Novonothrus glabriseta, Colloff, Matthew J., 2011
Colloff, Matthew J., 2011, A review of the oribatid mite family Nothridae in Australia, with new species of Novonothrus and Trichonothrus from rain forest and their Gondwanan biogeographical affinities (Acari: Oribatida), Zootaxa 3005, pp. 1-44: 12-17
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Novonothrus glabriseta sp. nov.
(Figs. 6 –9, 12e,h, 17 e, 18 e, 19 b)
Dimensio ns. Holotype female length 898 μm, breadth 475 μm; paratype females (n = 5) mean length 920 μm (range 894–950 μm), mean breadth 491 μm (range 470–501 μm); paratype males (n = 13) mean length 845 μm (range 818–862 μm), mean breadth 433 μm (range 399–468 μm).
Female. Prodorsum: Median light oval region 12 μm long 28 μm broad; Y-shaped ridge medial of lateral light oval regions (each 27 μm long, 21 μm broad) positioned anterior of lamellar setae ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 h). Rostral setae (ro) straight, smooth, spiniform, 44 μm long (Fig. 6 a). Lamellar seta (le) 48 μm long, smooth, straight, spiniform, on squat tubercle positioned laterally. Prodorsum expanded laterally in region posterior of le. Interlamellar seta (in) 66 μm long, smooth, straight, spiniform, covered with bacilliform cerotegument. Bothridium with anterior ridge extending towards le and posterior ridge extending towards dorsosejugal suture. Bothridial rim triangular. Exobothridial seta ex 1 31 μm long, extending beyond margin of prodorsum. Bothridial seta (bs) flagelliform, smooth, 238 μm long, apex reflexed. Prodorsum alveolate.
Notogaster: Ratio of length to breadth 1.19. Notogaster broad, sub-rectangular (Fig. 6 a). Notogastral cuticle with small (7–12 μm diameter) broadly-spaced alveoli, connected by thin hyaline cuticle ( Fig. 17 View FIGURE 17 c). All notogastral setae smooth, curved, pointed (Fig. 6 c), ca. 39–74 μm long; c 2-3 slightly shorter (39–46 μm) than c 1 (58 μm); some (e and h series) with fine, spathulate cerotegument, setae of p series straight, smooth, spiniform, sub-equal in length (36 μm). Distance between setae c 1 1.2 × that between c 1 and c 2; distance between setae c 1 0.9 × that between d 1; distance between d 2 2.2 × that between d 1; distance between e 1 1.2 × that between f 1. Caudal margin rounded, without median and lateral crenellations. Faint paired longitudinal ridges on either side of notogaster extending from lateral of h 1 and h 2 to point just posterior of c 2 and c 3.
Subcapitulum: Mentum foveolate. Gena with four setae: a and m 1-3, a twice as long as m 1 (Fig. 6 b). Adoral setae or 1 straight, smooth, spiniform, pointed; or 2 flagelliform and sparingly barbed apically ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 e).
FIGURE 6. Novonothrus glabriseta sp. nov., holotype female; a) dorsal; b) ventral; c) detail of seta h 1.
Coxisternum: Epimeral plates I and II more-or-less adjacent, epimeral plates III and IV separated along sternal line (Fig. 6 b). Epimeral setal formula 5 - 4-6 - 5. Epimeral setae smooth, thin, setiform, sub-equal in length (15–23 μm). Setae on plates I –III positioned on medial part; those of plate IV on posterior part. Epimeral plate IV broadening medially with large triangular posteriomedian flange next to genital plate. Ventral margin of notogaster posterior of anal plates with small V-shaped notch.
Anogenital Region: Each genital plate 132 μm long, 77 μm broad, wrinkled, divided transversely, with nine smooth, setiform setae sub-equal in length (22–31 μm): six setae in median file (four on anterior part of plate) and three in lateral file (one on anterior part of plate; Fig. 6 b). Pre-anal plate sub-triangular, 108 μm broad. Each anal plate 221 μm long, 45 μm broad, with two smooth, spiniform setae, 36 μm long; one on anterior, one on posterior part of plate. Adanal setae subequal in length and shape to anal setae.
Lateral View: Anterior prodorsal margin curved almost vertically; lateral inflated prodorsal region extending as far as mentum (Fig. 6 d). Lamellar seta projecting anteriorly almost as far as apex of rostral seta. Exobothridial seta ex 2 present as alveolus. Interbothridial region convex. Lyrifissure ia 30 μm long. Notogastral shield convex, elongated, relatively flat between setae c 1 and f 1; ratio of notogastral height to length 0.57. Opening of opisthonotal gland positioned posterior of seta f 2, prominent, slit-like, surrounded by circular ridge of cuticle.
