Hogna insularum (Kulczynski, 1899)

Crespo, Luis C., Silva, Isamberto, Enguidanos, Alba, Cardoso, Pedro & Arnedo, Miquel, 2022, Island hoppers: Integrative taxonomic revision of Hogna wolf spiders (Araneae, Lycosidae) endemic to the Madeira islands with description of a new species, ZooKeys 1086, pp. 84-135 : 84

publication ID

https://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1086.68015

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:89728BCE-242A-4936-9095-E9B544F8B9F7

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/22F53709-9C4C-5ECA-B94F-40A21CF3195E

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Hogna insularum (Kulczynski, 1899)
status

 

Hogna insularum (Kulczynski, 1899)  

Figures 15 View Figure 15 , 16 View Figure 16 , 17 View Figure 17

Trochosa insularum   Kulczynski, 1899: 429, pl. 9, f. 122, 126 (Dmf).

Hogna insularum   Roewer, 1959: 517, fig. 291c, d.

Hogna biscoitoi   Wunderlich, 1992: 457, figs 708-709. Syn. nov.

Hogna insularum   Wunderlich, 1995: 415, fig. 27 (m).

Types.

Hogna biscoitoi   Holotype ♂ without exact locality, Porto Santo; leg. Winkelmayer, stored at MMF, collection number 24551. Not examined.

Syntypes: Madeira • 7 ♀♀ (MIZ217320-217326). Porto Santo • 2 ♂♂ and 14 ♀♀ and 1 juvenile (MIZ217327-217343), leg. Kulczynski, stored at MIZ, collection numbers indicated above. Examined 2 ♂♂ from Porto Santo, 1 ♀ from Madeira.

Material examined.

