Calantica olivacea, Applequist, Wendy L., Phillipson, Peter B. & Schatz, George E., 2014

Applequist, Wendy L., Phillipson, Peter B. & Schatz, George E., 2014, A synoptic revision of the Malagasy endemic genus Calantica Jaub. ex Tul. (Salicaceae), Adansonia (3) 36 (1), pp. 83-102 : 94-97

publication ID 10.5252/a2014n1a8


persistent identifier

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scientific name

Calantica olivacea

sp. nov.

8. Calantica olivacea View in CoL Appleq., Phillipson & G. E. Schatz, sp. nov.

( Fig. 1 View FIG )

Differs from C. cerasifolia in lanceolate to ovate, acuminate leaves, drying to a pale unmottled olive green above and pale brown beneath, and smaller inflorescences, up to 3 cm long with (4-)8-20 flowers.

TYPUS. — Madagascar. Prov. Antsiranana, fivondronana Nosy-Be, Lokobe Réserve Intégrale, Lokobe Point (Beach ), 13°24’29”S, 48°18’48”E, 0 m, 18.XII.1996, fl., Antilahi mena 348 (holo-, MO! ; iso-, G!, P!; TAN, USMS n.v.).

PARATYPI. — Madagascar. Prov.Antsiranana, Nossi-Komba (insula parva ad meridiem Nossi-Bé ), prope mare, 16.XII.1967, fl., Bernardi 11911 (MO). 100 km S of Ambanja on road to Antananarivo , 14°8’45.8”S, 48°5’25.8”E, 140 m, 10.I.2007, fl., De Block et al. 2140 (MO). Collines et plateaux calcaires de l’Analamera, 50-400 m, I.1938, fl., Humbert 19132 (P,TAN). Same loc., same date, fl., Humbert 19235 (P). Sous-préfecture de Vohemar, commune rurale de Daraina , Daraina , forêt d’Ambohitsitondroina, à 1210 m du point coté 396, au 313°, 13°09.05’S, 49°28.06’E, 300 m, 19.I.2006, fl., Nusbaumer & Ranirison 1960 (MO, P). Sous-préfecture de Vohemar, commune rurale de Daraina , Daraina , forêt d’Antsahabe (13°13’S, 49°33’E), à 1170 m du point coté 366, au 269°, coord. précises ( WGS 84 ) 13°12.6’S, 49°33.6’E, 500 m, 21.I.2004, fr., Nusbaumer 1073 (MO). Bord du Ramena à Antsahabe, 1913, fl., Perrier de la Bâthie 6700 (P). Bassin supérieur de la Loky ( Nord ), XI.1909, fl., Perrier de la Bâthie 6714 (P). Anjahakely, Diégo , 19.I.1954, fr., Service Forestier 8220 (P). Ankaranibe, route Maromiandra-Ambanja , 8.X.1954, buds, Service Forestier 11095 (MO, P). Antsalova, 29.XI.1959, fl., Service Forestier 11146 (P). Contreforts NW de la Montagne d’Ambre, forêt d’Ankorefo ( Ankazobe ), 19-21.X.1954, fr., Service Forestier 11351 (P). Ambodimanga, canton Tsaratanana , district Tsaratanana , 5.XII.1958, fl., fr., Service Forestier 19457 (P). Lisière supérieure de la forêt d’Andranomadiro, rebord S du plateau de Sahafary , entre les bassins de la Saharenana et du Rodo , 300 m, 27.XII.1963, fr., Service Forestier 23070 (P).

Prov. Mahajanga, Ampombilava [15°03’S, 48°13’E], 30.XI.1942, fr., Herb. Jard. Bot. Tananarive 5445 (P). Tsingy de Bemaraha S of the Manambolo river, 19°09’S, 44°49’E, 50 m, 7.XII.1996, fr., Jongkind et al. 3429 (MO). Same loc., 11.XII.1996, fl., Jongkind et al. 3497 (MO). Boriziny, Port-Bergé, Tsiningia, Marosely , 18 km au S Boriziny, forêt de Bongolava , 15°38’58”S, 47°35’03”E, 217 m, 16.XI.2004, fl., Ramananjanahary et al. 109 ( G, MO, P, USMS). R.N. 8 [Namoroka], canton Andranomavo , district Soalala , 13.IX.1953, buds, Réserves Naturelles 5643 (P). Antanandava, Maevatanana , 27.XI.1951, Service Forestier 4282 (P). Besisika, Port-Bergé , 18.XI.1951, fl., fr., Service Forestier 5527 (P) ; Besalampy, 21.XI.1952, fl., Service Forestier 6266 (P). Forêt Tsimembo, Antsalova , 21.XII.1953, fr., Service Forestier 8247 (P). Forêt Mandanisafa, Maintirano , 27.XI.1954, fl., Service Forestier 12643 (P). Ambala [n]janakomby, Maevatanana , 8.I.1951, fl., Service Forestier 12667 (P).

Prov. Toliara, Beraboka , Miandrivazo , 13.XII.1952, fr., Service Forestier 6305 (P). F[orêt] Beraboka [19°31’S, 45°28’E], Miandrivazo , 25.X.1954, fr., Service Forestier 11188 (P). Forêt Ankaboka [20°28’S, 45°47’E], Malaimbandy , Mahabo , 17.XI.1954, fl., Service Forestier 12778 (P). Forêts de Beraboka , district Miandrivazo , 24.X.1957, fl., Service Forestier 17824 (P).

