CLARIIDAE Bonaparte, 1846

Published, First, 2007, Checklist of catfishes, recent and fossil (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes), and catalogue of siluriform primary types, Zootaxa 1418, pp. 1-628: 136-148

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CLARIIDAE Bonaparte, 1846
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CLARIIDAE Bonaparte, 1846  

Clariini Bonaparte, 1846: 5. Type genus: Clarias Scopoli, 1777   .

Heterobranchoidei Bleeker, 1858b: 33, 37, 41, 333. Type genus: Heterobranchus Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 1809   .

Heteropneustidae Hora, 1936a: 209   . Type genus: Heteropneustes Müller, 1840   .

Taxonomic summary: Teugels (1986b, Africa).

Review: Jackson (1959, Nyasaland); Skelton & Teugels (1991, southern Africa); Teugels (1992a, west Africa).

Key to genera: Poll & Gosse (1994, Africa).

Identification guide: Jayaram (1980, South Asia).

Phylogeny: Teugels & Adriens (2003); Diogo et al. (2003a), Agnèse & Teugels (2005, African species); Jansen et al. (2005, anguilliform species).

16 genera, 113 species; including 2 fossil species.

BATHYCLARIAS Jackson, 1959  

Bathyclarias Jackson, 1959: 112   . Type species: Clarias longibarbis Worthington, 1933   . Type by original designation. Gender: Masculine.

Remarks: Removed from the synonymy of Dinotopterus   by Anseaume & Teugels (1999).

Species flock evolution: Agnèse & Teugels (2001a).

Bathyclarias euryodon Jackson, 1959  

Bathyclarias euryodon Jackson, 1959: 120   , fig. 4. Type locality: Nkata Bay, Lake Nyasa. Holotype: BMNH 1960.2.29.13.

Distribution: Lake Malawi (Teugels, 1986b, as Dinotopterus euryodon   ).

Bathyclarias ilesi Jackson, 1959  

Bathyclarias ilesi Jackson, 1959: 116   , fig. 2. Type locality: Nkata Bay, Lake Nyasa. Holotype: BMNH 1960.2.29.8.

Distribution: Lake Malawi (Teugels, 1986b, as Dinotopterus ilesi   ).

Bathyclarias longibarbis (Worthington, 1933)  

Clarias longibarbis Worthington, 1933b: 309   , fig. 10. Type locality: Lake Nyasa. Holotype: BMNH 1932.11.15.592.

Distribution: Lake Malawi (Teugels, 1986b, as Dinotopterus longibarbis   ).

Bathyclarias rotundifrons Jackson, 1959  

Bathyclarias rotundifrons Jackson, 1959: 118   , fig. 3. Type locality: Lake Nyasa. Holotype: BMNH 1960.2.29.11.

Distribution: Lake Malawi (Teugels, 1986b, as Dinotopterus rotundifrons   ).

Bathyclarias worthingtoni Jackson, 1959  

Bathyclarias worthingtoni Jackson, 1959: 123   , fig. 6. Type locality: [Nkata Bay] Lake Nyasa. Holotype: BMNH 1960.2.29.18.

Distribution: Lake Malawi (Teugels, 1986b, as Dinotopterus worthingtoni   ).

CHANNALLABES Günther, 1873  

Channallabes Günther, 1873a: 143   . Type species: Gymnallabes apus Günther, 1873   . Type by monotypy. Gender: Feminine. Originally proposed as a subgenus of Gymnallabes   .

Channallabes apus (Günther, 1873)  

Gymnallabes apus Günther, 1873a: 142   . Type locality: Interior of Ambriz , Angola. Holotype: BMNH 1873.7.28.16.

Distribution: Congo River basin (Teugels, 1986b).

CLARIALLABES Boulenger, 1900  

Clariallabes Boulenger, 1900a: 136   . Type species: Clarias melas Boulenger, 1887   . Type by original designation. Gender: Feminine.

Allabenchelys Boulenger, 1902e: 234   . Type species: Allabenchelys longicauda Boulenger, 1902   . Type by monotypy. Gender: Feminine.

