Parhydraena brahma, Perkins, 2009

Perkins, Philip D., 2009, Revisions of the genera Parhydraena Orchymont, Protozantaena Perkins, Decarthrocerus Orchymont, and Parhydraenopsis nomen novum, aquatic and humicolous beetles from Africa and Madagascar, and comparative morphology of the tribe Parhydraenini (Coleoptera: Hydraenidae), Zootaxa 2038, pp. 1-119: 36-39

publication ID

1175­5334

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/1D214E2B-F15F-FFDF-DE82-738E2D29FCAE

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Parhydraena brahma
status

new species

Parhydraena brahma   new species

( Figs. 1, 2, 21, 63, 65, 95)

Type material. Holotype (male): South Africa: Mpumalanga Province, Uitsoek , forest litter after rain, 25° 15' S, 30° 33' E, 17.xii.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2396). Deposited in the TMSA. GoogleMaps  

Material examined (8,113; pt = paratypes; nt = non-types): South Africa: Eastern Cape Province, Transkei, Umtata, Nquadu Mt. , sifted litter, 31° 25' S, 28° 45' E, 21.xii.1979, Endrödy-Younga (#1690) (4 TMSA nt) GoogleMaps   ; KwaZulu-Natal Province, Barbeton Dist., Twello Forest , humus, ZA 69, 25° 48' S, 31° 9' E GoogleMaps   ,

