Cynipoidea, Latreille, 1802

Buffington, Matthew L., Forshage, Mattias, Liljeblad, Johan, Tang, Chang-Ti & Noort, Simon van, 2020, World Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera): A Key to Higher- Level Groups, Insect Systematics and Diversity 4 (2020), No. 1, pp. 1-69 : 1-32

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1093/isd/ixaa003

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/2712E307-A961-C222-FCC7-FAD1FA68FAF9

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Cynipoidea
status

 

Cynipoidea

The skeleton of this key was devised by MB, MF, and JL while teaching The Hym Course in Tovetorp, Sweden, in 2012; later drafts were updated with student feedback from each subsequent Hym Course offering. Some key characters are modifications of the Hymenoptera of the World key ( Goulet and Huber 1993). Additional characters and character state definitions presented here follow Ronquist et al. (2015) and van Noort et al. (2015). All morphological terms follow those used in Hymenoptera of the World ( Goulet and Huber 1993) and are further defined on the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology project (http://portal.hymao.org/ projects/32/public/ontology/). No new terminology is introduced here. Reviewers of earlier drafts of this paper helped in clarifying problematic characters and definitions. The key is illustrated using color photomicrographs of museum specimens. We are hoping this brings the user closer to the reality of working with specimens. For those interested in using a multi-entry matrix key, www.waspweb.org hosts the Lucid version of this key.

The key covers all Cynipoidea worldwide, and some of these groups are only found in certain areas or on certain plants. Some rarer taxa that may not be routinely collected worldwide

include Austrocynipidae , Liopteridae , and among the cynipids, the tribes Qwaqwaini, Phanacidini , Pediaspidini , Paraulacini , and Eschatocerini ; among the figitids, Parnipinae , Thrasorinae , Pycnostigminae , Emargininae , Euceroptrinae , Plectocynipinae , and Mikeiinae . If the user arrives at any of these using the key, we suggest double-checking the characters before making a final decision.

The systematic overview following the key gives a general introduction to each group, especially in terms of diversity, geographical distribution, and biology. Diagnostic characters are usually not repeated in this section, but certain morphological key factors in evolution are highlighted. We list the most relevant literature, and the included genera in each group. The genera are ordered into any valid family-level taxa, the authorship of which are given (and in a few cases in informal groups of genera). For genera, authorship, species number, and geographical distributions are given. Geographical distributions are summarized in text or by abbreviations of biogeographic regions; AT for Afrotropical, AU for Australasian or Oceanic, NA for Nearctic, NT for Neotropical, OR for Oriental, PA for Palearctic (often divided into wPA and ePA for western and eastern Palearctic).

There is no single up to date, authoritative catalog for Cynipoidea . The closest to an updated online resource is Hymenoptera Online (https://hol.osu.edu/), which contains JL’s personal cynipid catalog started in the late 1990s, as well as various other cynipoid taxa added over time. It contains a large number of problematic names, and changes made and taxa described since 2008 have been somewhat haphazardly maintained in HOL, as there is no one cynipoid curator of the data in that database. MF has kept a personal catalog focused mostly on Figitidae . Parts of this catalog have been published over time in smaller regional projects (e.g., Forshage et al. 2013; van Noort et al. 2015). Charipinae have been cataloged by the Barcelona research group ( Ferrer-Suay et al. 2012); however, these data are not yet present in HOL. Thus, here we have based classification and species numbers on our own lists, manually keeping track of the additions and subtractions from the last decades, referring back to HOL for comparison but including numerous changes from recent years alerted via Zoological Record and other sources, as well as making certain pragmatic considerations.

There are still a rather large number of mystery names available, linked to lost or missing type specimens. In some cases, it is not clear if a particular name even belongs in Cynipoidea , or rather Chalcidoidea, Diapriidae or dipteran Cecidomyiidae . Further, some genera (e.g., Eucoila , Ganaspis , Trybliographa , Andricus , Dryocosmus ) have had a large number of species assigned to them for seemingly arbitrary reasons. Keeping all these difficult circumstances in mind, we have presented species numbers that we have found documentation for and consider meaningful as preliminaries, while these numbers may still differ significantly from actual species numbers. In genera where these numbers are particularly problematic, we have mentioned this specifically, and also to indicate where particularly large number of undescribed species belong, as well as where large numbers of clearly misclassified or insufficiently known species reside. Hopefully, the data here will pinpoint where future research is most needed.

