Croton blanchetianus Baillon (1864: 301)

Rossine, Yuri, Melo, André Laurênio De, Athiê-Souza, Sarah Maria & Sales, Margareth Ferreira De, 2023, Understanding the “ Marmeleiros ”: a taxonomic treatment of Croton sect. Lasiogyne (Euphorbiaceae) in Brazil, Phytotaxa 584 (4), pp. 219-250 : 231-232

publication ID 10.11646/phytotaxa.584.4.1


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Croton blanchetianus Baillon (1864: 301)


2. Croton blanchetianus Baillon (1864: 301) View in CoL .

Oxydectes blanchetiana (Baillon) Kuntze (1891: 611) View in CoL .

Lectotype (designated by Rossine et al. 2021):— BRAZIL. Bahia: without locality, 1840, J.S. Blanchet 3094 ( P [ P00623615 !]; isolectotypes: A [ A00257891 !], BR [ BR0000008550774 !], C [ C10011159 !], F [ F0077750F !], G [ G00434455 !, G00434456 !, G00311389 !], K [ K000186158 !, K000186159 !], MA [ MA249946 !], NY [ NY00246515 !], P [ P00623612 !, P00623613 !, P00623614 !], TUB [ TUB009093 !]) . Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 (f–j), 6 (a)

Croton alagoensis M̧ller Argoviensis (1873: 121) View in CoL . Lectotype (designated by Rossine et al. 2021):— BRAZIL. Alagoas: without locality, 1838, G. Gardner 1401 (G [G00434407!]; isolectotypes: A [A00047220!], F [F0077751F!], G [G00434406!], K [K000253585!, K000253584!, K000253586!], NY [NY00246505!, NY00246506!], P [P00623654!, P00623655!, P00623656!]).

Croton floribundus var. piauhyensis Rizzini (1976: 167) View in CoL . Holotype:— BRAZIL. Piauí: Nazaré, Fazenda Algod „o, 27 November 1973, Ramalho 296 (RB [ RB190610 !]; isotype: PEUFR [ PEUFR28271 View Materials !]).

Description: —Monoecious shrub, 1.5–8 m tall; latex translucent; monopodial branching, branches cylindrical, yellowish green to greyish; trichomes stellate-lepidote. Leaves alternate; stipules lanceolate to auriculate, 0.4–1.5 × 0.1–1.8 cm, usually persistent, with stellate-lepidote trichomes; petiole cylindrical, 0.3–2.5 cm long, with stellatelepidote trichomes; leaf blade chartaceous, ovate to oval-lanceolate, 1.2–12.5 × 1–6 cm, slightly bifacial, adaxial face dark green with stellate-lepidote trichomes, abaxial face opaque, light green to gray, with stellate to stellate-lepidote trichomes, base rounded to cordate, margins entire,apex acute to rounded, rarely mucronate,venation eucamptodromous, with 6–20 secondary veins. Thyrses 3–12 cm long, terminal, with stellate-lepidote trichomes, peduncle 0.2–1.5 cm long; cymules unisexual, congested, with up to 2 staminate flowers, pistillate flowers solitary; bracts deciduous, linear, 2–5 × 0.5 mm, margins entire, apex acute, with stellate trichomes. Staminate flower with pedicel 3–7 mm long; sepals greenish to yellowish, united for ⅓ of their length, lobes ovate, 2–2.5 × 1.5 mm, margins entire, apex acute, with stellate-lepidote trichomes externally, stellate internally; petals white, ovate, 2–3 × 1 mm, margins entire, apex rounded, with simple trichomes externally, glabrous internally; stamens 15–18, filament 2–3 mm long, anther long elliptic, ca. 0.8 × 0.5 mm; nectary disk with 5 free segments, ovate, glabrous. Pistillate flower with pedicel 1.0– 1.5 mm long; sepals green, united for ⅓ of their length, lobes ovate, equal in size, 5–7 × 4–5 mm, reduplicated vertically or both vertical and horizontally, margins entire, apex acute, trichomes stellate-lepidote externally, stellate-lepidote to glabrescent internally; petals absent; ovary spheroid to obloid, 2–2.5 × 2–3, trichomes stellate-lepidote to lepidote; styles ascending, multifid, united into a column for 3 / 4 of their length, 18–20 stigmatic tips, trichomes stellate; nectary disk of 5 free segments, elliptic, glabrous. Capsule green to yellowish, subspheroid to spheroid, 4–6 × 3–4 mm, 3- lobed, surface non-muricate, trichomes lepidote; columella up to 4 mm long, striated, apex flattened. Seed brown to black, ellipsoid to ovoid, 4–5 × 3.5–3.8, smooth, caruncle reniform.

