Calantica grandiflora Jaub. ex Tul., 1886

Applequist, Wendy L., Phillipson, Peter B. & Schatz, George E., 2014, A synoptic revision of the Malagasy endemic genus Calantica Jaub. ex Tul. (Salicaceae), Adansonia (3) 36 (1), pp. 83-102 : 92-93

publication ID 10.5252/a2014n1a8


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Calantica grandiflora Jaub. ex Tul.


6. Calantica grandiflora Jaub. ex Tul. View in CoL

Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique, série 4, 8: 75- 76 (1857).

— Type: Madagascar, Prov. Toamasina, [Ile] Sainte-Marie , 1835, fl., Bernier 376 (2nd envoi) (lecto-, sequentially designated by Sleumer [Adansonia, sér. 2,12: 542. 1973] and here designated, P! [ P00346109 ] ; iso-, P!; G, photo seen; fragm., L, photo seen)

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Madagascar. Prov. Antsiranana, N d’Ampanavoana, Vinanivao , Antalaha , Parc Masoala , 15°41’S, 50°21’40”E, 0-10 m, 13.III.1996, fl., Bernard 225 (MO, P). Forêt littorale Ambodipont, Vinanivao , Antalaha , Parc Masoala , 15°44’45”S, 50°19’25”E, 0-10 m, 3.X.1996, fl., Bernard 342 (MO, P). Environs de Sambava (côte NE), 1-5 m, 28.XI-3. XII.1950, fl., Humbert & Capuron 24380 (P). Fivondronana Antalaha , canton Ambohitralanana , piste vers Ambodirafia , presqu’île de Masoala , 15°17’S, 50°27’E, 0-60 m, 22.IV.1994, fl., Rahajasoa 288 (MO, P). Parc National de Masoala , Antanandavahely , 15°18’00”S, 50°19’00”E, 6.X.1994, fl., Rahajasoa et al. 761 (MO, P). Fivondronana Vohémar , firaisanaTsarabaria, fokontany Manakana , E du village à Ambondrobe , 13°43’08”S, 50°05’50”E, 13.III.2004, fr., Razakamalala et al. 1058 (MO). Fivondronana Vohémar , firaisana Tsarabaria , fokontany Manakana , forêt littorale d’Ambondrobe, 13°42’46”S, 50°05’25”E, 20.V.2004, fr., Razakamalala & Rabehevitra 1357 (MO). R.N. 2 [Masoala], canton Ambohitralanana , district Antalaha , 17.II.1954, fl., Réserves Naturelles 6621 (P). Ambodivaloha, Ampanavoana , 31.I.1955, fl., Réserves Naturelles 6950 (P). Canton Ambohitralanana , district Antalaha , 15.II.1959, fl., fr., Réserves Naturelles 10079 (P). Près de l’embouchure de la Bemarivo du NE, 2.XII.1950, fl., Service Forestier 893 (P). Ambodisatrana, Sambava , 19.I.1951, fl., Service Forestier 2771 (MO, P).

Prov. Fianarantsoa, Ankazondratana , Nosy Varika , district Nosy Varika , 30.V.1959, fr., Service Forestier 19528 (P) .

Prov. Toamasina, Fiv. Maroantsetra, comm. Vinanibe , fok. Andongona , village Antsahanikandana , 15°26’15” S, 49°29’02” E, 365 m, 28.XI.2003, fl., Antilahimena 2432. Fiv. Maroantsetra, comm. Anjahana , fok. Ambanizana , Amboninandzoka River , 15°38’14”S, 49°57’59”E, 10 m, 14.IV.2002, fl., Antilahimena & Aridy 992 (MO, P). [Ile] Ste. Marie , embouchure de la rivière de l’habitation royale, III.1847 - IV.1851, fl., Boivin 1845 (P). Brickaville, s.d., fl., Cours 27606 (P). Baie d’Antongil, environs d’Ambanizana, chemin de la pente forestière au SE du village, 15°30’S, 49°58’E, 100-150 m, 11.V.1988, fl., Floret 2000 (MO, P×2). Fénérive-Est, Ampasimaningory , Tanambaon’i Tampolo , Tampolo , Parcelle C4 de la Station Forestière de Tampolo , 17°17’14”S, 49°24’54”E, 57 m, 15.IV.2004, fl., Lehavana et al. 61 (MO). Forêt de Mahalevona, 2.II.1924, fl., Louvel 55 (P). Ambila-Lemaitso, E of Brickaville, old Station Forestière , c. 5 km S of town, 18°54’S, 49°07’E, 10 m, 17.I.1999, fl., Lowry & Miller 5134 (MO, P). Ambila-Lemaitso, E of Brickaville, old Station Forestière , c. 5 km S of town, 18°54’30”S, 49°07’37”E, 5-10 m, 17.I.1999, fl., Lowry & Miller 5143 (MO, P). Masoala peninsula, Ambanizana , on beach path leading south, 15°37’S, 49°57’E, 25 m, 12.IV.1987, fr., Nicoll et al. 515 (MO). Va [t]omandry, IX.1921, fl., Perrier de la Bâthie 14129 (P). Bas de pente d’une colline à 3 km d’Antanambe vers P.K. 5, 27.II.1990, fl., Raharimalala 498 (MO, P×2). District Fénérive-Est, Station Forestière de Tampolo , 10 km N de Fénérive-Est, 17°16’52”S, 49°24’44”E, 0-150 m, 24.I.1995, fl., Raholivelo et al. 85 (MO). Soanierana-Ivongo, Fénérive , s.d., fl., Réserves Naturelles 1059 (P). R.N. 1 [Betampona], canton Ambodiriana , district Tamatave , 24.II.1954, fl., Réserves Naturelles 6176 (P). Andevoranto-Ambila Lemaitso Road, c. 3-6 km NNE of Andevoranto , 18°53’50”S, 49°07’40”E, 30 m, 2.II.2006, fl., fr., Rogers & Antilahimena 1011 (MO). 6-10 km S of Ambila-Lemaitso, 18°51’S, 49°08’E, 0-20 m, 6.III.1988, fr., Schatz et al. 1947 (MO, P). Environs of Ambila-Lemaitso, 10 km E of Brickaville, 1-2 km S of intersection to Hotel Everglades and Ambila-Lemaitso, along road to Andevoranto , approx. 6 km S Ambila-Lemaitso, 18°54’S, 49°08’E, 0-10 m, 26-27.I.1991, fl., Schatz & Armbruster 3147 (MO, P). Nosy Mangabe, a 520 hectare island 5 km from Maroantsetra in the Bay of Antongil , 15°30’S, 49°46’E, 0-330m, 13-23.IV.1988, Schatz & Gentry 2135 (MO). Tampolo, Fénérive , 22.XI.1954, fl., Service Forestier 12579 (MO, P). Same loc., 1.XII.1955, fl., Service Forestier 15209 (MO, P). Same loc., 17.III.1956, fr., Service Forestier 15614 (MO, P). J. B. No. 21 Tampolo , village le plus proche Tampolo , canton Ampasina , district Fénérive-Est, 14.I.1958, fl., Service Forestier 17910 (MO, P). Forêt Tampina, Ursch 46 (P). 10 km N of Fenoarivo, Station Forestière de Tampolo , 17°17’S, 49°25’E, 10 m, 11.V.1991, fl., Zarucchi et al. 7382 (MO).

