Cymbionotum (sensu stricto),

Ball, George E. & Shpeley, Danny, 2005, Taxonomic review of the Tribe Melaenini (Coleoptera: Carabidae), with observations on morphological, ecological and chorological evolution, Zootaxa 1099 (1), pp. 1-120: 1-120

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.1099.1.1

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Cymbionotum (sensu stricto)


Cymbionotum (sensu stricto) 

Coscinia Dejean 1831: 478  (not Hübner 1822). TYPE SPECIES: Siagona schueppelii Dejean 1831  (designated by Bedel 1897). —Chaudoir 1876: 118.

Cymbionotum Baudi di Selve 1864: 212  . TYPE SPECIES: Cymbionotum collare Baudi di Selve 1864  = Coscinia semelederi Chaudoir 1851  (designated by original monotypy).—Marschall 1873: 187.—Andrewes, 1933: 3.—1935: 18.

Graniger Chaudoir 1871: 282  (not Motschulsky 1864). TYPE SPECIES: G. algirinus Motschulsky 1864  .—Semenov, 1903: 169.—Csiki, 1929: 477.

Cymbionostrum (misspelling) Burgeon 1937: 395.

Notes about synonymy. The generic name Coscinia Dejean  was a junior homonym of Coscinia Hübner  , and was thus not available for use by Dejean (Chaudoir 1871). Claiming incorrectly that G. algirinus  , the type species of Graniger  , was conspecific with Coscinia semelederi, Chaudoir  proposed Graniger  as a substitute name for Coscinia  . This proposal was generally accepted by subsequent authors. Andrewes (1933), based on study of the types involved, recognized that G. algirinus  was a ditomine harpaline, and thus the generic name Graniger  was unavailable for use as proposed by Chaudoir. That left Cymbionotum  as the name available to replace Coscinia Dejean. 

Recognition. Precinctive in the Eastern Hemisphere, adults of this subgenus have the posteriolateral dentiform projections close to the posterior margin of the pronotum ( Fig. 14BView FIGURE 14). The posterior margin of the pronotum is beaded or not ( C. striatum  , only), and the proepipleuron (pep) is visible from a dorsal perspective ( Fig. 14BView FIGURE 14; cf. Fig. 14AView FIGURE 14). Males have sclerite x of the endophallus about one eighth length of phallus, and in infolded position near the basal lobe (Figs. 17D–E, 17I, x), or sclerite x is absent.

Descriptive notes. Size and ratios of body parts ( Tables 3–9). Size range (SBL and EW, Tables 3 and 4) extends over the range of the genus. Pronotum relatively narrow, values for PL/PWM ( Table 7) 0.75 or more; base relatively narrow, values for ratio PWB/ PWA ( Table 9) 0.82 or less.

Color. Dorsal surface and appendages with range same as for genus, but with paler colors predominant.

Microsculpture. Most of dorsal surface without microlines, smooth; postocular transverse impression of head smooth or with mesh pattern isodiametric to slightly transverse; scutellum with mesh pattern evident throughout, more or less isodiametric, or microlines in anterior part only, posterior part smooth, or surface entirely smooth.

Vestiture. Dorsal surface with setae short to long ( Table 1 and Figs. 2B–D, 2FView FIGURE 2), setation very sparse to moderately dense ( Figs. 3A–EView FIGURE 3).

Head. Clypeus: anterior margin medially with ( Fig. 11CView FIGURE 11) or without ( Figs. 11A–BView FIGURE 11) a dentiform projection, or distinct swelling.

Antennae. Antennomere 2 globose ( Fig. 11EView FIGURE 11), relatively short (about half length of antennomere 3), or pyriform ( Fig. 11DView FIGURE 11), and relatively longer (about two thirds length of antennomere 3, Table 11); antennomeres 5–10 moderately ( Fig. 11FView FIGURE 11) to markedly ( Fig. 11GView FIGURE 11) asymmetrical.

Labrum. Anterior margin rather deeply, subangularly concave ( Figs. 11A–CView FIGURE 11).

Included taxa. This subgenus includes 18 species arranged in three species groups and three superspecies.

Habitat. Like Cymbionotum  (sensu lato), the members of Cymbionotum (sensu stricto)  occupy the five vegetation zones occupied by the tribe Melaenini  , with a concentration in temperate grassland and tropical deciduous forest and savannah vegetation zones (Table 17 and Fig. 24), and marginal to the desert/semi­desert zone.

Geographical distribution. The range of Cymbionotum (sensu stricto)  ( Figs. 16View FIGURE 16, 18,

20, 21, 23) is confined to the warmer parts of the Eastern Hemisphere, principally north of the Tropic of Capricorn.

Relationships and chorological affinities This subgenus is the more derived putative adelphotaxon of subgenus Procoscinia  , from which it is isolated geographically.