Prunus hypoxantha (Koehne) J.Wen (Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 164: 243. 2010)., (Koehne) J. Wen (Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 164: 243. 2010).

Wen, Jun & Shi, Wenting, 2012, Revision of the Maddenia clade of Prunus (Rosaceae), PhytoKeys 11, pp. 39-59: 43-46

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.11.2825

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/22B7A858-B194-5C46-B90C-0633ED4E05CE

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scientific name

Prunus hypoxantha (Koehne) J.Wen (Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 164: 243. 2010).
status

 

2. Prunus hypoxantha (Koehne) J.Wen (Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 164: 243. 2010).   Fig. 2 View Figure 2

Basionym.

Maddenia hypoxantha   Koehne (in C. S. Sargent, Pl. Wilson. 1: 57. 1911).

Type.

China. Sichuan: western Sichuan, southeast of Tachien-lu, 6-9000 ft, May 1908, E.H. Wilson 909 (holotype: A!, specimen barcode 00026559; isotypes: A!, 2 sheets, E!, K!, US!).

Maddenia wilsonii   Koehne (in C. S. Sargent, Pl. Wilson. 1: 58. 1911). non Prunus wilsonii   (C.K.Schneid.) Koehne. Type: China. Hubei: western Hupeh, Apr 1907, E.H.Wilson 63 (lectotype: A!, specimen barcode 00026560, here designated; isolectotypes: A!, BM!, 2 sheets, E!, K!, 2 sheets, US!).

Description.

Shrubs to trees 1.5-10 (-15) m tall. Branches purple to dark purple, slightly pubescent; branchlets of first year’s growth densely pubescent. Winter buds purple brown, ovoid; scales to 3-20 × 3-12 mm, broadly to narrowly ovate, pubescent to slightly so on the outside surface, margin entire to slightly glandular on the upper scales. Stipules lanceolate, 12-22 × 2-6 mm, membranaceous or herbacious, caduceus, margin often with glandular teeth, especially on the lower part of the margin, apex acuminate to acute, base rounded or truncate. Petioles 2-4 mm, densely pubescent. Leaves elliptic to ovate, 4.5-14 × 2.5-6 cm, abaxially light green, pubescent or densely so especially on veins, adaxially dull green, sparsely pubescent with scattered short hairs and/or along the veins; margin mainly doubly irregularly serrate to doubly serrullate, glandularly serrulate at the lower part of the base with 2-15 glandular fine teeth; apex acute, attenuate or acuminate, base broadly cuneate to occasionally subcordate; secondary veins 16-20 on each side of midvein. Racemes 2.5-5 cm, 10-18-flowered; bracts broadly lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 5-12 × 1.5-4.5 mm, membranaceous, often caduceus, margin sparsely with glandular teeth, more or less pubescent on both surfaces. Pedicel 2-4 mm at anthesis, pubescent to densely so. Hypanthium campanulate, 3-4.5 × 3-6 mm, densely brownish pubescent outside, glabrous inside. Perianth segments 10, narrowly triangular to oblong-lanceolate, 1.8-2.4 × 0.8-1.1 mm, caduceus, densely pubescent. Stamens 25-35, 5-7.5 mm long; filaments 5-7 mm; anthers oblong, light yellow, 0.5-0.6 × 0.4-0.5 mm. Ovary glabrous, 1- or rarely 2-locular. Style slender, 7-9 mm long. Drupe ovoid, 7-10 × 4-5.5 mm, glabrous, dark purple to black.

Distribution.

Western to central China.

Ecology.

Forests. Fl Apr-May; fr Jun-Sep; 1800-3800 m.

Specimens examined.