Legs: Pre-tarsus monodactylous. Tarsus I elongated, conical, 218 μm long ( Fig. 19 View FIGURE 19 b). Femur I 173 μm long; all setae smooth, l ' slightly longer (76 μm) than others (58–63 μm; Fig. 18 View FIGURE 18 d). Setal formulae (solenidia in brackets) Leg I 1-7 - 5 (1)- 6 (2)- 38 (3); Leg II 1-7 - 5 (1)- 6 (2)- 25 (1); Leg III 2-6 - 5 (1)- 6 (2)- 22; Leg IV 1-5 - 5 (1)- 6 (2)- 22.
FIGURE 8. Novonothrus glabriseta sp. nov., deutonymph; a) dorsal; b) ventral; c) detail of dorsal cerotegument in region of seta e 1.
Protonymph. Length 427 μm, breadth 197 μm. Prodorsum: Length 172 μm. Median light oval region 12 μm long 15 μm broad, with transverse ridge between rostral setae, lateral light oval regions 15 μm long, 10 μm broad ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 a). Rostral seta (ro) straight, smooth, spiniform, 21 μm long. Lamellar seta (le) 18 μm long, spiniform, smooth, on squat, conical tubercle positioned towards mid-line of prodorsum. Interlamellar seta (in) spiniform, smooth 17 μm long. Bothridium with anterior ridge extending towards centre of prodorsum. Bothridial rim triangular. Bothridial seta (bs) elongate, flagelliform, 148 μm long, recurved apically. Exobothridial seta (ex) spiniform, short (7 μm) protruding from posteriolateral margin of bothridium. Prodorsum with angular polygonal reticulations.
Gastronotic Region: Length 258 μm. Gastronotic region sub-rectangular ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 a). Cuticle tuberculate. Gastronotic setae smooth spiniform, covered with narrow bacilliform-spathulate cerotegument, 18–25 μm long except thick, curved, pointed seta h 2, considerably longer (102 μm) than others. Distance between bases of setae c 1 and between f 1 sub-equal, 1.7 × that that between bases of d 1 and bases of e 1; distance between bases of setae d 2 1.3 × that between bases of setae c 1 and between those of f 1. Caudal margin concave, with large lateral apophyses bearing setae h 1 and h 2, and small median protuberance.
Subcapitulum: Mentum foveolate; gena with setae a and m 7 μm long.
Coxisternum: Epimeral plates porose, separated along sternal line by unsclerotised longitudinally striate cuticle ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 b). Epimeral setal formula 3 - 2-3 -0. Epimeral setae smooth, setiform, sub-equal in length (12–16 μm). Setae on epimeral plates I-III positioned on medial part of plate, those of plate IV near posterior margin of plate. Epimeral plates IV lacking triangular posteriomedian flange adjacent to genital plate.
Anogenital Region: Each genital plate 43 μm long, 17 μm broad, not divided transversely ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 b), with one setiform seta 15 μm in length. Genital plates surrounded by striate cuticle. Each anal plate 87 μm long, 23 μm broad, smooth. Setae of p series spiniform, smooth, seta p 3 with flat, phylliform cerotegument; p 2 considerably longer (37 μm) and thicker than p 1 (14 μm) and p 3 (15 μm).
Deutonymph. As for protonymph except as follows: Length 561 μm, breadth 273 μm. Prodorsum: Length 189 μm. Interlamellar seta (in) 29 μm long, extending as far as lateral margin of prodorsum, with bacilliform cerotegument (Fig. 8 a). Bothridial seta (bs) 169 μm long. Exobothridial seta (ex) 17 μm long, with bacilliform cerotegument. Gastronotic Region: Length 372 μm (Fig. 8 a). Gastronotic setae 30–37 μm long except seta h 2 (94 μm). Cuticle tuberculate with cerotegument of crenellated plaques (Fig. 8 c). Distance between bases of setae c 1 and c 1 and c 2 sub-equal, 0.8 × that between bases of f 1 and bases of e 1, 0.7 × that that between bases of d 1; distance between bases of setae d 2 1.5 × that between bases of setae c 1 and between those of f 1. Caudal margin transverse, with shallow lateral apophyses bearing setae h 1 and h 2, without median protuberance. Subcapitulum: Gena with setae a and m 1-2. Coxisternum: Epimeral setal formula 4 - 3-4 - 2 (Fig. 8 b). Anogenital Region: Each genital plate 56 μm long, 22 μm broad, not divided transversely (Fig. 8 b), with four smooth, setiform setae, sub-equal in length (13–18 μm). Each anal plate 131 μm long, 25 μm broad, sparingly tuberculate. Adanal setae spiniform, 22–31 μm long, with bacilliform cerotegument. Setae of p series with bacilliform cerotegument; p 2 and p 3 sub-equal in length (22 μm), p 1 longer (33 μm).