Bugio • Planalto Sul, 32.41228°N, 16.47466°W, 1 ♂ (CRBALC0015) and 1 ♀ (CRBALC0017), 28.VI.2012, hand collecting, leg. I. Silva GoogleMaps   , 1 ♂ (CRBALC0316: LC229), 1 ♀ (CRBALC0301: LC190) and 2 juveniles (CRBALC0315: LC228, CRBALC0318: LC231), 13.IV.2017, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo. Deserta Grande • Eira , 32.50993°N, 16.50240°W, 2 juveniles (CRBALC0312: LC282), CRBALC0319: LC232), 11.IV.2017, 1 ♀ (FMNHhttp://id.luomus.fi/HLA.148894), 17.IV.2011, hand collecting, leg. I. Silva GoogleMaps   ; North end, 1 ♂ ( MMUE G7508.51), 12.VIII.1981, under stone, leg. J. Murphy   ; Pedregal (E), 32.54613°N, 16.5234°W, 1 ♀ (CRBALC0308: LC197) and 1 juvenile (CRBALC0306: LC195), 8.IV.2017, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo & I. Silva GoogleMaps   , 1 juvenile (CRBALC0285: LC185), 9.IV.2017, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo; Planalto Sul , 32.50596°N, 16.49986°W, 1 juvenile (CRBALC0413: LC284), 11.IV.2017, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo & I. Silva GoogleMaps   ; Rocha do Barbusano (S), 32.53168°N, 16.51471°W, 1 juvenile (CRBALC0262: LC175), 10.IV.2017, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo & I. Silva GoogleMaps   ; Vale da Castanheira , 1 ♂ (FMNHhttp://id.luomus.fi/HLA.148961), 23.IV.2011, hand collecting, leg. I. Silva   et al., 1 ♂ (FMNHhttp://id.luomus.fi/HLA.148976), 5.V.2011, pitfall trapping, leg. I. Silva et al., 1 ♀ (FMNHhttp://id.luomus.fi/HLA.148982), 2 ♀♀ (FMNHhttp://id.luomus.fi/HLA.148986), 22.IV.2011, hand collecting, leg. I. Silva; Vale da Castanheira (E), 32.5571°N, 16.52963°W, 1 ♂ (CRBALC0305: LC194), 9.IV.2017, hand collecting, leg. I. Silva GoogleMaps   ; Vale da Castanheira (SE), 32.55078°N, 16.52541°W, 2 ♂♂ (CRBALC0313: LC226, CRBALC0349: LC241) and 1 ♀ (CRBALC0348: LC240), 9.IV.2017, hand collecting, leg. I. Silva. Ilhéu da Cal GoogleMaps   1 ♀ ( SMF65693 View Materials ), leg. K. Groh. Ilheu de Cima   • top plateau, 33.05556°N, 16.28097°W, 1 ♀ (CRBALC0019), 9.IV.2012, hand collecting, leg. I. Silva, 1 ♂ (CRBALC0018), 22.V.2011, hand collecting, leg. I. Silva, 1 ♀ (CRBALC0302: LC191) and 4 juveniles (CRBALC0284: LC183, CRBALC0311: LC225, CRBALC0320: LC233, CRBALC0321: LC234), 19.IV.2017, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo & I. Silva. Ilheu de Ferro   South tip, 33.03698°N, 16.40814°W, 1 ♀ (CRBALC0317: LC320) and 2 juveniles (CRBALC0265: LC178, CRBALC0266: LC179), 18.IV.2017, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo & I. Silva. Ilhéu Do Desembarcadouro GoogleMaps   • 2 ♀♀ ( MMUE G7508.50), 28.VIII.1981, under stone, leg. J. Murphy. Madeira • Cais do Sardinha , 32.7419°N, 16.68317°W, 5 juveniles (CRBALC0504: LC242, CRBALC0505: LC243, CRBALC0506: LC244, CRBALC0507: LC245, CRBALC0508: LC246), 30.III.2017, hand collecting, leg. I. Silva GoogleMaps   ; Caniçal, 1 ♀ ( MMUE G7572.859), 24.IV.1973, leg. J. Murphy   ; Caniço, 1 ♀ ( MMUE G7508.58), 11.VIII.1981, under stone, leg. J. Murphy   ; Ponta de Sao Lourenco , 1 ♂ ( MMUE G7508.54), 29.VII.1981, 1 ♀ ( MMUE G7508.57), 1.VIII.1981, under stone, leg. J. Murphy   , 4 ♂♂ and 5 ♀♀ (FMNHhttp://id.luomus.fi/HLA.156001), 15.V.2011, pitfall trapping, leg. L. Crespo et al., 1 ♂ and 4 ♀♀ (FMNHhttp://id.luomus.fi/HLA.156012), 2.V.2011, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo et al., 2 ♀♀ (FMNHhttp://id.luomus.fi/HLA.156034), 26.IX.2009, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo, 1 ♀ (CRBALC0597) and 3 juveniles (CRBALC0599, CRBALC0600, CRBALC0651), 32.749965°N, 16.692817°W, 2.IV.2018, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo; Ponta do Rosto , 1 ♀ (CRBALC0513: LC251) and 3 juveniles (CRBALC0509: LC247, CRBALC0510: LC248, CRBALC512: LC250), 32.75022°N, 16.70833°W, 30.III.2017, hand collecting, leg. I. Silva. Porto Santo GoogleMaps   Rocha de Nossa Senhora , 33.07353°N, 16.3212°W, 1 ♂ (CRBALC0290: LC187) and 1 juvenile (CRBALC0291: LC188), 21.IV.2017, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo & I. Silva GoogleMaps   ; Pedras Vermelhas , 2 ♂♂ and 1 juvenile ( SMF65689 View Materials ), 7.VII.1983, leg. K. Groh   ; Pico Ana Ferreira , 33.04728°N, 16.37171°W, 1 ♂ (CRBALC0310: LC224), 1 ♀ (CRBALC0327: LC239) and 5 juveniles (CRBALC0303: LC192, CRBALC0307: LC196, CRBALC0326: LC238, CRBALC0309: LC281, CRBALC0430: LC285), 20.IV.2017, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo & I. Silva GoogleMaps   ; Pico Branco , 33.09428°N, 16.30137°W, 1 ♂ (CRBALC0304: LC193), 21.IV.2017, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo & I. Silva GoogleMaps   , 1 ♂ (CRBALC0314: LC227), 23.IV.2017, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo; Pico da Juliana , 33.09270°N, 16.32186°W, 1 juvenile (CRBALC0286: LC186), 24.IV.2017, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo GoogleMaps   ; Pico do Castelo , 33.08196°N, 16.33277°W, 2 ♀♀ (CRBALC0300: LC189, CRBALC0322: LC235) and 2 juveniles (CRBALC0267: LC180, CRBALC0268: 181), 17.IV.2017, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo & I. Silva GoogleMaps   , 1 ♂ (CRBALC0692), 8.IV.2018, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo & A. Bellvert; Pico do Concelho , 1 ♀ ( SMF65695 View Materials ), 29.VI.1983, leg. K. Groh   ; Pico do Espigao , 1 ♀ ( SMF65692 View Materials ), 1.VII.1983, leg. K. Groh   ; Pico do Facho , 1 ♀ ( SMF65694 View Materials ), 28.VI.1983, leg. K. Groh   ; Pico do Macarico [the label reads " Pico dos Magaricos ", therefore we find it necessary to present the correct locality name], 1 ♀ ( SMF65691 View Materials ), 10.VII.1983, leg. K. Groh   ; Terra-Chã (Pico Branco), 33.09447°N, 16.29839°W, 1 ♂ (CRBALC0323: LC236) and 2 juveniles (CRBALC0324: LC327, CRBALC0396: LC283), 21.IV.2017, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo & I. Silva GoogleMaps   , 4 juveniles (CRBALC0627, CRBALC0628, CRBALC0630, CRBALC0700), 10.IV.2018, hand collecting, leg. L. Crespo & A. Bellvert. Unknown location • 1 ♀ ( NHRS-JUST-000001115), 1 ♂ ( MMUE G7508.48), 28.VIII.1981, under stone, leg. J. Murphy, 1 ♂ 1 ♀ and 2 juveniles ( SMF34577 View Materials ), 1983, leg. G. Schmidt   , 1 ♂ and 1 ♀ ( SMF65690 View Materials ), hand collecting, leg. I. Silva   , 1 ♀ ( NHM 1892.7.9.12.17), leg. W.R.O. Grant.

