Acroclisoides sinicus (Huang & Liao, 1988),
Peverieri, Giuseppino Sabbatini, Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan, Bon, Marie-Claude, Balusu, Rammohan, Benvenuto, Luca, Bernardinelli, Iris, Fadamiro, Henry, Falagiarda, Martina, Fusu, Lucian, Grove, Emily, Haye, Tim, Hoelmer, Kim, Lemke, Emily, Malossini, Giorgio, Marianelli, Leonardo, Moore, Matthew R., Pozzebon, Alberto, Roversi, Pio-Federico, Scaccini, Davide, Shrewsbury, Paula, Tillman, Glynn, Tirello, Paola, Waterworth, Rebeccah & Talamas, Elijah J., 2019, Surveys of stink bug egg parasitism in Asia, Europe and North America, morphological taxonomy, and molecular analysis reveal the Holarctic distribution of Acroclisoides sinicus (Huang & Liao) (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae), Journal of Hymenoptera Research 74, pp. 123-151: 123
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|Acroclisoides sinicus (Huang & Liao, 1988)|
Neocoruna sinica Huang & Liao, 1988: 427.
Acroclisoides sinicus (Huang & Liao, 1988); new combination by Xiao and Huang (2000): 95.
Acroclisoides solus Grissell & Smith, 2006: 925; syn. nov.
BOTH SEXES: clypeal margin emarginate ( Figs 2BView Figure 2, 3B, DView Figure 3); antenna with F6 whitish, occasionally also F5, the latter especially in males ( Figs 2EView Figure 2, 3B, DView Figure 3); MV 0.9 –1.1× SV and distinctly shorter than PV ( Fig. 2DView Figure 2). FEMALE: fore wing usually with brownish infuscated spot, ranging from faint to pronounced, behind SV; spot round to oval and not projecting beyond SV ( Figs 2DView Figure 2, 3AView Figure 3). MALE: fore wing always hyaline ( Fig. 3CView Figure 3).
Female ( Figs 2 A–GView Figure 2, 3A, BView Figure 3). Body length. 1.7-2.5 mm (n = 10). Color. Head in frontal view bright green, with golden reflections ( Figs 2BView Figure 2, 3BView Figure 3); frons, vertex and occiput dark olive-green ( Fig. 2C, FView Figure 2). Antenna ( Figs 2EView Figure 2, 3BView Figure 3) with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown; funicle and clava brown to dark brown, except F6 and sometimes ventral side of F5 whitish. Mandible with basal half whitish-yellow to yellowish-brown, distal half including teeth reddish-brown ( Figs 2BView Figure 2, 3BView Figure 3). Mesosoma in dorsal view mainly dark olive-green ( Fig. 2FView Figure 2); mesosoma in lateral view dark blue-green ( Fig. 2GView Figure 2). Legs ( Fig. 3AView Figure 3) with fore and hind coxae dark green at least dorsally, apices and sometimes ventral part yellowish to yellowish-brown; mid coxa mainly yellowish-brown, basally and dorsally at least slightly darker; the rest of leg parts yellowish-brown, except tarsal apices dark brown. Fore wing hyaline, usually with distinct brownish spot behind SV, which may be very faint or absent to very distinct ( Figs 2DView Figure 2, 3AView Figure 3); hind wing hyaline ( Fig. 3AView Figure 3); tegula and venation dark brown. Metasoma with petiole black; gaster mainly dark metallic green to brown ( Figs 2AView Figure 2, 3AView Figure 3).
Head. Clypeus broadly emarginate ( Fig. 2BView Figure 2). Occipital carina ( Fig. 2CView Figure 2) ventrally terminating in a conspicuous tooth, visible in lateral view of the head ( Fig. 2GView Figure 2). Antennal scrobes conspicuous, separated by interantennal crest not reaching median ocellus ( Fig. 2BView Figure 2). Clypeal region striate-reticulate; face reticulate, alveolae getting smaller towards vertex ( Fig. 2BView Figure 2). Width of head in frontal view about 1.6 × height; in dorsal view width 2.05 –2.40× length. OOL 1.4 –1.6× POL. Minimum distance between eyes 2.3 –2.4× eye height. In lateral view eye height 1.1 –1.2× length and 1.6 –1.7× malar space. In dorsal view of the head temple about 1/3 eye length or slightly less. Mandibles with 4 teeth each ( Fig. 2BView Figure 2). Antenna with scape in lateral view gradually widening distally and reaching above level of vertex; both anelli transverse; all funicular segments longer than wide ( Fig. 2EView Figure 2). Scape length 4.8 –5.0× width. Pedicel length 1.2 –1.4× width in lateral view. F1 length 1.6 –1.8× width, length 1.1 –1.6× pedicel length; F6 length 1.3 –1.4× width; clava length 2.7 –3.0× width, slightly longer than F5+F6.
