Gilligan, Todd M., Brown, John W. & Hoddle, Mark S., 2011, A new avocado pest in Central America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with a key to Lepidoptera larvae threatening avocados in California, Zootaxa 3137, pp. 31-45: 41

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.204440

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Caloptilia  , Marmara  , and Phyllocnistis  spp. ( Gracillariidae  : Gracillariinae  , Phyllocnistinae  )

Marmara gulosa Guillén and Davis  , the citrus peelminer, has been reported as a pest of avocado in California ( Waite and Barrera 2002; as M. salictella Clemens  ). Larvae cause damage by mining the surface of fruit, causing significant scarring, and they may also mine shoots and leaves ( Guillén et al. 2001, Waite and Barrera 2002). Caloptilia perseae (Busck)  is considered a pest of avocado in México, where larvae mine leaves but rarely cause significant damage ( Wysoki et al. 2002). Davis and Wagner (2011) described several new species of Phyllocnistis  from Central America and the southeastern U.S. that mine leaves of avocado; none of these species are recorded from California.