Karaman, Ivo M., 2009, The taxonomical status and diversity of Balkan sironids (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) with descriptions of twelve new species, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (2), pp. 260-318: 262

publication ID 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00446.x

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Since the first description of the species Siro rubens Latreille, 1804   (first described cyphophthalmid) until today, 24 recent species and subspecies have been described in the genus Siro   . A somewhat greater number of Cyphophthalmi species is known in the genus Rakaia   from New Zealand and Australia – 29 taxa ( Giribet, 2000), and the genus Stylocellus   from South-East Asia – 24 species ( Giribet, 2002). In contrast to these two genera (and all Cyphophthalmi genera known to date), the genus Siro   has far surpassed the distribution areas of other genera. This genus as circumscribed ‘traditionally’ is distributed across wider areas of two continents – America: the west coast of North America, the Appalachian Mountains in eastern North America ( Shear, 1980) and Europe: Western Europe – an area in south-eastern France, the southern and south-eastern Alps, the Balkan Peninsula to its southernmost points and south-east to western parts of Asia Minor   ( Gruber, 1969), and north-east to the northern Carpathian Mountains ( Mašan, 1998). Such a distribution of a genus is surprisingly unusual for relict endogean species of limited dispersal capability, such as Cyphophthalmi undoubtedly are, and results from neglecting obvious generic boundaries amongst sironids. Analysis of sequence data from three nuclear and two mitochondrial genes ( Boyer et al., 2005) shows the monophyletic clade of Balkan sironids not to be directly related to the genus Siro   , and is another argument for separation of all Balkan and Asia Minor species in the resurrected genus Cyphophthalmus   ( Karaman, 2005a, b).

A range of autapomorphic characteristics clearly suggests a monophyletic origin of all Balkan sironids