Bungona (Chopralla) pontica Sroka, Godunko & Gattolliat,
Sroka, Pavel, Godunko, Roman J., Rutschmann, Sereina, Angeli, Kamila B., Frederico F. Salles, & Gattolliat, Jean-Luc, 2019, A new species of Bungona in Turkey (Ephemeroptera, Baetidae): an unexpected biogeographic pattern within a pantropical complex of mayflies, Zoosystematics and Evolution 95 (1), pp. 1-13: 1
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|Bungona (Chopralla) pontica Sroka, Godunko & Gattolliat|
Holotype. Male mature larva (IE CAS), TURKEY, Dipsiz Önü Stream, Gemicıler village, 500 m upstream from the village, in forest near Inebolu-Ayancık road, 50 m a.s.l., 41°57.641'N, 33°53.026'E; 06.vii.2011, Sroka & Godunko leg. [locality code: TUR11/52].
Paratypes. 2 mature male larvae (IE CAS: 1 larva in EtOH with some body parts mounted on a slide: mouthparts, legs, gills, tergum X, paraprocts, cerci; 1 larva dried and gilded as a SEM sample), same data as holotype; 1 mature male larva (IE CAS: in EtOH), TURKEY, Ilişi Stream, Inebolu-Ayancık road, Yakaören village, vicinity of Abana town, 50 m a.s.l., 41°56.244'N, 34°13.360'E; 06.vii.2011, Sroka & Godunko leg. [locality code: TUR11/53]; 2 female larvae (MZL: 1 larva in EtOH: GBIFCH00272819 [FREDIE SR24E11] and 1 larva on a slide GBIFCH00272820 [FREDIE SR24E12]), same data as holotype.
The prostheca of right mandible simple (not bifid) with several minute denticles apically; setae on the dorsal margin of the femur reaching 1/4 of the femur width; the surface of pronotum without tubercles. A detailed comparison with related species is presented in the Discussion.
External morphology of the larva.
Body length approx. 4.5 mm-4.7 mm (n = 2). Length of cerci ca 1.5-2.0 mm (0.3 × body length), paracercus equal in length to cerci (Fig. 1AView Figure 1).
Head. Labrum (Fig. 2AView Figure 2) ca 1.3 × wider than long, broadly rounded distally, with shallow medial emargination. Dorsal surface of labrum (Fig. 2AView Figure 2, right) with one long seta submedially (sI in Fig. 2AView Figure 2), apicolateral arc of three slightly shorter setae (sII in Fig. 2AView Figure 2); and with few short hair-like setae scattered on surface. Dense row of short branched setae present along anterior margin of labrum, longer setae anteromedially. Ventral surface of labrum (Fig. 2AView Figure 2, left) with group of fine hair-like setae near anterior margin.
Hypopharynx with trilobed lingua apically, slightly longer than superlingua. Distal parts of lingua and superlingua covered with short, hair-like setae.
Right mandible (Fig. 2CView Figure 2) with two partially fused incisor groups (outer incisor group (oig) in Fig. 2CView Figure 2, and inner incisor group (iig) in Fig. 2CView Figure 2), each equipped with three denticles. Right prostheca (prs in Fig. 2CView Figure 2) simple, not bifid, with several minute denticles apically. Numerous short setae present between prostheca and mola.
Left mandible (Fig. 2BView Figure 2) with two mostly fused incisor groups, outer incisor group with four denticles (oig) in Fig. 2BView Figure 2, and inner incisor group with three denticles (iig) in Fig. 2BView Figure 2. Left prostheca (prs in Fig. 2BView Figure 2) robust, with about three short rounded denticles and comb-shaped structure apically. Numerous short setae present between prostheca and mola.
Maxilla (Fig. 2HView Figure 2) with two-segmented maxillary palp. Segment II 1.8 × longer than segment I, narrowing distally, and pointed at apex.
Labium (Figs 2D-2GView Figure 2) with glossa slightly longer than paraglossa, inner margin of glossa with row of setae increasing in length apically. Second row of shorter setae present submarginally on ventral surface of glossa. Outer margin of glossa mostly without setation except for subapical part.
Paraglossa along outer margin with row of setae, increasing in length apically. Groups of similar setae in subapical region present on both, dorsal and ventral surface. Along inner margin, short rows consisting of ca five setae submarginally also present on both, dorsal and ventral surface.
Labial palp with segment I slightly longer than segments II and III combined. Segment I equipped with sparse short hair-like setae. Segment II with ca four stout setae in central part of dorsal surface, not expanded distoventrally. Segment III quadrangular, slightly distally expanded, with numerous setae on ventral surface, increasing in length and thickness distally.
Femur in all leg pairs with dorsal and ventral margin subparallel, ca 4 × longer than wide. Dorsal margin with sparse row of 8 or 9 long, apically rounded setae, slightly widened apically (Fig. 3A, C, EView Figure 3). Length of setae ca 0.25 × femur width. Occasional short setae present along anterior margin of femur.
Tibia with patella-tibial suture (middle and hind leg; pts in Figs 3D, FView Figure 3, 4C, DView Figure 4) which is absent on foreleg (Fig. 3BView Figure 3, 4BView Figure 4). Position of patella-tibial suture at middle of tibia length in hind leg, and slightly more distally in middle leg (Fig. 3D, FView Figure 3). Length of row of long setae on anterior surface of tibia extending for ca 0.5 × length of tibia in all legs. Width of row of long setae on posterior surface of tibia extends ca 0.5 × width of tibia in fore- and middle leg. In hind leg, row of long setae on posterior surface of tibia running parallel to outer margin of tibia, for same distance as row of setae on anterior surface. Angle between rows of setae on anterior and posterior margin of tibia more acute on hind leg compared to fore- and middle leg. (Fig. 3B, D, FView Figure 3). Short, bluntly pointed setae situated along inner margin of tibia.
