Diaphana hiemalis ( Couthouy, 1839 ), Couthouy, 1839

Ohnheiser, Lena Tina & Malaquias, Manuel António E., 2014, The family Diaphanidae (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Cephalaspidea) in Europe, with a redescription of the enigmatic species C olobocephalus costellatus M. Sars, 1870, Zootaxa 3774 (6), pp. 501-522: 505-507

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3774.6.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:1C4C791C-09D7-4711-9D05-1ABE3DB24916

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/252DDC3C-3520-680F-7D8B-FE4AFB945B61

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Diaphana hiemalis ( Couthouy, 1839 )
status

 

Diaphana hiemalis ( Couthouy, 1839)  

( Figs 3 View FIGURE 3 A –F, 4 A –C)

Bulla hiemalis Couthouy 1839: 180   , 181, pl. 4 fig. 5.

Diaphana hiemalis   — G. O. Sars 1878: 291, tab. 18, fig. 3. Schiøtte 1998: 118, figs 16 D, 19 C –D, 23. Høisaeter et al. 2001: 250. Sneli et al. 2005: 96. Kantor & Sysoev 2006: 250, pl. 124 fig. F. Høisaeter 2009: 78. Chaban & Chernyshev 2013: 159, figs 3 A –J, 5 A.

Diaphana globosa   - G. O. Sars 1878: 290, pl. 18 figs 3 c, 4, pl. XI, fig. 12. Pilsbry 1893: 286, pl. 26 fig. 75. Thompson 1988: 29.

Diaphana minuta   — Lemche 1948, in part.

Diaphana tibai Habe 1976: 152   , pl. 1 fig. 11 (based on Schiøtte 1998).

Diagnosis. Shell external, whitish transparent, smooth, apex involute. Body white. Foot posteriorly bifurcated, cephalic shield with tentacular lobes. Rachidian tooth denticulate, not asymmetrical, lateral teeth with minute denticulation, teeth on left side smaller than on the right.

Type locality. Massachusetts Bay, inside cod stomachs from off Provincetown, Cape Cod, USA.

Material examined. Vadsø, Norway, 1 spc (dissected), ZMBN 82156, H = 6.4 mm. Ålesund, Norway, 1 spc (dissected), ZMBN 82160, H =?. Fensfjorden, 60 ° 48 ’03’’ N, 0 5 °05’ 48 ’’ E, Norway, 1 spc (dissected), ZMBN 82171, H = 2.0 mm. Fensfjorden, 60 ° 40 ’ 45 ’’ N, 0 5 ° 26 ’ 45 ’’ E, Norway, ZMBN 82167, H = 2.7 mm. Fensfjorden, 60 ° 49 ’ 54 ’’ N, 0 5 °03’ 15 ’’ E, Norway, 1 spc (dissected), ZMBN 82175, H = 2.1 mm. Raunefjorden, Norway, 1 spc (dissected), ZMBN 62056, H = 3.5 mm. Bergen, Norway, 1 sh, ZMBN 28711, H = 2.5 mm. Lofoten, Norway, 1 sh, ZMBN 68048, H = 2.4 mm. 60 °08' 27.6 ’’ N 06° 16 ' 22.8 ’’ E, Mauranger Nordrepollen, Norway, 1 spc (dissected), ZMBN 90609, H = 3.8 mm. 67 ° 39 ' 30 ’’ N, 11 ° 36 ' 42 ’’ W, NE off Iceland, 1 spc, ZMBN 85951, H = 4.11 mm.

Shell ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 C –F): Maximum H = 6.4 mm. External, thin; transparent; globose in shape, aperture wide with thin parietal callus, apex involute, umbilicated; shell surface smooth, faint spiral lines visible.

Animal ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 A, B): Body white. Foot posteriorly bifurcated, anteriorly widened into two lobes. Cephalic shield with tentacular lobes posteriorly.

Radula ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 A –C): Radular formula 12–15 x 1.1. 1. Rachidian tooth with two large denticulated lobes separated by gap, lobes not asymmetrical. Lateral teeth long, inner edge denticulate. Radula asymmetrical with left laterals slightly smaller than the right laterals, one large denticle on tip of left laterals only.

Male reproductive system ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 D): Prostate with a thin and thick lobe emerging from penial sheath in a right angle.

Ecology. Occurs between 5–2725 m depth on mud, clay, sandy clay with stones, gravel, shells, foraminiferans, sand, muddy sand, silty sand, shell sand and mire ( Schiøtte 1998; Høisaeter, 2009; Chaban & Chernyshev 2013; present study). It is a characteristic species on clay bottoms below 400 m, most abundant between 750–2000 m ( Høisaeter 2009; 2010).

Distribution. Schiøtte (1998) refers its distribution as circumpolar, as far as Japan and Massachusetts and maybe in the Mediterranean Sea. Along the entire Norwegian coast, the continental slope, Faroes-Shetland Channel ( Høisaeter 2009) and the Faroes ( Sneli et al. 2005).

Remarks. Schiøtte (1998) redescribed this species, which, in spite of its involute spire and shell shape and reproductive system with shorter prostate branches, was formerly an accepted synonym of Diaphana minuta   . Apparently, the radula of this species can depict some variation; typically the inner edges of the lateral teeth are denticulate but Chaban and Chernyshev (2013) reported specimens from NW Japan with smooth lateral teeth. Schiøtte (1998) lists Philine laevissima   and Utriculopsis vitrea   as synonyms but the confusion surrounding these two names have been recently discussed by Ohnheiser and Malaquias (2013) who considered these species names to be senior synonyms of the new name P. confusa Ohnheiser and Malaquias, 2013   .

ZMBN

Museum of Zoology at the University of Bergen, Invertebrate Collection

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Mollusca

Class

Gastropoda

Order

Cephalaspidea

Family

Diaphanidae

Genus

Diaphana

Loc

Diaphana hiemalis ( Couthouy, 1839 )

Ohnheiser, Lena Tina & Malaquias, Manuel António E. 2014
2014
Loc

Diaphana hiemalis

Chaban 2013: 159
Hoisaeter 2009: 78
Kantor 2006: 250
Sneli 2005: 96
Hoisaeter 2001: 250
Schiotte 1998: 118
Sars 1878: 291
1878
Loc

Diaphana globosa

Thompson 1988: 29
Pilsbry 1893: 286
Sars 1878: 290
1878
Loc

Bulla hiemalis

Couthouy 1839: 180
1839