China. Locality & Date unknown, Collector unknown s.n. (E, speciemen barcode # E00419991). Gansu: Yongdeng Xian, Tulugou, Liancheng Forest Farm, Qilian Mountain, 2300 m, in clefts of rocks along stream, fruits black, 8 Jul 1991, fr, T.-N.Ho 1841 (CAS). Zhang Xian, Hedi, mountain slope, 4 Jun 1956, fr, Huanghe Team 4663 (PE). Hubei: Patung, Oct 1887, A.Henry 3759 (A, BM, K). Sichuan: Kam pars orientalis [probably in Sichuan], 1893, G.N.Potanin s.n. (A). Feb 1890, A.Henry 8952 (K); Sichuan, 26 Apr 1982, Collector unknown 41699 (CDB, 3 sheets). Ta-hsiang-ling, 2200-2500 m, 22 May 1028, H.Smith 2151 (A). Erjishan, Maliuqiao, shrub 2.5 m, fruit green, 7 Jun 1957, Forestry Team of Sichuan Agric. Colleage 5064 (CDB). Lianghokow, slope 7500 ft, tree, fruit a berry, Aug 1938, T.K.Wang & T.S.Wen 0670 (A). West Szechuen and Tibetan Frontier, chiefly near Tachienlu, 9000-13500 ft, Dec 1890, A.E.Pratt 837 (A, BM, E); Szechuen and Tibetan Frontier, chiefly near Tachienlu, 9000-13500 ft, Dec 1890, A.E.Pratt 313 (BM). Jinyangbo, Luoliangzi, 3100 m, 16 May 1959, Sichuan Economic Plant Expedition 3014 (CDB, 2 sheets). Pao-Hsin-hsien, former Mupin, Apr-Aug, 1954, T.P.Soong 38472 (IBSC); Pao-hsin-hsien, former Mupin, 1954, T.P.Soong 38226 (IBSC); Baoxing, 1933, T.T. Yü 1908 (IBSC, PE); Pao-hsin-hsien, formerly Mupin, 1954, T.P.Soong 38543 (PE); Szechuan, Mupin, May 1908, E.H.Wilson 2851 (A, E, K); Baoxing Xian, 2500 m, 29 Apr 1959, H.Y.Chuan 0237 (CDB); Baoxing Xian, 2700 m, tree, 5 m, leaves adaxially dark green, abaxially light green, fruit black, 16 Jun 1958, Collector unknown 5611 (CDB 3 sheets); Baoxing Xian, Denglonggou, 2300 m, tree 4 m, 12 Jun 1958, Collector unknown 5353 (CDB, 2 sheets); Baoxing Xian, 3100 m, leaves ovate, abaxially white and pubescent, stipule with needle-like hairs, 15 Jun 1958, Collector unknown 5404 (CDB 2 sheets). Peiping, China, Mt. Omei, Jul 1931, F.T.Wang 23489 (IBSC, 2 sheets); Emei Shi: Mt. Omei, Y.H.Tau 50455 (IBSC); Mt. Omei, 27 Jun 1940, W.P.Fang 14599 (A); Mt. Omei, 2700-3000 m, in thicket, shrub, 5-10 ft, Jul-Aug 1931, F.T.Wang 23489 (A); Mt. Omei, Y.S.Shiao 48551 (IBSC); Mt. Omei, Y.S.Shiao 48677 (IBSC); Mt. Omei, Y.S.Shiao 48712 (IBSC); Mt. Emei, Leidongping, 29°32'37.3"N, 103°19'43.3"E, 2410 m, 17 Jul 2011, fr, J. Wen 12077 (US); Mt. Emei, on the way from Jingding to Taizhiping, tree 3 m, 29°31'38.7"N, 103°19'53.7"E, 2981 m, 17 Jul 2011, fr, J. Wen 12087 (US); Mt. Emei, Taizhiping, 17 Jul 2011, J. Wen 12089 (US); Mt. Emei, Luohanpo, on the way from Chudian to Zhanglaoping, 29°34'34.6"N, 103°21'46.8"E, 1499 m, 18 Jul 2011, J. Wen 12140 (US); Mt. Omei, Leidongping, tree 4 m, 12 Aug 1957, G.H.Yang 56615 (IBSC); Mt. Omei, 2800 m, slope, tree 3 m, flower green, stinky, 9 May 1964, K.J.Guan et al. 427 (CDB, IBSC); Mt. Omei, Xixiangchi, tree 5 ft, 26 Apr 1952, J.H.Hsiung et al. 30189 (IBSC); Mt. Omei, Qixing Po, 2600 m, in forest, tree 10 m, 24 Jun 1995, H.G.Xu 2140 (MO); Mt. Omei, Tai-tzu-ning, fl white, scented, 9 Jun 1939, S. C. Sun & K. Chang 115 (A); Mt. Omei, Chiu-Lao Tung, moist shady rock, shrub, fruit black, 14 Jun 1939, S.C.Sun & K.Chang 224 (A); Mt. Omei, in thickets, shrub 3 m high, common, 10 May 1941, W.P.Fang 16540 (A); Mt. Omei, Paiyunssu, on hill slope, 28 Jul 1938, H.C.Chow 7895 (A); Mt. Omei, Taiziping, 2916 m, shrub 2 m high, flower over, 18 Jun 1942, W.P.Fang 18985 (CAS); Omei, Taiziping, 2900 m, tree 4 m, flower yellow, H.G.Xu 1993122 (MO); Omei, 26 Jun 1960, H.Y.Yi 12555 (CDB); Omei Hsien, Mt. Omei, 16 Jul 1940, T.C.Lee 2891 (US); Mt. Omei, Leidongze, 2500 m, small shrub 1.5 m, high, flowers over, 16 May 1931, W.P.Fang 18811 (A); Mt. Omei, Jun 1904, E.H.Wilson 4857 (A, BM, K); W. Szechuan, Mt. Omei, Chinting, on hill slope, 3035 m, shrub 2 m, 1938, H.C.Chow 7662 (A); Emei Shi, Emei Shan, Jingding, 25 Jun 1955, fr, China - Soviet Expedition 2356 (IBSC, PE). Hanyuan Hsien, 1400 m, 17 Apr 1930, fl, W.C.Cheng 659 (BM, IBSC, PE, 2 sheets, US); Hanyuan-hsien, 20 Apr 1930, W.C.Cheng 705 (BM, IBSC, US). Hongya Xian, 1950 m, 27 Aug 1994, Bao et al. 2524 (CDB, 2 sheets); Hongya Xian, Huangshi Gou, tree 1.5-2 m, 1770 m, 4 Jun 1994, Zi et al. 1899 (CDB, 2 sheets); Hungya Hsien, Wa-wu-shan, shrub 5 ft, 16 Jul 1931, immature