Tritonymph. As for deutonymph except as follows: length 803 μm, breadth 392 μm. Prodorsum: Length 200 μm. Rostral seta (ro) straight, smooth, spiniform, 28 μm long. Lamellar seta (le) 24 μm long ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 a). Gastronotic Region: Length 603 μm ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 a). Gastronotic setae with bacilliform or spathulate cerotegument, 47–66 μm long except seta h 2 (132 μm) ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 a). Distance between bases of setae c 1 and c 1 and c 2, and c 1 and d 1 sub-equal, 0.8 × that between bases of f 1 and bases of e 1; distance between bases of setae d 2 2 × that between bases of setae c 1 and between those of f 1. Caudal margin transverse. Coxisternum: Epimeral setal formula 5 - 3-5 - 4 ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 b). Anogenital Region: Each genital plate 72 μm long, 32 μm broad, not divided transversely ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 b), with seven smooth, setiform setae, 17–22 μm long; g 4 displaced laterally. Each anal plate 192 μm long, 44 μm broad, sparingly tuberculate. Adanal setae spiniform, 28–33 μm long, with bacilliform cerotegument. Setae of p series with bacilliform cerotegument; p 2 and p 3 24 μm long, p 1 44 μm.
Material examined. Holotype female, two paratype males, ANIC 3757, sifted litter and mossy logs, rain forest with Eucalyptus sp., State Forest, 2.2 km N.E. of Corinna, Tasmania, 41 ° 38 ' 43 "S 145 °05' 50 "E., 45 m., coll. T. Weir & C. Lemann, 14.iii. 2008. Three paratype females, five paratype males, ANIC 668, leaf litter, 7 km W.N.W. of Mount Field West, Tasmania, 42 ° 38 'S 146 ° 26 'E, 460 m., coll. J. Lawrence & T. Weir, 1.ii. 1980. Two paratype females, six paratype males, FM (HD) 77-157, Acacia litter, Florentine Valley, 32 km. N.E. of Maydena, Tasmania, 213 m., coll. J. Kethley, 19.ii. 1977. Non-type material: 11 nymphs, FM (HD) 77-157. Holotype and paratypes from Mt. Field West deposited in the Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Canberra, Two paratypes from Mt. Field West in Roy A. Norton Collection, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse. Paratypes from Florentine Valley in Field Museum, Chicago.
Etymology. The specific name is a Latin composite from glaber meaning ‘hairless’ and saeta meaning ‘bristle’, referring to the smooth setae of the h and p series, lacking barbs.
Remarks. Novonothrus glabriseta differs from other members of the genus by the following combination of characters: 1) all notogastral setae smooth and pointed, with or without bacilliform cerotegument; 2) epimeral setal formula 5 - 4-6 - 5; 3) notogastral cuticle with small, broadly-spaced alveoli, connected by thin hyaline cuticle; 4) rostral and lamellar setae are relatively long, subequal; 5) setae of femur I are smooth; 6) setae c 2-3 are shorter than c 1; 7) the ventral margin of the notogaster has a V-shaped median notch; 8) adoral seta or 2 are flagelliform apically; 8) Tarsus I with 38 setae.
The immatures are associated with the adults of N. glabriseta based on their presence in the same samples, with no other Novonothrus spp., the smooth notogastral setae and the morphology of the notogastral alveoli. The nymphal stages of N. glabriseta differ from those of N. coronospinosus in having markedly elongate setae h 2, as in some nymphs and adults of the genus Nothrus ( Seniczak & Zelazna, 1992; Seniczak & Norton, 1993; Badejo et al., 2002). In other Novonothrus spp. for which nymphs have been described, setae h 2 are the same length as the other notogastral setae.
Novonothrus glabriseta is morphologically similar to N. puyehue Casanueva & Norton, 1997 . Both have a rounded caudal margin and all the notogastral setae are smooth and pointed. These are the only two species with this combination of characters. Another species from Chile, N. kethleyi Casanueva & Norton, 1998 , also has all the notogastral setae smooth and pointed and is monodactylous, but it has a tri-lobed caudal margin and the notogastral setae are much shorter than those of N. glabriseta and N. puyehue . Novonothrus glabriseta differs from N. puyehue in the expanded lateral prodorsum, the pattern of the notogastral cuticle, the number of setae on Tarsus I and the median notch on the ventral margin of the notogaster.
Novonothrus glabriseta is the species recorded as Novonothrus flagellatus Hammer 1966 from Australia by Palmer & Norton (1991, p. 79), as catalogued by Colloff & Halliday (1998), based on my examination of the specimens collected by Kethley from Tasmania (cf. Material Examined, above) and used by Palmer & Norton (1991) for sex-ratio determination.
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