Diagnosis.

Hogna insularum   can be diagnosed from all other Madeiran Hogna   by a combination of the following characters: the small to medium size (prosoma length < 10 mm), the aspect of its legs, brown, with black patches (Fig. 27C View Figure 27 ), male’s embolus thin, with smoothly curved tip (Fig. 15 View Figure 15 ), and female epigyne median septum roughly half as wide (at posterior transverse part) as long (Fig. 16A, C, E, G View Figure 16 ). It is most similar to H. heeri   and H. isambertoi   sp. nov., from which it cannot be somatically differentiated.

Redescription.

Male (CRBALC0310): (Fig. 15A, E, F View Figure 15 ). Total length: 7.8; carapace: 4.6 long, 3.3 wide.

Colour: carapace greyish brown, covered with short black setae, with a median cream longitudinal band, anteriorly broadened, covered with short white setae, with suffused greyish brown patches; two yellow marginal bands, with roughly round grey patches, covered with short white setae; four black striae well visible on each flank. Chelicerae brownish orange, with blackish patches, covered in black and white setae. Gnathocoxae greyish yellow, labium overall blackish, with anterior margin greyish yellow; sternum yellow, with a V-shaped grey patch and suffused patches at lateral borders. Legs pale yellow to orange from femora to tibia, with irregular grey suffused patches, metatarsi and tarsi brown. Pedipalps pale yellow except tarsus, brown. Abdomen with a pair of anterolateral black patches, extending laterally into grey flanks, mottled with yellowish patches covered with white setae; a median dark lanceolate patch is bordered by two yellowish longitudinal bands interconnected in anterior half, posteriorly by means of dark chevrons; venter yellowish, with a median dark grey longitudinal band, bordered by small yellowish and grey patches.

Eyes: MOQ: MW = 0.8 PW, MW = 1.1 LMP, MW = 1.2 AW; Cl = 0.3 DAME. Anterior eye row slightly procurved.

Legs: Measurements: Leg I: 13.6, TiI: 3.1; Leg IV: 14.9, TiIV: 3.1; TiIL/D: 5.5. Spination of Leg I: FeI: d1.1.0, p0.0.1-2; TiI: p1s.0.1s, r1s.0.1s, v2l.2l.2s; MtI: p0.1.1, r0.0.1, v2l.2l.1s. MtI with sparse scopulae in basal half and dense scopulae on distal half.

Pedipalp: cymbium with five dark, stout, macrosetae at tip, Fe with two dorsal and an apical row of four spines, Pa with one prolateral spine, Ti with one dorsal and one prolateral spines. Tegular apophysis with ventral spur short, blunt, with a straight ridge leading to a wide apical point (Fig. 15D View Figure 15 ); terminal apophysis blade-shaped with sharp end (Fig. 15A-C View Figure 15 ); embolus long and thin, with tip smoothly curved anteriorly (Fig. 15A-C View Figure 15 ); palea large (Fig. 15A-C View Figure 15 ).

Female (CRBALC0308): (Fig. 16C-D View Figure 16 ). Total length 12.8; carapace: 5.4 long, 4.1 wide.