All specimens used here, except for Qwaqwaiini , are housed at the USNM (National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC) and were often cleaned with a minute paintbrush and mounted to achieve the necessary views for each couplet. Unique specimen identifiers, in the form of USNMENT ‘barcode’ numbers, link images to specimens housed at the USNM. Images were captured using a Macroscopic Solutions ‘microkit’ (Tolland, CT) imaging station and stacked using Zerene Stacker LLC (Richland, WA). Please contact MB for additional details of this process.

We suggest the following to get the most out of using this key: 1) high-quality optics are a necessity for observing the pronotal plate and other small features throughout the key; 2) light dispersing film (in the United States, mylar is commonly used) should be installed if using fiber optic light sources with incandescent bulbs (the glare produced by these lights will obscure details of the cuticle). Lastly, having some biological and geographic data will make using the key easier.

As the basic identification of many of these groups is a general impediment to taxonomic progress, this key, and the taxonomic treatments that follow, provide a point of entry into cynipoid research not previously available. We hope this publication spurs renewed interest in cynipoid systematics, biology, and evolution.

Identification Key to Families, Subfamilies, andTribes of World Cynipoidea 1. Metasomal segment four, five or six the largest (in lateral view), with two to four small segments preceding largest segment (a, Fig. 1 View Figs ). Wings always fully formed, with marginal cell of forewing sometimes very elongate. Often large wasps, exceeding 10 mm in length. Mesoscutum with heavy sculpture (well-developed ridges or pits; b, Fig. 1 View Figs ; arrows, Fig. 2) ........................................................................................................ 2 — Metasomal segment two or three the largest (in lateral view), or fused into a syntergum (arrows, Figs. 3 and 4 View Figs ), with at most one or two segments preceding the largest (arrows, Figs. 5 and 6 View Figs ). Wings usually fully formed; marginal cell of forewing usually shorter, rarely as long as 3× as long as high. Adult wasps smaller than 10 mm in length. Deep ridges in mesoscutum less common; typically microcoriaceous or smooth ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3 2. Marginal cell of forewing extremely elongate (9× as long as high) (arrow, Fig. 7 View Figs ). Metasoma in dorsal view elongate and very laterally compressed, thin, blade-like (arrow, Fig. 8). Large, over 20 mm in length .................................................................................................. Ibaliidae — Marginal cell of forewing moderately elongate (3–4× as long as high) (a, Fig. 9 View Figs ). Metasoma in dorsal view rounded, ovate, subcylindrical (arrow, Fig. 10). Size varying, sometimes small, always under 20 mm ............................................................................................. Liopteridae 3. With a pterostigma (arrow, Fig. 11 View Figs ), always fully winged. No foveae or lateral bars on scutellum (a, Fig.12). Mesoscutum with welldeveloped transversal ridges (b, Fig. 12). Australia only, very rare ........................................................................................... Austrocynipidae — Without a pterostigma (arrows, Figs. 13 and 14 View Figs ) (very rarely the entire marginal cell is pigmented forming a pseudostigma; arrow, Fig. 15 View Figs ), rarely brachypterous/apterous. Usually with more or less developed foveae and lateral bars of scutellum (arrows, Fig. 17 View Figs ). Mesoscutum usually without well-developed transversal ridges ( Figs. 16 and 17 View Figs ). Worldwide ........................................................................................................ 4 4. Fully winged ( Figs. 18–20 View Figs ). Note: brachypterous/wingless forms, or specimens with obscured, tangled or damaged wings, can be identified via this route too ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 5 — Brachypterous or apterous ( Figs. 21–23 View Figs ) (shortcut route to groups where this feature is known) ............................................................ 33 5. Rs+M vein often indistinct or absent (arrow, Fig. 24 View Figs ); its proximal part, when present as a faint vein ( Fig. 26 View Figs ) or a fold ( Fig. 25 View Figs ) joins basal vein at ventral end of basal vein (a, Fig. 26 View Figs ). Areolet usually absent. Usually head and mesosoma shiny ( Figs. 28 and 29 View Figs ), rarely rugose or matte ( Fig. 27 View Figs ). Scutellum often complex, with differentiated structures such as, plates, spines etc ........................................................................... 6 — Rs+M starts at (or points towards) mid-length of basal vein (Rs+M, Figs. 30–35 View Figs ). Aerolet often present (are, Figs. 30–35 View Figs ). Usually large parts of head and mesosoma matte ( Figs. 36 and 39 View Figs ), rarely smooth/shiny ( Figs. 37 and 38 View Figs ). Scutellum distinct structure other than general fovea or rugosity (most of Cynipidae ) ............................................................................................................................................................ 8 6. Head, pronotum and mesoscutum shiny, more or less smooth, and usually not densely pubescent ( Figs. 40–42 View Figs ) (most of Figitidae ) ........ 19