Tarsi equipped with several rows of long hair-like setae along outer margin. Most regular row apparent on anterior surface, and accompanied by more irregular rows posteriorly. Length of rows of setae reaching ca 0.5 × length of tarsus in all legs. Occasional short spine-like setae present along inner margin of tarsus. Claws equipped with two rows of 3 or 4 flattened denticles, subapical striations, and minute subapical setae (Fig. 4E, FView Figure 4).
Hind wing pads vestigial (Fig. 5BView Figure 5).
Abdomen. Colour pale whitish with dark brown pattern (Fig. 1AView Figure 1). Tergite I pale, with dark stripe along posterior margin. Tergites II-VI mostly dark, with tiny paired pale dots submedially and several larger pale areas medially, submedially, and laterally. Tergites VII-VIII mostly pale, darker stripes along posterior margins. Tergites IX-X darker, with pale area anteriorly on tergite IX. Sternites pale whitish, with darker longitudinal stripes sublaterally (Fig. 1BView Figure 1).
Tergites equipped with numerous elongate scales, scale bases and short hair-like setae on surface (Fig. 5CView Figure 5). Posterior margin of tergites bear triangular spines (Fig. 5CView Figure 5); limited to lateral side on tergite I, larger and more elongated spines on tergites II-VII generally with median spines shorter than lateral, tergites VIII and IX similar to previous ones except central spines more reduced or completely absent. Spines on posterior margin of tergite X in two groups laterally and further two groups submedially (Fig. 5EView Figure 5).
Sternites also equipped with scales and scale bases occasionally scattered over the surface. Posterior margins of sternites IV to IX with triangular spines, very reduced on sternite IV, more distinct on posterior segments; spines absent in segments I-III. Row of conspicuous long setae present on sternites IV-VI (row of shorter setae also present on sternite III; Fig. 5AView Figure 5).
Gills (Fig. 5FView Figure 5) present on segments I-VII, slightly asymmetrical, with indistinct tracheation, apically pointed, margins occasionally bearing short setae. Brownish line medially on dorsal surface, parallel with medial trachea, not distinguishable on gills I and VII.
Paraprocts (Fig. 5DView Figure 5) with six pronounced marginal spines sometimes accompanied with 1-2 smaller ones. Surface equipped with sparse scales and scale bases. Posterolateral extension with few small marginal spines, absent in some specimens.
Caudal filaments (Fig. 1A, BView Figure 1) whitish with dark rings on segment margins. Distal margin of each segment equipped with pointed spines and scales. Outer margin of cerci bears enlarged spines on every second segment. Secondary swimming setae present.
“Pontus” in Latin means "Black Sea" in reference to the geographical region where the type material of the new species was collected.
Habitat and ecology.
Larvae were found in two slightly eutrophic small streams of different size, the Dipsiz Önü and Ilişi streams. Both small streams flow in northern direction towards the Black Sea within shallow valleys in the westernmost part of the Pontic Mountains (Kuzey Anadolu Dağlari). The slopes surrounding both valleys are relatively steep, formed by hills reaching up to 450 m a.s.l. (Fig. 7BView Figure 7) and are densely overgrown by the typical Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests (Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests ecoregion).
The Dipsiz Önü stream at the type locality at 50 m a.s.l. is small, only approximately 0.8-1.5 m wide, and partly shaded by vegetation (Fig. 7AView Figure 7). The bottom consists of relatively coarse stony substratum, partly covered by detritus in the littoral region. The current velocity was approximately 0.5 m/s and the water temperature reached 18 °C (measured ca 5 cm below the water surface).
The Ilişi stream, at the collecting site, was up to 4-4.5 m wide, had a relatively high velocity current (up to 0.7 m/s), well-expressed stream discharge, and a bottom structure consisting of relatively coarse stony substratum with a low concentration of detritus.
We can assume that the new species is probably very rare at the studied localities as well as in all Turkey. During extensive collecting trips in the Sinop Province in 2011 and 2017, only six larvae were found. Bungona pontica sp. n. larvae co-occurred with mayfly larvae of Epeorus sp., Electrogena sp., Procloeon bifidum (Bengtsson, 1912), Baetis fuscatus (Linnaeus, 1761), B. (Rhodobaetis) rhodani (Pictet, 1843), B. vardarensis Ikonomov, 1962, Nigrobaetis digitatus (Bengtsson, 1912), and Serratella ignita (Poda, 1761). Additional information on the species composition of the mayfly fauna within the Sinop and Kastamonu provinces was published by Tanatmış (2004), Ertorun and Tanatmış (2004) and further east, in the rivers of the Trabzon Province by Aydınli (2017). The presence of mature larvae at the beginning of July, indicates a flight period of B. (Ch.) pontica n. sp. during the first half of the summer.
In total, 61 haplotypes were reconstructed, including 19 previously unknown haplotypes. The new sequences were deposited at GenBank (Acc. nos in Table 1). The cox1 tree detected B. (Ch.) pontica sp. n. as a discrete lineage which is not nested within other Bungona (Chopralla) species (Fig. 9View Figure 9). Two other Bungona (Bungona) species, namely B. (B.) narilla and B. (B.) illiesi , formed a paraphyletic group. The Cloeodes representatives from South America (i.e., C. aymore , C. barituensis , C. ioachimi , and C. itajara ) together with C. pseudogladius from Madagascar formed a monophyletic clade. However, as the calculated branch support was very low, the phylogenetic relationships between species/genera remain mostly unsolved.
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