1–30.x.1961, N. Leleup (21 pt TMSA); Pietersbg. Dist., Helpmekaar River , humus, ZA 20, 29° 37' S, 30° 23' E GoogleMaps   , 1–30.ix.1960, N. Leleup (3 pt TMSA); Mpumalanga Province, 11 km SE Pilgrims Rest , relict forest, litter sifting, elev. 1500 m, 28° 53' S, 29° 42' E GoogleMaps   , 19–26.xii.1985, S. & J. Peck (10 pt CMNO, 29 pt FMNH); 11 km SE Pilgrims Rest , relict native forests, flight intercept traps, elev. 1400 m, 28° 53' S, 31° 15' E GoogleMaps   , 11–31.xii.1985, S. & J. Peck (3 pt CMNO); Belfast Dist., Schoemanskloof , humus, ZA 71, 25° 24' S, 30° 30' E GoogleMaps   , 1–30.x.1961, N. Leleup (32 pt TMSA); Berlin forest , window trap, 25° 33' S, 30° 44' E GoogleMaps   , 23.x.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2304) (38 TMSA nt); Blyfstaanhoogte Forest , WSW of Sabie, afromontane forest in valley bottom; FMHD #2004-054, berl., leaf & log litter, elev. 1240 m, 25° 13' S, 30° 36' E GoogleMaps   , 10.ii.2004, Clark & Newton (1092) (135 FMNH nt, 50 pt FMNH); E. Transvaal, Berlin F. S., gorge, groundtrap with banana bait, 41 days, 25° 32' S, 30° 44' E GoogleMaps   , 4.ii.1987, Endrödy-Younga (#2409) (1 pt TMSA); E. Transvaal, Berlin F. S., gorge, groundtraps, 42 days, 25° 32' S, 30° 44' E GoogleMaps   , 23.x.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2303) (1 pt TMSA); E. Transvaal, Berlin F. S., gorge, intercept trap, 31 days, 25° 32' S, 30° 44' E GoogleMaps   , 2.ix.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2282) (4 pt TMSA, 45 TMSA nt); E. Transvaal, Berlin F. S., gorge, intercept trap, 41 days, 25° 32' S, 30° 44' E GoogleMaps   , 4.ii.1987, Endrödy-Younga (#2408) (3 pt TMSA, 64 TMSA nt); E. Transvaal, Berlin F. S., gorge, intercept trap, 56 days, 25° 32' S, 30° 44' E GoogleMaps   , 9.xii.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2366) (11 TMSA nt, 3 pt TMSA); E. Transvaal, Berlin F. S., gorge, litter, rock crevices, 25° 32' S, 30° 44' E GoogleMaps   , 22.ix.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2284) (16 pt TMSA, 3092 TMSA nt); E. Transvaal, Berlin F. S., gorge, sifted forest litter, 25° 32' S, 30° 44' E GoogleMaps   , 20.ix.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2278) (1 pt TMSA); E. Transvaal, Berlin F. S., gorge, UV light collection, 25° 32' S, 30° 44' E GoogleMaps   , 3.ii.1987, Endrödy-Younga (#2407) (1 pt TMSA); E. Transvaal, Berlin F. S., gorge-edge, litter between rocks, 25° 32' S, 30° 44' E GoogleMaps   , 10.xii.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2373) (19 pt TMSA, 638 TMSA nt); E. Transvaal, Mariepskop , forest, humus, ZA 11, 24° 35' S, 30° 50' E GoogleMaps   , 1–30.viii.1960, N. Leleup (13 pt TMSA); E. Transvaal, Mariepskop , forest, humus, ZA 8, 24° 35' S, 30° 50' E GoogleMaps   , 1–30.viii.1960, N. Leleup (12 pt TMSA); E. Transvaal, Mariepskop , shore washing, 24° 35' S, 30° 50' E GoogleMaps   , 2.v.1981, Endrödy-Younga (#1761) (8 pt TMSA); Fanie Botha Trail, Maritzbos Hut area, SW Sabie , afromontane forest in ravine; FMHD #2004- 057, berl., leaf & log litter, elev. 1270 m, 25° 5' S, 30° 40' E GoogleMaps   , 11.ii.2004, Clarke, Solodovnikov et al. (1093) (194 FMNH nt, 40 pt FMNH); Fanie Botha Trail, Maritzbos Hut area, SW Sabie , afromontane forest in ravine; FMHD #2004-058, berl., stream-edge debris, & direct collecting, elev. 1270 m, 25° 5' S, 30° 40' E GoogleMaps   , 11.ii.2004, Solodovnikov, Clarke, Newton (1093) (22 pt FMNH); Fanie Botha Trail, Maritzbos Hut area, SW Sabie , afromontane forest in ravine; FMHD #2004-055, flight intercept trap, elev. 1270 m, 25° 5' S, 30° 40' E GoogleMaps   , 11–18.ii.2004, Newton, Solodovnikov