— Head, pronotum and mesoscutum matte from dense microsculpture, and more or less densely pubescent ( Figs. 43–45 View Figs ) ........................... 7 7. With dense pubescence on base of metasoma (arrow, Fig. 46 View Figs ). Usually with distinct pronotal plate (arrows, Fig. 47 View Figs ). Often with complex structure on scutellum (arrow, Fig. 48 View Figs ) (some Figitidae ) ............................................................................................................................... 19

— Usually without dense pubescence on base of metasoma ( Fig. 49 View Figs ) but sometimes with small lateral patch (arrow, Fig. 50 View Figs ). Usually without distinct pronotal plate (arrow, Fig. 51 View Figs ). Always with a relatively simple scutellum dominated by evenly distributed fovea or rugosity (arrow, Fig 49 View Figs ) (some Cynipidae ) ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8 8. Pronotum high, dorsomedially at least 1/5, usually 1/3, as long as greatest length of pronotum laterally (arrows, Figs. 52–55 View Figs ). The median area of pronotum with two submedian pits and often more or less sharply defined lateral demarcations. Pronotal plate present or absent ................. 9 — Pronotum low, dorsomedially short, 1/7 or less compared to length of pronotum laterally (arrows, Figs. 56–59 View Figs ). Median area of pronotum without well-defined structures, at most with superficial depressions. Pronotal plate always absent ............................................................. 17 9. Scutellar foveae shallow, usually faint to completely absent (oval, Fig. 60 View Figs ). Mesopleuron with a median longitudinal mesopleural impression, sometimes very faint (arrows, Fig. 61) or absent. Inhabiting galls on Nothofagus or inducing galls on Acer (including the genus Hymalocynips from Nepal with biology unknown). Rarely encountered ............................................................................................................................. 10 — Scutellar foveae usually well differentiated and deep, sometimes confluent and forming a transverse depression (circles, Fig. 62 View Figs ). Mesopleuron without a median longitudinal impression (arrow, Fig. 63) .......................................................................................................................... 11 10. Female antenna with 12 or more flagellomeres; last flagellomere not wider than the penultimate (ant, Fig. 64 View Figs ); male antenna without modified F1. Ventral area of gena without vertical carinae, genal carina absent. Ventral part of clypeus broadly projecting over mandibles (cly, Fig. 64 View Figs ). Dorsolateral margin of pronotal plate not projecting laterad (Fig. 65). Mesopleural impression absent or faint (mpi, Fig. 65). Profemur not modified. Palearctic gall-inducers on Acer or biology unknown .............................................................................................. Pediaspidini — Female antenna with 10 flagellomeres; last flagellomere wider than the penultimate (ant, Fig. 66 View Figs ); male antenna with either F2, F3 or both modified. Ventral area of gena with 5–9 vertical carinae (gen, Fig. 67). Genal carina present. Ventral part of clypeus at most slightly projecting over mandibles. Dorsolateral margin of pronotal plate strongly projecting laterad (pn, Fig. 66 View Figs ). Mesopleural impression present (mpi, Fig. 67). Profemur with ventral swelling composed of 4–5 rows of sharp, closely spaced, deep costulae. Associated with Neotropical galls on Nothofagus ..................................................................................................................................................................................... Paraulacini 11. Occiput with strong and sharp occipital carina (arrows, Fig. 68 View Figs ). Hypopygium abrupt, not prolonged into a ventral spine; with a dense tuft of long setae (arrow, Fig. 69). South African gall-inducers on Scolopia . Rarely encountered ......................................................... Qwaqwaiini — Occiput without distinct and sharp occipital carina (arrow, Fig. 70 View Figs ), sometimes with some strong parallel occipital rugae. Hypopygium with more or less distinct, elongated, needle-like ventral spine, with subapical setae never forming a dense tuft (Fig. 71) .................................... 12 12. Metasomal terga 2 + 3 fused, or apparently fused, with or without a suture between terga 2 and 3; metasoma appears as one large segment ( Figs. 72 and 73 View Figs ), sometimes with indistinct and continuous suture between these terga in either sex. Head and mesosoma almost always sculptured ( Figs. 74 and 75 View Figs ). Metasoma anteroventrally angled, relative to midline, in lateral view (mt, Fig. 72 View Figs ). Holarctic and Oriental inquilines in galls .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 — Terga 2–7 free in most cases ( Fig. 76 View Figs ); if terga 2 + 3 fused in females into one large segment then head and mesosoma almost always smooth and shiny (otherwise, head and mesosoma sculptured) (Fig. 77). Metasoma usually more or less oval in lateral view (mt, Fig. 76 View Figs . Holarctic gall-inducers on herbaceous plants or Rubus ................................................................................................................................................ 