Unknown locality, s.l., s.d., fl., Chapelier s.n. (P).


Calantica grandiflora is widely distributed in eastern and northeastern remnants of littoral forest or rarely subcoastal forest on the east coast of Madagascar; it is almost always found near sea level on sand. However, one collection (Antilahimena 2432) reports an altitude of 365 m and another (Réserves Naturelles 6176) is from Betampona, presumably also in low-elevation humid forest.


Calantica grandiflora is usually a tree, with height to 20 m and dbh to 40 cm, or rarely a shrub, with gray to blackish bark. The perianth is pale greenish to yellowish, or at least the petals rarely white; the disk may be orange-red, the glands are white becoming yellow or orange-red, and the anthers have been reported as yellow or black. The variation in its leaf morphology overlaps with that of the widespread and variable C. cerasifolia , which also sometimes occurs in littoral forests. The inflorescences, pedicels, and abaxial sepal surfaces of C. grandiflora are more or less pilose, the inflorescences and pedicels sometimes also bearing more numerous shorter trichomes, whereas those of C. cerasifolia are pubescent with short upwardcurving or very short erect trichomes. The flowers of C. grandiflora are on average about twice as large, and the sepal glands are larger with a less densely ornamented surface, although overlap in these features may be seen due to exceptional individuals in both species. The ovary of C. grandiflora is at most partially or sparsely pubescent, while that of C. cerasifolia is densely pubescent throughout, and the fruits of C. grandiflora are relatively large and glabrate. Three specimens with intermediate floral characters suggesting possible hybridization between these species are known (see discussion of C. cerasifolia ); two of these are from plausible localities, although one (Rakotomazala et al. 2080) is found well outside the normal habitat of C. grandiflora .

The lectotype of this species was selected from among several syntypes by Sleumer (1973). Two sheets of this collection are held at P, one in good condition with multiple flowers and one in poor condition and lacking flowers.Sleumer presumably would have thought primarily of the former as the lectotype, but did not specify this in print and annotated both sheets as “lectotype.” As permitted by Art. 9.17 of the ICN ( McNeill et al. 2012), we hereby further designate the better-quality duplicate as the lectotype.


Calantica grandiflora is used for construction (Service Forestier 17910) or fencing (Service Forestier 19528).

Vernacular names

Fonorintina (Service Forestier 19528 [Betsimisaraka dialect]); Hazou-ambou (Chapelier s.n.); Tendrifany (Louvel 55); Tendrofo (Raharimalala 498); Tendrofoina (Service Forestier 2771); Tendrofony (Bernard 225, 342; Lehavana et al. 61; Réserves Naturelles 1059, 6176, 6621, 6950, 10079; Service Forestier 12579, 15209, 15614, 17910 [Betsimisaraka dialect]).


Calantica grandiflora has an Extent of Occurrence of 39,710 km 2, with 17 known locations. However, it is almost entirely restricted to littoral forest with an Area of Occupancy of less than 2000 km 2, a highly threatened ecosystem of which only fragments remain ( Consiglio et al. 2006). The degree of fragmentation suggests that C. grandiflora should be assigned a preliminary conservation assessment of Near Threatened (NT).














Calantica grandiflora Jaub. ex Tul.

Applequist, Wendy L., Phillipson, Peter B. & Schatz, George E. 2014

Tul. 1857: 75
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