Vernacular name: — Marmeleiro.

Distribution and habitat, conservation status, and phenology: — Croton blanchetianus is restricted to the Caatinga domain ( Gomes 2006, Carneiro-Torres 2009) and is found in all northeastern region except Maranh„o and Minas Gerais ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 , a). It is certainly one of the most abundant species in the Caatinga domain, together with C. heliotropiifolius Kunth, Bonpland & Humboldt (1817: 83) , which belongs to section Adenophylli Grisebach (1864: 40). It prefers open areas and the edges of forest fragments, being found mainly in clayey and stony soils, although it can also be found in sandy soils and on rocky outcrops. It has been recorded in xeric formations, anthropized areas, and along the edges of montane forests ( Gomes 2006, Carneiro-Torres 2009, Silva et al. 2010, Caruzo et al. 2022). Croton blanchetianus has an EOO of> 850,000 km 2, and an AOO of 1,628 km 2. This species is classified as Least Concern (LC), due to its wide EOO and its dense populations that are often the only shrub component in some areas. It flowers and fruits from October to July.

Notes: — Croton blanchetianus can be confused with C. floribundus , mainly because of its leaf morphology and stellate-lepidote to lepidote indumentum. Croton blanchetianus can easily be differentiated, however, mainly by a shrubby habit (vs. tree in C. floribundus ), ascending styles with 18–20 stigmatic tips, united in a column for most of their length (vs. patent, free to slightly united at the base, and with 24–36 stigmatic tips), and non-muricate capsule (vs. muricate).

Representative specimens: — BRAZIL. Alagoas: Piranhas, Fazenda Serrote , 9º37’26” S, 37º45’24” W, 6 July 2012, A. S GoogleMaps . Dias 3 ( ASE) . Bahia: Canudos, Estaç „o Biológica de Canudos, 10º01’66” S, 39º15’00” W, 16 February 2003, F. H. M . Silva 294 ( HUEFS) . Minas Gerais: Mato Verde, margens da rodovia Mato Verde—Monte Azul , (BR-122), 15º33’52” S, 42º89’02” W, 31 March 2003, J. R . Pirani 5372 ( SPF) . Paraíba: Taperoá , estrada de Teperoá em direç„o à S „o José dos Cordeiros, 7º20’75” S, 36º82’66” W, 22 January 1993, S. I . Silva 29 ( PEUFR) . Pernambuco: Cabrobó, Serra do Monte Santo, Adutora da Compesa , 8º30’80” S, 39º22’61” W, 9 April 2014, A. P . Fontana 7978 ( HUEFS) . Piauí: Oeiras, estrada Oeiras para Picos , ca. 5 km da cidade de Oeiras, 6º97’22” S, 42º08’52” W, 25 January 2014, B. M. T. Walter 6623 ( HUEFS). Rio Grande do Norte: Mossoró, Campus ESAM, 5º11’31” S, 37º20’40” W, 9 May 1978, O. F. Oliveira 587 ( MOSS). GoogleMaps Sergipe: Santana do S „o Francisco, Povoado Saúde , 10º17’28” S, 36º36’28” W, 26 February 2010, A. P GoogleMaps . Prata et al. 2233 ( ASE) .


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Croton blanchetianus Baillon (1864: 301)

Rossine, Yuri, Melo, André Laurênio De, Athiê-Souza, Sarah Maria & Sales, Margareth Ferreira De 2023

Croton floribundus var. piauhyensis

Rizzini 1976: 167

Oxydectes blanchetiana (Baillon)

Kuntze 1891: 611
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