et al. (1093) (4 pt FMNH); Klipkraal Forest , NE of Sabie, afromontane forest patch on steep slope; FMHD #2004-051, berl., leaf & log litter, elev. 1230 m, 25° 2' S, 30° 50' E GoogleMaps   , 10.ii.2004, Clarke, Newton, Thayer (1091) (36 pt FMNH, 460 FMNH nt); Klipkraal Forest , NE of Sabie, afromontane forest patch on steep slope; FMHD #2004-049, flight intercept trap, elev. 1230 m, 25° 2' S, 30° 50' E GoogleMaps   , 10–18.ii.2004, Newton, Solodovnikov, Thayer (1091) (6 pt FMNH); Mariepskop , sifted, cloud forest, 24° 35' S, 30° 50' E GoogleMaps   , 6.v.1981, Endrödy-Younga (#1785) (2 pt TMSA); Mt. Sheeba , under river stones, 24° 51' S, 30° 45' E GoogleMaps   , 27.xi.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2322) (3 TMSA nt); Nelspruit, Nat. Res. , rivulet val., litter, riverine bush, 25° 29' S, 30° 55' E GoogleMaps   , 18.xii.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2397) (4 pt TMSA); Uitsoek , forest litter after rain, 25° 15' S, 30° 33' E GoogleMaps   , 17.xii.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2396) (35 pt TMSA, 83 TMSA nt); Uitsoek , forest litter before rain, 25° 15' S, 30° 33' E GoogleMaps   , 16.xii.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2395) (1526 TMSA nt, 27 pt TMSA); Uitsoek, Grootkloof ind. for., Cussonia logs, 25° 15' S, 30° 33' E GoogleMaps   , 6.ii.1987, Endrödy-Younga (#2424) (1 pt TMSA); Uitsoek, Grootkloof ind. for., fallen fruit, forest, 25° 15' S, 30° 33' E GoogleMaps   , 16.xii.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2394) (11 pt TMSA, 30 TMSA nt); Uitsoek, Grootkloof ind. for., groundtraps, 28 days, 25° 15' S, 30° 33' E GoogleMaps   , 28.ix.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2295) (4 pt TMSA); Uitsoek, Grootkloof ind. for., groundtraps, 53 days, 25° 15' S, 30° 33' E GoogleMaps   , 15.xii.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2392) (1 pt TMSA); Uitsoek, Grootkloof ind. for., groundtraps, 82 days, 25° 15' S, 30° 33' E GoogleMaps   , 6.ii.1987, Endrödy-Younga (#2423) (3 pt TMSA); Uitsoek, Grootkloof ind. for., groundtraps with bananna or faeces bait, 52 days, 25° 15' S, 30° 33' E GoogleMaps   , 25.x.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2318) (2 pt TMSA); Uitsoek, Grootkloof ind. for., groundtraps with bananna or faeces bait, 53 days, 25° 15' S, 30° 33' E GoogleMaps   , 15.xii.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2391) (2 pt TMSA); Uitsoek, Grootkloof ind. for., intercept trap, 28 days, 25° 15' S, 30° 33' E GoogleMaps   , 28.ix.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2294) (3 pt TMSA, 3 TMSA nt); Uitsoek, Grootkloof ind. for., intercept trap, 62 days, 25° 15' S, 30° 33' E GoogleMaps   , 6.ii.1987, Endrödy-Younga (#2422) (6 pt TMSA, 843 TMSA nt); Uitsoek, Grootkloof ind. for., sifted forest litter, 25° 15' S, 30° 33' E GoogleMaps   , 26.x.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2320) (18 pt TMSA, 314 TMSA nt); Uitsoek, Grootkloof ind. for., water collection, 25° 15' S, 30° 33' E GoogleMaps   , 14.xii.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2387) (1 pt TMSA); Uitsoek, rott. Cussonia bark, 25° 15' S, 30° 33' E GoogleMaps   , 16.xii.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2393) (12 pt TMSA, 15 TMSA nt); Uitsuk , window trap, 25° 15' S, 30° 33' E GoogleMaps   , 15.xii.1986, Endrödy-Younga (#2390) (3 TMSA nt); Transvaal Prov., Transvaal, Graskop For. , humus, ZA 15, 33° 7' S, 26° 43' E GoogleMaps   , 1–30.viii.1960, N. Leleup (46 pt TMSA); Woodbush Forest Transvaal, humus, ZA 16, 23° 44' S, 30° 2' E GoogleMaps   , 1–30.ix.1960, N. Leleup (96 pt TMSA)   .

