Neonella choanocytica, Salgado & Ruiz, 2018

Salgado, Alexandre & Ruiz, Gustavo R. S., 2018, Two new species of Neonella Gertsch, 1936 (Araneae: Salticidae: Euophryini), Zootaxa 4394 (4), pp. 537-548: 540-547

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4394.4.4

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AB2BA30C-AFB2-4E26-94DC-F3693C23571E

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/1C293922-3712-B822-35DD-19B9FC2B134A

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Neonella choanocytica
status

sp. nov.

Neonella choanocytica   sp. nov.

Figs 3–9 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 View FIGURE 8 View FIGURE 9

Type material. Holotype: ♂ from Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades , 04°06'01.9''S, 41°42'54.2''W, Piracuruca, Piauí, Brazil, 24 June 2007, L.S. Carvalho et al. ( MPEG 11297 View Materials ). GoogleMaps  

Paratypes: 1 ♂ and 4 ♀ from same locality, between 04°05'57.5"S, 41°42'54.2"W and 04°06'01.9"S, 41°43'00.7"W, 24 January –24 June 2007, L.S. Carvalho et al. [ MPEG 11287 (♀), 11292 (♀), 11295 (♀), IBSP 214061 (♂ ♀)].

Additional material examined. BRAZIL: Piauí: 3♂, 9♀, Piracuruca, Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades , between 04°05'45.1"S, 41°43'00.7"W and 04°05'57.5"S, 41°43'55.8" W, 11 December 2006 – 29 June 2007, L.S. Carvalho et al. ( MPEG 11281 View Materials , 11282 View Materials , 11283 View Materials , 11284 View Materials , 11289 View Materials , 11294 View Materials , 11296 View Materials ) and 31 January 2007, M.T.L. Avelino ( MPEG 11285 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

Etymology. The epithet, to be treated as a Latin adjective, refers to the specialized filtering cell present in sponges, the choanocyte, due to the resemblance between the filtering collar + the flagellum of that cell with the lamellas around the sinuous embolus in this species ( Figs 4C –D View FIGURE 4 ).

Diagnosis. Among the species of the genus, N. choanocytica   sp. nov. is most similar to N. colalao Galiano, 1998   (see Galiano 1998: fig. 7) and N. montana Galiano, 1988   (see Rubio et al. 2015: fig. 4E) in having lamella(s) at the base of the embolus ( Figs 4A –E View FIGURE 4 , 6A –C View FIGURE 6 ). However, N. choanocytica   sp. nov. differs from those two species by having several lamellas forming a semicircle along the retrolateral side of embolic disc ( Figs 4A –E View FIGURE 4 , 6A –B View FIGURE 6 ), whereas N. colalao   and N. montana   have a single branchy lamella (see Rubio et al. 2015: figs 4E –F). The females of N. choanocytica   sp. nov. ( Figs 4F View FIGURE 4 , 6D –E View FIGURE 6 ) are also similar to those of N. montana   (see Galiano 1988: fig. 21; female of N. colalao   still unknown), both with fused copulatory openings in the median portion of epigynal plate, but they can be distinguished by the connection of the copulatory ducts to the spermathecae: in N. montana   , copulatory ducts run parallelly and reach the inner portion of the spermathecae, while in N. choanocytica   sp. nov. copulatory ducts diverge from the copulatory openings and reach the median portion of each spermatheca ( Figs 4G –H View FIGURE 4 ).

