of mouth cleft level with or slightly above (vs. below) the centre of the eye, lateral view of the mouth cleft almost straight (vs. sigmoid), black pigment below the lateral line present (vs. absent), and a minimum K2P distance of 3.8% based on the DNA barcodes analysed.

It is further distinguished from P. firati   , which is also found in the Ceyhan and Seyhan River drainages, and from P. hasani   , from coastal Syria, by having 38–45 + 2–3 (vs. 43–49 + 2–3 in P. firati   , 26–33 + 2–3 in P. hasani   ) scales in the midlateral series. Pseudophoxinus cilicicus   is further distinguished from P. zeregi   by having 38–45 + 2–3 (vs. 55–62 + 2–3) lateral line scales, and from P. drusensis   , P. libani   , P. turani   and P. syriacus   by having a relatively short pelvic fin not reaching (vs. reaching or overlapping in male) the anus, and presence (vs. absence) of a prominent black epidermal stripe along the flank.

Description. See Figures 3–7 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 for general appearance and Table 1 View TABLE 1 for morphometric data of holotype, 9 paratypes and 11 additional individuals. A relatively large sized and deep bodied species with a short and pointed head. Greatest body depth about halfway between nape and dorsal-fin origin, decreasing towards caudal-fin base. Dorsal and ventral body profiles slightly convex. Body and caudal peduncle compressed. Upper head profile straight or convex, head length 1.0–1.1 times in body depth. In Ceyhan population upper head profile straight, head depth at nape 1.3–1.4 times in head length and head depth at eye 1.7–1.9 times in head length. In Arsuz population upper head profile slightly convex, head depth at nape 1.2–1.3 times in head length and head depth at eye 1.5–1.7 times in head length. Snout slightly pointed, its length 1.6–1.9 times in postorbital length. Ventral head profile with conspicuous angle at articulation of lower jaw. Mouth terminal, uppermost point of cleft level with or slightly above centre of eye, rostral cap not covering upper lip, lips smooth and thick, lower lip slightly projecting beyond tip of upper lip or both lips projecting equally. In Ceyhan population lateral view of mouth cleft almost straight. In Arsuz population lateral view of cleft sigmoid. Eye diameter 1.9–2.3 times in head depth at eye, 1.1–1.4 times in interor- bital width. Caudal peduncle 1.2–1.5 times longer than deep. Pelvic-fin origin anterior to dorsal-fin origin. Pectoral fin reaching to about 60–80% of pelvic-fin origin. Pelvic fin length about 60–80% of distance between pelvic-fin origin and anus. Pelvic fin short, not reaching anus. A small pelvic axillary lobe present. Margin of dorsal and anal fins straight to slightly convex. Caudal fin forked, lobes rounded. Largest recorded specimen 138 mm SL.

Dorsal fin with 3 simple and 7½ (21) branched rays. Anal fin with 3 simple and 6½ (1), 7½ (18), 8½ (2) branched rays. Caudal fin with 9 + 8 branched rays. Pectoral fin with 13–16 branched rays and pelvic fin with 8 branched rays. Body covered completely by overlapping scales. A shallow keel between posterior pelvic-fin base and anus. Scales along lateral line 38+2 (2), 40+3 (1), 41+2 (3), 41+3 (5), 42+2 (1), 42+3 (2), 43+2 (3), 43+3 (1), 44+2 (1) and 45+2 (1). Lateral line complete, often interrupted on caudal-fin base. 8½–10½ scales between lateral line and dorsal-fin origin, 3½–4½ scales between lateral line and pelvic-fin origin. 14–19 circumpeduncular scales. Pharyngeal teeth in one row, 5–5, slightly serrated, hooked at tip. Gill rakers short and thick, 7 (6), 8 (7), 9 (6) total gill rakers on outer side of first gill arch. Supraorbital canal (CSO) with 9-12 pores.

Coloration. In formalin-preserved specimens back and upper flank dark-brown or grey, lower part of flank and belly yellowish. In life back and upper flank greenish-brown, lateral flank and belly silvery, often with a yellowish hue. In life a golden stripe running from posterior eye margin to caudal-fin base above a prominent faint- or darkbrown or grey stripe. Often a second, usually indistinct, golden stripe below brown or grey lateral stripe. A promi- nent dark-brown inner-axial stripe well visible in formalin-preserved individuals. Numerous minute and isolated epidermal black spots on flank above lateral line. Few black pigment cells below lateral stripe and none below lateral line except on caudal-fin base. Fins hyaline, usually with orange base or completely orange in life. Membranes hyaline with few very small black dots. Fin rays dusty with small black dots.

Distribution. Pseudophoxinus cilicicus   was found in the catchments of the Arsuz stream as well as in the lower Seyhan and Ceyhan river drainages ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ).

Etymology. Named cilicicus   based on the classical Latin adjective for the Roman province Cilicia   , which covered the lower reaches of the Seyhan and Ceyhan rivers. An adjective.

Remarks. The population of P. zekayi   found in the river connecting three lakes close to Gölbaşı is separated by a minimum K2P distance of 1.2% from P. zekayi   found at the type locality. We closely examined fishes from these two populations but could not find any differences in meristic or morphometric characters, lateral line length, position of fins, colour pattern or any other character examined here. Therefore, we treat these two populations as one species. Indeed, the drainage system of the Gölbaşı lakes, which is connected to the Ceyhan, seems to have been isolated in the past and its connection might be relatively recent. Freyhof et al. (2018) found an endemic Cobitis   ( C. erkakanae   ) in this area and Geiger et al. (2014) found the Aphanius   from Gölbaşı ( A. boulengeri   ) to be well separated from the adjacent Ceyhan population ( A. alexandri   ) in their COI tree. Furthermore, the distributional pattern of Pseudophoxinus cilicus   and P. firati   roughly resembles that of the two other Cobitis   species found in the area, with P. cilicicus   and Cobitis aliyae   being restricted to the lowland reaches of the Seyhan and Ceyhan and P. firati   and C. evreni   being restricted to the mountain reaches of the same rivers.

We are not aware of any geological situation in the past which might have physically isolated the upper and lower Seyhan and Ceyhan.

Pseudophoxinus atropatenus   and P. sojuchbulagi   were described in the genus Rutilus   ( Abdurakhmanov 1950, Derjavin 1937). We were able to study some materials of P. atropatenus   and our molecular analysis placed this species in Rutilus   . Bogutskaya et al. (2006) included many small leuciscid species in Pseudophoxinus   since all share a set of reductive character states, but several were later placed in other genera. As in Pseudophoxinus   species, the pre-opercular-mandibular canal is interrupted between the angular-articular and the preoperculum in 3 out of 5 individuals of R. atropatenus   examined by us. However, this character state might be related to the adaptation of the species to small springs and we see no reason to exclude it from Rutilus   . Rutilus sojuchbulagi   has not been found again since its description by Abdurakhmanov (1950) and the species might be extinct.


National Museum of Kenya