Cymbionotum Baudi di Selve 1864,

Ball, George E. & Shpeley, Danny, 2005, Taxonomic review of the Tribe Melaenini (Coleoptera: Carabidae), with observations on morphological, ecological and chorological evolution, Zootaxa 1099 (1), pp. 1-120: 1-120

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.1099.1.1

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Cymbionotum Baudi di Selve 1864


Cymbionotum Baudi di Selve 1864 

Synonymy. See following treatment of subgenus Cymbionotum  .

Recognition. In general form, adults of Cymbionotum  ( Fig. 1BView FIGURE 1) resemble small adults of Siagona Latreille. However  , they exhibit the features of the tribe Melaenini  (see above), and are recognized by the following combination of character states: overall size small (length ca. 3–7 mm); body form depressed, broad, pedunculate; integument generally setose; color pale (though elytra of some species bicolored); vertex of head with distinct postocular transverse sulcus; head with two pairs of supraorbital setae, mandibular scrobes each with several setae; pronotum with two pairs of lateral setae; elytral surface virtually smooth, striae absent or very shallowly impressed.

Description. Adult, with character states of tribe Melaenini  , and recognition features of Cymbionotum  , restricted and/or amplified as follows. Color of body black to rufotestaceous, elytra concolorous or bicolored. Body form depressed. Antennae and mouthparts rufotestaceous to testaceous, concolorous. Legs rufotestaceous.

Microsculpture. Dorsal surface generally with isodiametric mesh pattern, microlines shallow; or microlines absent, except in postocular transverse impression of dorsal surface of head ( Fig. 11CView FIGURE 11, poi) with isodiametric to slightly transverse mesh pattern, or smooth, without microlines; or microlines absent, surface without evident mesh pattern. Scutellum with mesh pattern isodiametric to slightly transverse, microlines confined to anterior area, or generally distributed; or completely smooth, without microlines. Middle tibia ( Fig. 13DView FIGURE 13, ifs)with mesh pattern on inner surface elongate,sculpticells flat,microlines not fimbriate. Luster. Body surface dull or shiny.

Punctation and vestiture (cf. Figs. 2A–FView FIGURE 2, 3A–FView FIGURE 3, 11A–CView FIGURE 11). Body surface generally punctate and setose, elytral punctures relatively small ( Figs. 2B–EView FIGURE 2) to large ( Fig. 2FView FIGURE 2), and sparse ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3), intermediate ( Fig. 3BView FIGURE 3), dense ( Figs. 3C–EView FIGURE 3), and very dense ( Fig. 2AView FIGURE 2, 3FView FIGURE 3); elytral setae short ( Figs. 2B–CView FIGURE 2), intermediate ( Figs. 2D–EView FIGURE 2), or long ( Fig. 2FView FIGURE 2). Head posteriad eyes each side with row of anteriorly directed setae ( Fig. 11BView FIGURE 11). Proepipleuron with row of up­turned setae ( Figs. 11A–CView FIGURE 11). All antennomeres setose; all setae relatively long and not especially dense ( Figs. 11D–GView FIGURE 11).

Fixed setae (body sclerites, mouthparts, elytra). Head capsule with two pairs of supraorbital setae. Mouthparts: mandible with several setae in scrobe ( Figs. 12A–DView FIGURE 12, pss, sss); glossal sclerite distally quadrisetose ( Fig. 13AView FIGURE 13, gs). Pronotum with two pairs of lateral setae. Elytra dorsally without parascutellar or discal setae. Abdominal sterna IV– VII each with pair of setae near posterior margin.

Head ( Figs. 11A–CView FIGURE 11). Wide, dorsal surface slightly convex, with distinct transverse impression posteriad eyes ( Fig. 11CView FIGURE 11, poi); clypeus with anterior margin evenly curved, almost straight ( Figs. 11A–BView FIGURE 11), or more markedly concave, with dentiform projection ( Fig. 11CView FIGURE 11, ct) in both sexes, or only in males; frontoclypeal suture not evident, frontal impressions hardly indicated, or broad and shallow; frontovertex each side laterad eye with slightly elevated longitudinal ridge extended posteriorly to postocular transverse impression; supraorbital ridge sharp, each side sinuously extended anteriorly to mandibular fossa, here joined to apex of fronto­vertical ridge, and posteriolaterally extended to postocular transverse impression.