Clariallabes attemsi (Holly, 1927)  

Allabenchelys attemsi Holly, 1927b: 202   , fig. 2. Type locality: Kamerun. Holotype: NMW 7897 View Materials .

Distribution: Cameroon, known only from an indefinite type locality (Teugels, 1986b).

Clariallabes brevibarbis Pellegrin, 1913  

Clariallabes brevibarbis Pellegrin, 1913b: 272   . Type locality: Ngomo (Ogôoué). Holotype: MNHN 1913-0265 View Materials .

Distribution: Ogowe River, Gabon (Teugels, 1986b).

Clariallabes centralis (Poll & Lambert, 1958)  

Clarias centralis Poll & Lambert, 1958: 334   , figure on p. 335. Type locality: Kunungu ( Congo). Holotype: MRAC 29659 View Materials .

Distribution: Central Congo River system (Teugels, 1986b).

Clariallabes heterocephalus Poll, 1967  

Clariallabes heterocephalus Poll, 1967: 233   , fig. 108. Type locality: Poste de Cuílo   GoogleMaps , Xá-Ua, riv. Luíta, (8º02'S, 19º25'E), Angola. Holotype: MRAC 162082 View Materials .

Distribution: Luita River, Angola (Teugels, 1986b).

Clariallabes laticeps (Steindachner, 1911)  

Allabenchelys laticeps Steindachner, 1911d: 532   . Type locality: Mawambi, Ituri– Flüss. Syntypes (9): NMW 7649 View Materials (1)   , NMW 47988 View Materials (1)   , NMW 47989 View Materials (1)   , NMW 479890 View Materials (1)   , NMW 47991 View Materials   (1).

Distribution: Ituri River, Aruwimi Basin, Congo River system; known only from type locality (Teugels, 1986b).

Clariallabes longicauda (Boulenger, 1902)  

Allabenchelys longicauda Boulenger, 1902e: 234   , pl. 22 (figs. 1–1a). Type locality: Ja River , flowing into the Sanga, an affluent of the right bank of the Congo, French Congo, 250 miles from the coast. Holotype: BMNH 1902.11.12.129.

Allabenchelys brevior Boulenger, 1903c: 439   . Type locality: Ja River , southern Cameroon. Syntypes (2): BMNH 1903.7.28.194–195 (2).

Distribution: Central Congo River system (Teugels, 1986b).

Clariallabes manyangae (Boulenger, 1919)  

Allabenchelys manyangae Boulenger, 1919: 159   . Type locality: Kinkenda (Manyanga), région des Cataractes du Bas-Congo. Syntypes (3): BMNH 1919.8. 28.12 (1), MRAC 1327 View Materials (1)   , MRAC 1329 View Materials   (1).

Distribution: Manyanga, Kinkenda; known only from type locality (Teugels, 1986b).

Clariallabes melas (Boulenger, 1887)  

Clarias melas Boulenger, 1887a: 148   . Type locality: Lower Congo. Holotype: BMNH 1887.1.13.6. Illustrated in Boulenger (1902e: pl. 22, fig. 2), possibly based on the holotype.

Clariallabes melas lembesseensis Fowler, 1949: 259   , figs. 48–52. Type locality: Oka , Congo system. Holotype: ANSP 71906 View Materials .

Distribution: Congo River system (Teugels, 1986b).

Clariallabes mutsindoziensis Taverne & De Vos, 1998  

Clariallabes mutsindoziensis Taverne & De Vos, 1998: 212   , figs. 1–3. Type locality: Rivière Mutsindozi près de son embouchure dans la Malagarasi à proximité de Gihofi, Burundi, 4º02'– 4º04'S, 30º09'– 30º11'E. Holotype: MRAC 96-31 View Materials -P-53.

Distribution: Mutsindozi River, Lake Tanganyika basin, Burundi (Taverne & De Vos, 1998).

Clariallabes petricola Greenwood, 1956  

Clariallabes petricola Greenwood, 1956: 556   , fig. 1. Type locality: Nile , about half a mile below the Owen-falls dam, Jinja, Uganda. Holotype: BMNH 1956.10.9.204.

Distribution: Lake Victoria and the Victoria Nile, near the Owen-falls dam (Teugels, 1986b).