14 13. Metasomal T2 separated from T3 by suture; T2 much smaller than T3 ( Fig. 78 View Figs ); first tergum hardly visible ( Fig. 78 View Figs ). Depression present ventral of torulus (arrows, Fig. 79). Upper face, mesopleuron and vertex smooth. Metasoma hair patch often present. Pronotal plate complete ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ceroptresini — Second and third tergum of metasoma fused into syntergum (T2 + 3, Fig. 80 View Figs ); no suture present between T2 and T3; first tergum relatively large, ring-like, longitudinally sulcate (arrow, Fig. 80 View Figs ). Depression absent ventral of torulus (though striae frequently present) (Fig. 81). Upper face, mesopleuron and vertex with various degrees of sculpture, not smooth. Pronotal plate incomplete dorsally .............................. Synergini 14. Pronotal plate present, defined dorsally and ventrally (pt. Fig. 82 View Figs ). Mesopleuron and mesosoma smooth (msp, Fig. 83). Most females with 10 flagellomeres in antenna. Metatarsal claws with distinct lobe. Gallers and inquilines on Rosaceae , or host unknown .............. Diastrophini — Pronotal plate incomplete, not defined dorsally (pt, Figs. 84 and 85 View Figs ). Mesopleuron and mesosoma sculptured to various degrees (msp, Figs. 86 and 87 View Figs ). Most females with more than 10 flagellomeres in antenna. Metatarsal claws simple. Gallers on various herbaceous plants ................. 15 15. Mesopleuron with reticulate or rugulose sculpture (msp, Fig. 88 View Figs ). Submedian depressions on pronotal plate effaced, shallow, and indistinct (ad, Fig. 89 View Figs ). Dorsal part of pronotal plate not reaching mesoscutum (pt, Fig. 89 View Figs ). R 1 in forewing reaching anterior margin of wing (R1, Fig. 90 View Figs ), and marginal cell at least partially closed ( Fig. 90 View Figs ). Gallers on Asteraceae , rarely on other plants .................................... Phanacidini — Mesopleuron longitudinally striate, striate-reticulate, or smooth, never rugulose (msp, Figs. 91 and 92 View Figs ). Submedian depressions of pronotal plate present, typically separated (ad, Fig. 93 View Figs ). Dorsal part of pronotal plate typically reaching mesoscutum. R1 of forewing reaching or not reaching wing margin (R1, Fig. 94 View Figs ). Marginal cell open or closed ( Fig. 94 View Figs )................................................................................................... 16 16. Mesopleuron striate-reticulate or reticulate (msp, Fig. 95 View Figs ); female antenna with 12 flagellomeres; pronotum (in dorsal view) short, about 1/5 as long as greatest length of outer margin (pt, Fig. 96); admedian depressions narrowly separated and strongly transverse (ad, Fig. 96); gallers on Papaver ( Papaveraceae ) ........................................................................................................................................................ Aylacini — Mesopleuron longitudinally striate (msp, Figs. 97 and 98 View Figs ); female antenna with 10–11 flagellomeres; pronotum (in dorsal view) longer, about 1/3 to 1/4 as long as greatest length of outer margin (pt, Figs. 99 and 100 View Figs ); admedian depressions oval or round, usually more widely separated (ad, Fig. 100 View Figs ); gallers on Asteraceae , Lamiaceae , Valerianaceae , and Papaveraceae ......................................................... Aulacideini 17. Frons between antennal toruli with strong longitudinal carina (arrow, Fig. 101 View Figs ); notauli and scutellar foveae absent ( Fig. 102 View Figs ); mesoscutum bulging above pronotum (arrow, Fig. 103 View Figs ); Rs+M and R1 of forewing inconspicuous, marginal cell with Rs separate from anterior wing margin; basal vein absent ( Fig. 104 View Figs ); Neotropical gall-inducers on Acacia or Prosopis ............................................................... Eschatocerini — Frons usually without median carina ( Fig. 105 View Figs ); if present, (some Plagiotrochus ) then it is not so strong and cannot be readily differentiated from Fig. 101 View Figs . Notauli complete, incomplete or absent ( Fig. 106 View Figs ). Scutellar foveae present or confluent, forming shallow transverse depression in lateral view. Mesoscutum not bulging above pronotum (arrow, Fig. 107 View Figs ); Rs+M and R1 of forewing usually present and visible, Rs reaching or almost reaching anterior wing margin. Basal vein present ( Fig. 108 View Figs ) in forewing. Gall-inducers on Fagaceae or Rosa .............................. 18 18. Mesopleuron with a broad, crenulate mesopleural impression (arrow, Fig. 111 View Figs ). Usually with a combination of the following character states: hypopygium plough-shaped (arrow, Fig. 109 View Figs ); lateral propodeal carinae indistinct; scutellar foveae faint or absent ( Fig. 112 View Figs ); 2r of forewing with a median vein stump projecting distad (arrow, Fig. 110 View Figs ); Holarctic gall-inducers on Rosa .......................................... Diplolepidini — Mesopleuron usually without a mesopleural impression ( Fig. 113 View Figs ; arrow, Fig. 115 View Figs ). Without other characters combined ( Figs. 113–116 View Figs ). Holarctic and Oriental gall-inducers on Fagaceae , mainly Quercus ..................................................................................................... Cynipini 19. Marginal cell sclerotized into a pseudostigma (arrows, Figs. 117 and 118 View Figs ). Afrotropical and southeastern Palearctic/Middle East .................................................................................................................................................................................................. Pycnostigminae