Differential diagnosis. Similar in dorsal habitus to the broad-shouldered species P. brunovacca   and P. mpumalanga   ( Figs. 59, 60, 63). Differentiated from both species by the shorter maxillary palpi (palpus length/ head width ca. 0.44 vs. 0.57), the more broad-shouldered shape of the elytra, the more markedly microreticulate clypeus, the more strongly punctate pronotum, the deeper pronotal impressions, and the very different aedeagi ( Figs. 61, 62, 65). This species has the shortest tarsi of toro   group members.

Description. Size (length/width, mm) holotype: body (length to elytral apices) 1.80/0.86; head 0.27/0.47; pronotum 0.45/0.75, PA 0.54, PB 0.64; elytra 1.14/0.86. Dorsum brown to dark brown, lateral areas of pronotum, clypeus laterally, and labrum light brown; legs brown; maxillary palpi light brown to testaceous, distal mere acuminate, distal 1/2 slightly, if at all, darker.

Head with eyes moderately large, in dorsal aspect 8 rather small, convex facets in longest series. Ocelli distinct round small shining, each located at base of shallow oblique interocular fovea. Frons finely punctate, less than 1xef, interstices shining, ca. 2–4xpd; area between interocular foveae and eye, punctate, effacedly microreticulate, dull. Clypeus dull, distinctly microreticulate, very finely and very sparsely punctate. Labrum dull, slightly longer than clypeus, in male anterior margin markedly reflexed in middle 1/2, appearing arcuate or bisinuate in dorsal habitus view; laterally fringed with short arcuate setae; in female apicomedially notch, forming lobe on each side. Maxillary palpi very short, often concealed beneath head in dorsal view, combined lengths of meres much less than width of head (ratio ca. 15/34); ratios of meres 2–4 ca. 5/2/8. Mentum densely finely punctulate, sparsely setose, interstices shining, submentum less densely punctate, interstices shining.

Pronotum broad, anterior margin over median 1/3 emarginate and with narrow hyaline border. Anterior angles obtuse, widely rounded. Sides rounded, widest just before middle, behind middle gradually attenuate, straight or very weakly sinuate. Posterior angle obtusangulate. Disc finely sparsely punctate, 0.5–1xef, interstices strongly shining; impressions deep, anterior almost V-shaped, extending to middle of pronotum, posterior impression broadly U-shaped; discal relief appearing swollen between and lateral to impressions; some punctures confluent, in impressions some jointly forming short transverse rows. Each puncture with anterior margin extended posteriorly as narrow ridge, dividing puncture into a pair of two smaller punctures each of which on discal relief smaller than eye-facet, much larger and more confluent laterally; moderately long recumbent seta arising from posterior extreme of dividing ridge. Wide, rather deep, impression at both anterior and posterior angles. Sculpture laterally subrugose, dull.

Elytra weakly shining, broad, attenuate posteriorly, sides arcuate, margins distinct from shoulder for 7/8 of length, sutural angle more acute in female than in male. Ten-seriate punctate, series weakly striateimpressed, punctures ca. 3–4xef, interstices ca 0.5–1xpd, non-granulate or granules minute and indistinct, punctures becoming much finer and shallower over posterior declivity; intervals ca. 1xpd, each with unilinear row of minute, widely spaced punctures; setae of serial punctures and intervals very similar in length, small, decumbent or recumbent.

Metaventrite short, with moderately shallow median elongate oval impression in basal 1/2, deepest at anterior extreme, midlongitudinal carina between anterior extreme of oval impression and mesoventral intercoxal process. Metaventrite and abdominal ventrites 1–4 hydrofuge pubescent. Male: ventrite 5 hydrofuge pubescent in basal 1/5 laterally, posterior margin of pubescent area extended in middle to about 1/2 length of ventrite, shining part sparsely pubescent in band across posterior 1/2; ventrite 6 deeply concave in middle, anterior part of concavity, in midline, raised in very small midlongitudinal ridge; last ventrite asymmetrical, apex lobiform and setose; last tergite with tuft of setae on each side of apicomedian notch into which fits lobe of last ventrite. Female: ventrite 5 basal 1/5 hydrofuge pubescent, shining part sparsely pubescent in band across posterior 1/2; ventrite 6 simple, with transverse band of sparse setae across posterior 1/2; last ventrite pubescent, margin rounded; last tergite with small tuft of setae on each side of weak apicomedian emargination.

Legs short, femora stout, tarsi very short, claws very small, combined lengths of metatibia and metatarsus slightly greater than width of head (ratio ca. 37/34), ratio of lengths of metatibia/metatarsus ca. 26/11. Basal 3 tarsomeres setose beneath in both sexes.

Wings usually fully developed, rarely reduced.

Aedeagus length ca. 0.32 mm; main-piece markedly arcuate in lateral view, with large process on left side in ventral view; distal process with large lobe, wider in lateral than ventral view; left paramere thin, much thinner than right paramere; setae of parameres comparatively fine. ( Fig. 65). Spermatheca as illustrated ( Fig. 21).

Etymology. Named in reference to the broad-shouldered habitus, and short horn-like maxillary palpi.

Distribution. This species has a wide distribution pattern in eastern and northeastern South Africa; the more southerly locality records are widely spaced ( Fig. 95).

Notes. Females have two thickened and darkly colored pieces in the wall of the bursa ( Fig. 21); in P. brunovacca   this area has one, rectangular, thickening.

TMSA

Transvaal Museum

FMNH

Field Museum of Natural History