Unknown province, Tsarasaotra , X.1897, fl., Perrier de la Bâthie 151 (P, TAN). Same loc., s.d., Perrier de la Bâthie 151bis (P).


Tree to 20 m tall, dbh 25 cm; bark blackish, ridged; crown almost diamond-shaped; young twigs puberulent to velutinous or glabrate. Leaves green, paler beneath, lanceolate to ovate, elliptical, or narrowly lanceolate, 3-10.5(-13.1) × 1.6-4.2 cm; petiole 3-6 mm long, sparsely puberulent to glabrous or velutinous; stipules caducous, awl-shaped to narrowly deltoid, (0.7-) 2-4.4 mm long, sparsely puberulent to glabrate; base convex, often decurrent at extreme base, to rounded; apex acuminate with a rounded tip; margins serrate to serrulate or subentire; abaxial surface glabrate with few trichomes on midrib to glabrous; adaxial surface glabrous; venation pinnate; lateral veins weak and inconspicuous on both surfaces or visible but not prominent abaxially, 6-9(-12) pairs, more or less semicraspedodromous, often festooned. Inflorescences lateral, 1-3 cm, (4-)8-20-flowered, short-pubescent to velutinous; bracts lanceolate to ovate, 0.7-1.4 mm long, sericeous towards apex with upward-pointing trichomes; pedicels 2.6- 8 mm long, short-pubescent to velutinous. Flowers 6-7-merous, 4.2-7.5 mm in diameter; sepals pale green to white or yellowish green, lanceolate to narrowly ovate or narrowly oblong, 1.6-2.6 mm long, abaxial surface short-pubescent with appressed trichomes, adaxial surface short-pubescent to densely pubescent with appressed trichomes; sepal glands yellow to orange, broadly deltoid to ovate-deltoid, 0.7-1.1 mm long, with densely corrugated surface; petals pale green, yellowish green, white, or green and white, oblanceolate to spatulate or oblong-oblanceolate, 1.6-2.1 mm long, abaxial surface short-pubescent to densely pubescent with appressed trichomes, adaxial surface pubescent, often densely pubescent toward the apex or in the middle portion; disk velutinous; stamens 1 per petal; filaments 1.5-2.4 mm long, glabrous; anthers 0.3-0.6 mm long; ovary densely pubescent; styles 3-5, 0.4-0.9 mm long. Capsules 3.5-6(-7) mm high, pubescent; seeds broadly ovoid, 1.4-1.5 mm long, surrounded by curling white trichomes to 4 mm long.


Calantica olivacea sp. nov. occurs mostly in northern Madagascar, with scattered populations in the northwest to middle west; it occurs in dense dry, seasonal forests or on open hills, on limestone, gneiss, or sandstone, sometimes on the edges of streams. Reported altitudes range from near sea level to 500 m.


Calantica olivacea sp. nov. includes specimens that formerly have been classified within C. cerasifolia ( Sleumer 1973) . The flowers of the two species are very similar, but the vegetative appearance of C. olivacea sp. nov. is distinctive. Its leaves are consistently lanceolate to ovate or elliptical with an acuminate apex, while C. cerasifolia has leaves of variable shape, broadest at or above the middle, most frequently with a cuspidate apex, and often with longer stipules. Leaves of C. olivacea sp. nov. frequently dry a characteristic pale, unmottled olive green adaxially and pale brown abaxially, although this character is not fully consistent and may be affected by specimen processing methods. The inflorescences of C. olivacea sp. nov. are smaller and shorter than those of C. cerasifolia , 1-3 cm long at maturity and often having as few as 8-12 maturing flowers. The habitat of C. olivacea sp. nov. is dry forest or open hills, whereas C. cerasifolia is usually found in humid to subhumid forests. Flowers are reported to be scented (Antilahimena 348).


The wood of Calantica olivacea sp. nov. is used for construction (Antilahimena 348; Service Forestier 17824, 19457). Root bark is used for a malady of the eyes: fresh root bark is pulverized with a little water, and the liquid pressed from the resulting paste is filtered, reduced in half by cooking, and a little dripped into the eyes twice a day (Herb. Jard. Bot. 5445).

Vernacular names

“Fanganito” (Herb. Jard. Bot. 5445); Hazomafana (Service Forestier 4282); Hazonteva (Réserves Naturelles 5643; Service Forestier 6266, 6305, 8247, 11146, 11188, 17824 [Sakalava dialect]); Hazontevana (Service Forestier 12778, 19457 [Harofoby dialect]); Janganito (Antilahimena 348; Service Forestier 5527, 19457); Janganitojoby (Service Forestier 11095); Mandravasarotra (Service Forestier 12667); Manizombo (Service Forestier 8220); Taolakena (Service Forestier 12643).


The preliminary assessment of the conservation status of Calantica olivacea sp. nov. is Least Concern (LC), as 19 locations are known. Although the species has a large range (an Extent of Occurrence of 207,757 km 2), the habitat is almost all unprotected and degraded. It is perhaps reason for concern that very few recent collections are known (in contrast to C. cerasifolia , which is still collected relatively often), possibly indicating a reduction in numbers. It is present in the protected areas of Analamera, Bemaraha, Lokobe and Namoroka.

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