— Marginal cell not sclerotized (arrow, Fig. 119 View Figs ) ......................................................................................................................................... 20 20. Scutellum with an elevated scutellar plate (a, Fig. 120 View Figs ); with a glandular release pit (b, Figs. 121 and 122 View Figs ) ............................... Eucoilinae

— Structure of scutellum variable, posterior surface relatively flat or evenly convex, never with a distinct elevated plate and associated posterior release pit ( Figs. 123–128 View Figs ) .................................................................................................................................................................. 21 21. Apex of forewing deeply bilobed (arrow, Fig. 129 View Figs ). Often raised median area on scutellum. Densely packed (foamy) setae present on propodeum (arrow, Fig. 130). Typically 1.5 mm in length ............................................................................................................ Emargininae — Apex of forewing rounded (arrow, Fig. 131 View Figs ). Propodeum variously setose to glabrous, never with densely packed setae (Fig. 132) ......... 22 22. Areolet present (arrow, Fig. 133 View Figs ); base of metasoma setose or glabrous ( Fig. 134 View Figs ) ................................................................................. 23

— Areolet absent (arrow, Fig. 135 View Figs ); base of metasoma glabrous ( Fig. 136 View Figs ) .................................................................................................. 25 23. Head and mesoscutum generally coriaceous to foveate, and frequently setose ( Fig. 137 View Figs ) ........................................................................ 24

— Head and mesoscutum generally smooth, lacking dense setal patterns, but some stout setae present (Fig. 138) .....................some Figitinae 24. Mesopleuron striate, with no indication of distinct mesopleural furrow (arrow, Fig. 139 View Figs ). Lateral pronotal carina absent. Mediterranean, on Papaver ...................................................................................................................................................................................... Parnipinae

— Mesopleuron dorsally smooth, ventrally striate along the distinct mesopleural furrow (arrow, Fig. 140). Lateral pronotal carina present. Nearctic, on Quercus ................................................................................................................................................................. Euceroptrinae 25. Head generally triangular in anterior view; mouth small, with broadly overlapping mandibles ( Fig. 141 View Figs ). Petiole often long (arrow, Fig. 142 View Figs ). First metasomal tergum subequal in length to second, sometimes longer .................................................................... Anacharitinae