fr, T.T. Yü 289 (PE). Kangding Xian, Hebinxiang, 3300 m, tree 3 ft, 2 Jun 1953, Tsiang & Hgiung 35832 (IBSC); Kangding Xian, Zheduo Shan, Zheduotang, 3160 m, tree 2 m tall, 25 Jun 1953, fr, W.P.Fang et al. 36084 (PE); Kangding Xian, 2880 m, 14 May 1981, Z.Y.Chen, 112044 (A, E); Kangding Xian, 3000 m, 8 May 1981, Z.J.Zhao 113923 (A, CDB, E, K); Kangding Xian, Kangdingqu, Sheduoshan, 2800 m, Collector unknown 15013 (CDB, 4 sheets); Kangding Xian, Zheduoshan, 3100 m, Q.S.Zhao & Z.Z.Tan 119196 (CDB); Kangding Guzan Dapingshan, 2950 m, 3 Jun 1974, Kao & Wu 111489 (CDB); Kangding Xian, Ganhaizi, 3600 m, shrub 1.5 m, 29 May 1974, B.S.Qin 06136 (CDB, 3 sheets); Kangding Xian, Kongyuqu, 3300 m, 31 May 1974, Collector unknown 05344 (CDB, 3 sheets); Kangding Xian, May 1904, E.H.Wilson 3520 (A, BM, K); Kangding, Kongyuqu, 3500 m, 2 May 1974, Chao & Wu 110869 (CDB); Kangding, 2900 m, 19 May 1974, Y.T.Wu & Q. S. Zhao 111033 (CDB); Kangding, Xianglinxiang, 3000 m, tree 3 ft, 13 Jun 1953, H.L.Tsiang 35954 (IBSC). West of Kuan Hsien, 2230 m, on slope, shrub 10 ft, branchlets brown, fruit ovate-elliptic, 15 May 1930, F.T.Wang 20842 (A, IBSC); west of Kuan Hsien, ridge of thicket, 2600 m, 16 May 1930, F.T.Wang 20882 (A, IBSC). Leibo Xian, 2200 m, by Highway 284, tree 10-15 m, leaf green, stem brown, flower light yellow, filament light green, 8 May 1983, fl, Q.-S. Zhao et al. 118401 (CDB); Leibo Xian, mountain of Gudui Shan, 2300 m, 12 May 1965, K.T.Xiang & F.Y.Wang 11521 (CDB, 2 sheets); Leibo Xian, Huangmaogeng, 19 Jun 1959, fr, 2800 m, tree 3 m, Sichuan Economic Plants Expedition 0782 (PE). Li Xian, Miyaluo, north of the town of Miyaluo on highway 213, 31°43'32"N, 100°44'39"E, 3000-3200 m, mixed deciduous broad leaved-coniferous forest with Tilia   , Acer   , Prunus   , Betula   , Tsuga   , Picea   , Abies   , Pinus   and Larix   , along stream, small tree ca. 5 m tall, fruit black, 8 Sep 1997, Boufford et al. 27976 (A); NW Sichuan, Mao Xian & Li Xian, former Lifan Xian, 1952, T.He & Z.L.Zhou 12553 (IBSC); Li-hsien (Li-fan-hsien), tree 6 ft, branchlet green and pubescent, 10 May 1952, C.Ho & T.L.Cho 12315 (IBSC). Luding Xian, 2800 m, tree 3.5 m, G.H.Xu 25514 (CDB); Luding Xian, top of Erlang Mountain, 2900 m, 29 May 1974, fl, Sichuan Luding Team 6863 (CDB, 3 sheets); Luding Xian, 2300 m, shrub 2-3 m, 21 Apr 1984, Cao et al. 045 (CDB, 3 sheets); Luding Xian, 3800 m, in forest, 13 Sep 1980, Collector unknown 23510 (CDB 2 sheets); Luding Xian, shrub 2 m, Zhibei Team 41616 (CDB, 3 sheets); Luding Xian, Moxigongshe, 2900 m, shrub 3-4 m, 10 Jun 1980, Q.C.Wang & Z.A.Liu 22250 (CDB, 2 sheets, IBSC); Luding Xian, Hongxigongshe, 2200 m, tree 6 m, G.H.Xu 25372 (CDB, 2 sheets); Luding Xian, Yaoxigongshe, tree 2 m, 4 Aug 1982, Zhibei Team 42068 (CDB, 3 sheets); Luding Xian, Hongxi, 26 Apr 1982, Zhibei Team 41698 (CDB 4 sheets); Luding Xian, 2300 m, X.H.Hu & Q.C.Wang 22078 (CDB, 2 sheets); Luding Xian, Hongxigongshe, 2300 m, tree 5 m, 22 Apr 1981, Collector unknown 225112 (CDB, 3 sheets). Mapien Hsien, 3200 m, in thickets, small tree to shrub, 10-20 ft, bark blackish to dark brown, 26 May 1931, fl, F.T.Wang 22942 (A, PE). Meigu Xian, Huangmaogeng, 2450 m, 14 May 1983, J.Y.He & Q.S.Zhao 116772 (CDB). Mao Wen, Wolong Boshan, 2400 m, small tree 3-4 m, Dec 1963, H.C.Lee 2126 (CDB, 3 sheets). Baiyangxiang (Songpan), Baiziyawo, 1800 m, shrub 2.5-3 m, branchlet green and pubescent, abaxially pubescent on mid-vein, 7 May 1962, Yuan 0558 (CDB). Shih-mien-hsien, 1955, C.C.Hsieh 40278 (IBSC); Shih-mien-hsien, 1955, C.C.Hsieh 41335 (IBSC); Shih-mien-hsine, 1955, C.C.Hsieh 40287 (IBSC); Shih-mien-hsien, 1955, C.C.Hsieh 41145 (IBSC). Tianquan Xian, Niudingtou, 2890 m, 5 Aug 1982, Collector unknown 46017 (CDB); Tianquan Xian, Erlangshan, tree 3-5 m, 23 Jun 1951, W.P.Fang et al. 10078 (PE); Tianquan Xian, Erlangshan, 2300 m, 30 Apr 1980, Z.G.Liu & Y.B.Yang 21701 (CDB, 3 sheets, IBSC); Tianquan Xian, Erlangshan, 3300 ft, 19 May 1953, H.L.Tsiang 34169 (IBSC); Tianquan Xian, 2600 m, 5 May 1980, fl, Collector unknown 21795 (CDB, 3 sheets); Tien-chuan Hsien, 3500 m, 14 Jun 1936, K.L.Chu 2801 (E, IBSC). Xichang Xian, Luojishan, 2600 m, evergreen forest, shrub 5 m, Y.J.Li 730 (CDB, 2 sheets).