Colour: overall as in male, but darker in legs, chelicera and prosoma. Sternum with a faint V-shaped grey patch. Abdomen is lighter, with central chevrons and ventral longitudinal dark band faded.

Eyes: MOQ: MW = 0.8 PW, MW = 1.2 LMP, MW = 1.2 AW; Cl = 0.6 DAME. Anterior eye row slightly procurved.

Legs: Measurements: Leg I: 13.8, TiI: 3.1; Leg IV: 16.0, TiIV: 3.3; TiIL/D: 3.7. Spination of Leg I: FeI: d1.1.0, p0.0.2; TiI: p0.1s.0, v2l.2l.2s; MtI: p0.0.1, r0.0.1, v2l.2l.1s. MtI with sparse scopulae in basal half and dense scopulae on distal half.

Epigyne: anterior pockets almost touching, short, with lateral borders parallel (Fig. 16C View Figure 16 ); anterior pocket cavities shallow; median septum with narrow posterior transverse part (Fig. 16C View Figure 16 ); spermathecae oval or piriform (Fig. 16D View Figure 16 ); copulatory ducts with small, stout diverticulum ventrally (Fig. 16D View Figure 16 ); fertilisation ducts emerging at the base of copulatory duct (Fig. 16D View Figure 16 ).

Intraspecific variation.

Carapace length, males: 4.6-6.4, females: 5.1-7.4. Length of cymbium tip of male pedipalp can vary from shorter to longer than the bulbus. In the single available adult female from Madeira, the anterior pockets of the epigyne show slightly divergent lateral borders (posteriorly) (Fig. 16E View Figure 16 ), while specimens from the remaining islands show parallel lateral borders.

Distribution.

This species is known from many locations on all islands of the archipelago except Madeira island, where it is only present at the southeast coastal region (Fig. 17 View Figure 17 ).

Ecology.

Hogna insularum   occurs in a wide variety of habitats, from grasslands, Erica   shrubland, to secondary forests (in the latter two cases, only in Porto Santo).

Conservation status.

Hogna insularum   was assessed according to the IUCN Red List criteria, with the status of Least Concern ( Cardoso et al. 2018c).

Comments.

Hogna insularum   displays remarkable intraspecific variation. In males, both the length of the cymbium tip and the position of the terminal apophysis relative to the embolus are variable (Fig. 15 View Figure 15 ). In females, the epigyne usually presents anterior pockets with anteriorly parallel lateral borders, but a specimen from Madeira shows a posteriorly divergent lateral border. At the same time, the shape of spermathecae seem to vary from ovoid (Fig. 16A-D View Figure 16 ), to piriform (Fig. 16E, F View Figure 16 ), to rounded (Fig. 16G, H View Figure 16 ). Wunderlich (1992) described H. biscoitoi   based on specimens from Porto Santo. To differentiate it from H. insularum   he stated that in males "the sickle-shaped apophysis points more to the tip of the cymbium" while in the former species the same structure “(…) is directed more retrolaterally". For females, although a diagnostic description was provided, the identification key directed to the same image when referring to the epigyne of both H. insularum   and H. biscoitoi   . We collected an array of specimens from different localities in Porto Santo (from Pico Ana Ferreira to Pico Branco) and surrounding islets. We did observe male pedipalps with different degrees of inclination of the terminal apophysis and with cymbium tip shorter than the length of the copulatory bulbus (Fig. 15A, C View Figure 15 ), but both characters were unlinked. We suspect that these traits may be affected by the time from the last moult (e.g., Fig. 15B View Figure 15 was most likely a recently moulted individual, given its overall pale coloration). Furthermore, fixation in ethanol might sometimes cause a displacement of sclerites, even if small. Molecular data does not seem to provide any additional evidence regarding the possibility that the specimens from Porto Santo may belong to a different species that those reported form other islands. Unfortunately, we could not examine the type material of H. biscoitoi   stored at the Funchal Municipal Museum, since it does not loan type material for study. Based on the variability in the supposedly diagnostic features and the lack of genetic divergence, we consider H. biscoitoi   as a junior synonym of H. insularum   .

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Lycosidae

Genus

Hogna

Loc

Hogna insularum (Kulczynski, 1899)

Crespo, Luis C., Silva, Isamberto, Enguidanos, Alba, Cardoso, Pedro & Arnedo, Miquel 2022
2022
Loc

Hogna biscoitoi

Wunderlich 1992
1992
Loc

Trochosa insularum

Kulczynski 1899
1899