— Head oval to round in anterior view ( Figs. 143 and 144 View Figs ); mouth region broadened, mandibles larger and not extensively overlapping. Petiole typically not elongate ........................................................................................................................................................................ 26 26. Scutellum evenly convex, rounded, smooth (arrows, Figs. 145 and 146 View Figs ). Usually tiny, very often pale in color ( Fig. 147 View Figs ). Mesoscutum usually shiny and smooth ( Figs. 145–147 View Figs ), rarely matte ........................................................................................................................ Charipinae

— Scutellum flat or weakly convex, and sculptured ( Figs. 148–150 View Figs ). Usually darker, typically black. Mesoscutum usually with transverse ridges or distinct microsculpture ( Figs. 148–150 View Figs ) ................................................................................................................................................... 27 27. Metatibial spur remarkably long, more than half the length of basal tarsomere (arrows, Figs. 151–153 View Figs ). Neotropical; associated with Nothofagus forests. Rarely encountered ................................................................................................................................... Plectocynipinae

— Metatibial spur not remarkably long, at most a quarter of length of first tarsomere (arrow, Fig. 154 View Figs ) ..................................................... 28 28. Facial impression present (arrow, Fig. 155 View Figs ). First metasomal tergum saddle-like with concave posterolateral margin and more or less linguiform median part (arrows, Fig. 157 View Figs ). Often relatively large, with a well sculptured body, often red color, and wings with strongly reduced pubescence and accessory veins ...............................................................................................................................................core Aspicerinae

— Facial impression absent (arrow, Fig. 156 View Figs ). First metasomal tergum rounded, usually with a convex margin (arrows, Fig. 158 View Figs ). Size varying from relatively large to very small ................................................................................................................................................................ 29 29. Short petiole, no flange or collar (arrow, Fig. 159 View Figs ). Inquilines, mostly in Australia and Neotropical region, very rare in Nearctic and East Palearctic regions. Rarely encountered .......................................................................................................................................................... 30

— Longer petiolar region, with a reduced basal metasomal tergum forming a collar or sheath over petiole (arrow, Fig. 160) ...................... 31 30. With a circumtorular impression (an impression above antennal insertion) (cti, Figs. 161 and 162 View Figs ). Often with a well-developed pronotal plate (pt, Fig. 162 View Figs ) ......................................................................................................................................................................... Thrasorinae

— Without a circumtorular impression (arrow, Fig. 163 View Figs ). Without a well-developed pronotal plate, just visible laterally (pt, Fig. 163 View Figs ). Australia only .................................................................................................................................................................................................. Mikeiinae 31. Without a metasomal hairpatch (arrow, Fig. 164 View Figs ). Eyes commonly setose (arrow, Fig 166 View Figs ) ................................................... core Figitinae

— With a metasomal hair patch (arrow, Fig 165 View Figs ). Eyes typically glabrous (arrow, Fig. 167 View Figs ) ........................................................................ 32 32. Mesoscutum typically shining, lacking microsculpture ( Fig. 168 View Figs ), frequently with long setae present ................................ several Figitinae

— Mesoscutum matte and leathery with dense microsculpture (Fig. 169) ..................................................................... Melanips ( Aspicerinae ) 33. Scutellum simple, without a distinct scutellar plate (arrows, Figs. 170 and 171 View Figs ) ..................................................................................... 34

— Scutellum surmounted by distinct scutellar plate (arrows, Figs. 172 and 173 View Figs ) ............................................................................. Eucoilinae 34. Metasoma about the size of the mesosoma ( Figs. 174 and 175 View Figs ); brachyptery ( Figs. 174 and 175 View Figs ) more common than aptery. Color variable but very often pale. Mesosoma usually not strikingly narrow. Scutellum evenly convex. Mainly in summer in the Holarctic Region ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Charipinae

— Metasoma at least twice the size of mesosoma ( Figs. 176 and 177 View Figs ), both segments the same size; apterous ( Figs. 176 and 177 View Figs ) to brachypterous. Color from pale to dark brown. Mesosoma usually strikingly narrow. Scutellum rather flat. Mainly in the winter half of the year in the Holarctic Region.................................................................................................... Cynipini (alternate generation of winged forms)

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Cynipoidea