Cultivated plants.

U.K. England. Cultivated at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, source from E.H.Wilson 909, May 1924, J.C.Williams s.n. (K).

Discussion.

Koehne (1911) described both Maddenia hypothanxa   and Maddenia wilsonii   . Maddenia wilsonii   was described to be densely pubescent on the lower leaf surface whereas Maddenia hypxantha   was pubescent only on veins. We have found a wide range of variation on the lower leaf pubescence. Furthermore, the lectotype E.H.Wilson 63 of Maddenia wilsonii   collected from western Hubei bears very small bracts, small stipules and tomentose lower leaves. Yet the syntype E.H. Wilson 2851 (A, E, K) collected from Mupin, Sichuan has larger bracts, bigger stipules and pilose lower leaves. The holotype of Maddenia hypoxantha   (E.H. Wilson 909) has bigger bracts, bigger stipules and hirsutulous lower leaf only on veins. Koehne (1911) indicated that the holotype of Maddenia hypoxantha   (E.H. Wilson 909, A) was a mixed collection of Maddenia hypoxantha   and Maddenia wilsonii   . We examined the specimen and found that the differences between the two branches on the same sheet seem to be extremely indistinguishable. Lu et al. (2003) used size of bud scales, stipule shape, stipule appearance and bract shape, to separate the two “species”. We found that it is difficult to use these characters to consistently separate the two “species”. We herein treat Maddenia wilsonii   as a synonym of Prunus hypoxantha   .

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Angiospermae

Class

Dicotyledoneae

Order

Rosales

Family

Rosaceae

Genus

Prunus