Antennae. Nearly moniliform ( Fig. 1BView FIGURE 1), shorter, extended to about basal third of elytra. Antennomere 2 pyriform ( Fig. 11DView FIGURE 11) or globose ( Fig. 11EView FIGURE 11); antennomeres variously proportioned: 2–4 and 11 slightly longer than wide, antennomeres 5–10 slightly longer than wide, slightly ( Fig. 11FView FIGURE 11) or markedly ( Fig. 11GView FIGURE 11) asymmetric.

Mouthparts ( Figs. 12A–LView FIGURE 12, 13A–CView FIGURE 13). Labrum dorsally ( Fig. 12IView FIGURE 12) with anterior margin broadly and shallowly concave, or more deeply and angularly so ( Figs. 11A–CView FIGURE 11). Epipharynx ( Fig. 12JView FIGURE 12): pedium (ped) triangular, approximately isosceles, with broad base along distal margin; parapedial projection (pp) obtuse; extra parapedial setae (eps) mediad parapedial ridge (pr); coeloconic sensilla (cs) relatively few.

Left mandible, dorsal surface ( Fig. 12BView FIGURE 12) with anterior retinacular tooth not evident, from dorsal aspect. Maxilla as in Figs. 12K–LView FIGURE 12. Labium ( Figs. 13A–CView FIGURE 13): paraglossae (pg), surface with extensive covering of seta­like microtrichia ( Fig. 13BView FIGURE 13, mtr); in dorsal aspect ( Fig. 13CView FIGURE 13), distal portion of glossal sclerite (gsap) small, relative to medial portion (gsmp).

Prothorax. Pronotum ( Figs. 1BView FIGURE 1, 14View FIGURE 14) cup­like in outline from dorsal perspective, lateral margins not beaded, more or less sinuate posteriorly; posteriolateral angles rectangular to acute, prominently projected; lateral grooves narrow; posterior margin beaded or not; proepipleuron evident (at least posteriorly) in dorsal aspect; disc almost flat, lateral declivity each side slightly sloped.

Elytra ( Figs. 1BView FIGURE 1, 2AView FIGURE 2). Dorsal surface plane for most of length, apical declivity gradually sloped; basal ridge narrow, not extended to edge of scutellum, anteriorly smooth, not angulate; stria 1 shallow, striae 2–8 not or hardly evident; intervals flat.

Hind wings ( Fig. 15AView FIGURE 15). Macropterous. Wedge cell absent. Veins RP 3 + 4 and AA 3 + 4 absent. Vein MP 4 less than half length of MP 3.

Legs. Middle tibia with distinct distal brush of setae ( Fig. 13DView FIGURE 13, mtb). Unguitractor plate ( Fig. 13EView FIGURE 13, up) narrow.

Male genitalia ( Figs. 15B–D, 15FView FIGURE 15, 17D–E, 17I–K, 19C–D, 19G–H, 19K, 19O, 22D). Endophallus with sclerite x much shorter than median lobe, or absent; microtrichial field various, from very small to large; parameres ( Figs. 15C–DView FIGURE 15) distally glabrous.

Ovipositor ( Figs. 13F–JView FIGURE 13). Ramus about 0.5–0.8 length of gonocoxite 1. Laterotergite IX ( Fig. 15EView FIGURE 15, lt) without anteriorly directed apophysis. Gonocoxa dimerous, gonocoxites 1 and 2 subequal ( Fig. 13FView FIGURE 13, gc1, 2), gonocoxite 2 dorsally with pair of trichoid setae in lateral aspect ( Fig. 13GView FIGURE 13, dts), dorsal margins curved; narrow in outline, distal margin narrowly rounded ( Figs. 13H–IView FIGURE 13), ventral surface smooth, each side with row of coeloconic sensilla ( Fig. 13GView FIGURE 13, cs).

Female internal genitalia ( Fig. 15EView FIGURE 15). Spermathecal duct much longer than spermathecal reservoir (sp), latter reniform.

Included taxa. This genus includes two subgenera: Procoscinia  , n. subg., and Cymbionotum (sensu stricto)  .

Habitat. The members of Cymbionotum  occupy the five vegetation zones occupied by the tribe Melaenini  , with concentration in temperate grassland and tropical deciduous forest and savannah vegetation zones (Table 17)

Geographical distribution ( Figs. 16View FIGURE 16, 18, 20, 21, 23). The range of this genus, including both Western and Eastern Hemispheres, is co­extensive with the range of tribe Melaenini  .