Mesosoma. Pronotal collar posterior to setal row smooth. Mesoscutum and scutellum strongly and uniformly reticulate ( Fig. 2FView Figure 2). Axillae with fine reticulation. Anterior margin of mesoscutellum separated from posterior margin of mesoscutum by several deep pits ( Fig. 2FView Figure 2). Metascutellum virtually smooth ( Fig. 2FView Figure 2). Propodeum ( Fig. 2FView Figure 2) with small round basal foveae and median carina vaguely indicated, the latter extending to distinct, almost smooth nucha; median area centrally reticulate and almost smooth laterally, adjacent to conspicuous postspiracular sulci, the latter strongly convergent towards nucha; callus mainly smooth except superficially reticulate above hind coxa, with few setae. Mesepisternum reticulate; upper mesepimeron smooth, lower mesepimeron reticulate ( Fig. 2GView Figure 2). Metapleuron reticulate. Hind coxa with dorsal basal setae extremely long. Mesosoma length 1.10 –1.15× width, length 1.4 –1.5× height. Mesoscutum width 2.3 –2.4× length. Scutellum width 1.0 –1.1× length. Propodeum median length about 0.60 × scutellum length. Fore wing ( Fig. 2DView Figure 2) with MV moderately thickened; parastigma with hyaline break; costal cell on dorsal side of the wing with single row of setae in distal half, on ventral side with several rows of setae in distal half and single anterior row extending to base; basal cell with several scattered setae and delimited by completely setose basal and cubital folds; speculum moderate, not extending beyond parastigma and closed below. Fore wing length 1.9 –2.0× width. SM 3.0 –3.9× MV. MV 0.9 –1.1× SV. PV about 1.6 × MV.
Metasoma. Dorsally flat or convex ( Figs 2AView Figure 2, 3AView Figure 3). Petiole (MT1) subtriangular, about as long as wide; GT1 (MT2) long and narrow, occupying 1/3-1/4 of gaster length ( Fig. 3AView Figure 3); GT2-4 trapezoidal, GT4 the largest; GT2 longer than GT3 and shorter than GT4; GT5-7 very short, partly to completely retracted; hypopygium extending to about 0.8 –0.9× of gaster length; ovipositor sheaths short and visible only on ventral side of gaster ( Fig. 3AView Figure 3). Gaster length 1.4 –2.0× width.
Male ( Fig. 3C, DView Figure 3). Similar to the female, it differs in having the fore wing entirely hyaline (see also the remarks below).
Acroclisoides sinicus , together with A. maculatus Sureshan & Narendran, A. megacephalus Girault & Dodd and A. spilopterus (Masi) ( Hymenoptera : Pteromalidae ), belongs to a group normally having maculate fore wings in females. Acroclisoides sinicus can be separated from the other species cited above by the whitish color of F6, sometimes also of F5, the latter especially in males (color also slightly variable, but at least on the ventral side of the antenna the segment is slightly to distinctly lighter than other segments) and different shape, size and position of the brownish spot on the fore wing in females (usually at least slightly visible, of small to moderate size, behind the stigmal vein and not projecting beyond it). According to the original description of A. solus and the paratypes we examined, this species is extremely close to A. sinicus in most characters, including the color of the funicle and fore wing. According to Grissell and Smith (2006), both sexes of A. solus differ from A. sinicus only in having a longer PV as compared with the MV (over 1.6 × versus less than 1.4 × in A. sinicus ); in addition, the female of A. solus has a longer F1 as compared with the pedicel (2 × versus slightly longer than pedicel in A. sinicus ), clava slightly longer than F5+F6 versus clava longer than F4+F6 in A. sinicus , and the flagellar setae are depressed versus outstanding in A. sinicus . In our specimens from Italy and South Korea (MICO), PV was about 1.6 × as long as MV; F1 was 1.1 –1.6× as long as the pedicel; clava was slightly longer than F5+F6; flagellar setae were moderately depressed. All examined specimens fit well with the original description of A. sinicus (Huang & Liao, 1988).
Males and females of A. sinicus are very similar. The brownish infuscation of the fore wing is found only in females but is not always present. This character can thus be used to confirm that a specimen is female, but the absence of the infuscation cannot be used to reliably determine that a specimen is male. The presence of an ovipositor, ovipositor sheaths or a projecting aedeagus can be used to confirm the sex. In cases where the terminal gastral tergites are retracted and the wings are hyaline, unambiguous determination of sex may require dissection to expose the genitalia.
China ( Huang and Liao 1988; Xiao and Huang 2000), South Korea ( Ko et al. 2018), Canada, USA, Italy, Switzerland; previously recorded for Italy, USA and Canada as A. solus ( Grissell and Smith 2006; Gariepy et al. 2014; Moraglio et al. 2019).
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