Description. Male holotype ( MPEG 11297). Total length: 1.26. Carapace 0.67 long, 0.53 wide and 0.31 high. Ocular quadrangle 0.37 long. Anterior eye row 0.57 wide, posterior 0.53 wide. Cheliceral teeth inconspicuous. Unmodified chelicera, endite, labium and sternum ( Fig. 5C View FIGURE 5 ). Palp ( Figs 4A –E View FIGURE 4 , 6A –C View FIGURE 6 ): unmodified femur; patella with triangular RPA; RTA thin and acute; cymbium oval; tegular lobe prolaterally curved; embolus sinuous emerging from distal portion of embolic disc ( Figs 6A –C View FIGURE 6 ). Legs 4312. Length of legs: I 0.85 (0.24 + 0.32 + 0.29); II 0.79 (0.23 + 0.29 + 0.27); III 0.96 (0.33 + 0.32 + 0.31); IV 1.12 (0.34 + 0.37 + 0.41). Opisthosoma with dorsal scutum ( Figs 3A View FIGURE 3 , 5A View FIGURE 5 ) and a tuft of fluffy white long scales on anal tubercle ( Fig. 5B View FIGURE 5 ). Spinnerets (n=1; figs 9A –B) as follows: the anterior lateral spinneret has one anteriorly placed major ampullate spigot (MAP) and one nubbin, and three posteriorly placed piriform spigots around three tartipores; the posterior median spinneret has one distal minor ampullate spigot (mAP) and one more proximal aciniform spigot; the posterior lateral spinneret has four aciniform spigots among three tartipores. Color in alcohol: cephalic area black; thoracic area light brown with black borders; opisthosoma pale, dorsally with three transverse dark brown stripes ( Figs 3A –C View FIGURE 3 ); legs pale with dark brown markings on lateral femora and distal patellae, tibiae and metatarsi.

Description. Female paratype ( MPEG 11287). Total length: 1.57. Carapace 0.74 long, 0.52 wide and 0.31 high. Ocular quadrangle 0.34 long. Anterior eye row 0.54 wide, posterior 0.53 wide. Chelicera, endite, labium and sternum as in male ( Fig. 5D View FIGURE 5 ). Legs 43=12. Length of legs: I 0.98 (0.31 + 0.36 + 0.31); II 0.91 (0.31 + 0.31 + 0.29); III 0.98 (0.30 + 0.35 + 0.33); IV 1.18 (0.33 + 0.40 + 0.45). Spinnerets (n=2; Figs 9C –D View FIGURE 9 ): the anterior lateral spinneret has two anteriorly placed major ampullate spigots (MAP), and four posteriorly placed piriform spigots around three tartipores; the posterior median spinneret has two distal minor ampullate spigots (mAP) and one more proximal aciniform spigot; the posterior lateral spinneret is as in male. Epigyne ( Figs 4F –H View FIGURE 4 , 6D –E View FIGURE 6 ): short copulatory ducts diverge anteriorly from CO to spermathecae; fertilization ducts laterally projected. Color in alcohol: as in a male, but with lighter transversal brown stripes; markings on legs poorly conspicuous ( Figs 3D –F View FIGURE 3 ).

Note. As a typical Neonella   , N. choanocytica   sp. nov. is one of the smallest known jumping spiders. Given the light bodies, tarsal tufts, similar in both sexes, are composed of only a few adhesive setae (2 males and 2 females observed in SEM; Figs 7–8 View FIGURE 7 View FIGURE 8 ): tarsal tufts I –II have typically 5 pairs of adhesive setae (total=10 setae), of which one unpaired seta can be missing (probably broken off due to use); tarsi III –IV have 14–16 adhesive setae (7 or 8 pairs). Each adhesive seta is about 7 µm wide, regardless of the leg. Besides these, there is also a pair of ventral, nonadhesive setae in all tarsi, possibly with sensitive function. Talsal claws are short, asymmetrical, with only a few teeth (fewer in retrolateral claw).

Distribution. Known only from the type locality (state of Piauí, Brazil).

Natural History. The specimens of N. choanocytica   sp. nov. studied were collected both from the ground (pitfall trap, Winkler extractor) and vegetation (beating sheet) in different biomes, such as tropical semi-deciduous dry forest, evergreen broad-leaved sclerophyllous shrubland (Cerrado stricto sensu), grassland (Campo Limpo), and gallery forest (tropical ombrophilous, occasionally flooded forest).

MPEG

Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi

IBSP

Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Salticidae

Genus

Neonella