Clariallabes pietschmanni (Güntert, 1938)  

Allabenchelys pietschmanni Güntert, 1938: 299   . Type locality: Aus dem Njong [ Cameroon]. Syntypes (26): NMW 46063 View Materials ,? NMW 47933 View Materials (1). Also appeared in Güntert (1939: 25).

Distribution: Nyong River; known only from type locality (Teugels, 1986b).

Clariallabes platyprosopos Jubb, 1965  

Clariallabes platyprosopos Jubb, 1965: 393   , fig. 1. Type locality: Upper Zambezi River , about 15 miles above the Victoria Falls, Rhodesia. Holotype: AMG P1050 View Materials .

Distribution: Upper Zambezi River (Teugels, 1986b).

Clariallabes simeonsi Poll, 1941  

Clariallabes simeonsi Poll, 1941a: 4   , figs. 2, 5. Type locality: Uélé , rivières Mosongolia , Mekokpa, et Matanga [Precise locality of holotype not stated], Congo belge. Holotype: IRSNB 61 View Materials .

Distribution: Uélé River, Congo River basin (Teugels, 1986b).

Clariallabes teugelsi   nomen novum

Clarias (Allabenchelys) dumerili longibarbis   David & Poll, 1937: 232, fig. 21. Type locality: Léopoldville, Congo Belge. Syntypes: MRAC 44011–013 View Materials (3). Preoccupied by Clarias longibarbis Worthington, 1933     .

Distribution: central Congo River basin (Teugels, 1986b).

Remarks: The name Clarias (Allabenchelys) dumerili longibarbis   David & Poll is a junior primary homonym of Clarias longibarbis Worthington   and, as such, was permanently invalid upon publication. The species was treated as valid, as Clariallabes dumerili   David & Poll, 1937, by Teugels (1986b: 67). However, Clariallabes dumerili   was not proposed as an available name in David & Poll and it also was not made available by action of Teugels. Teugels (1986b) lists no available synonyms for this name, so the name Clariallabes teugelsi   is proposed here as a replacement for Clarias (Allabenchelys) dumerili longibarbis   to provide a valid name for this species.

Clariallabes uelensis (Poll, 1941)  

Clarias (Allabenchelys) uelensis Poll, 1941a: 14   , fig. 6. Type locality: rivières Mosongolia, Mekokpa, et Matanga, région Ibembo, Uélé [precise locality of holotype not stated.]. Holotype: IRSNB 63 View Materials .

Distribution: Mosongolia, Mekokpa or Matanga Rivers, known only from types (Teugels, 1986b).

Clariallabes variabilis Pellegrin, 1926  

Clariallabes variabilis Pellegrin, 1926: 201   . Type locality: Dumbi ..., Kabambaie ...., Belenge ...., Tshimbu ..., Kamaiembi; Congo Belge. Syntypes (13): MNHN 1926-0151 View Materials (1)   , MNHN 1926-0152 View Materials (1)   , MNHN 1926-0153 View Materials (1)   , MNHN 1926-0154 View Materials (1)   , MRAC 19689 View Materials (1)   , MRAC 19690 View Materials (1)   , MRAC 19692 View Materials (1)   , MRAC 19694 View Materials (1)   , MRAC 19696 View Materials (1)   , MRAC 19702 View Materials (1)   , MRAC 19712 View Materials (1)   , MRAC 19713 View Materials (1)   , MRAC 19714 View Materials   (1).

Distribution: Congo River system (Teugels, 1986b).

CLARIAS Scopoli, 1777  

Chlarias Scopoli, 1777: 455   . Type species: Silurus anguillaris Linnaeus 1758   . Type by subsequent designation by Teugels & Roberts (1987). Gender: Masculine. First published without any included species; names apparently first added by Cuvier, 1816, but spelled Clarias   therein. Scopoli based his name on Clarias Gronovius   , a name published in a work that was rejected as non binomial (ICZN, opinion 261), but with an unexplained change in spelling. Spelling in Scopoli not followed in recent literature and not used here.`

Macropteronotus La Cepède, 1803: 84   . Type species: Macropteronotus charmuth La Cepède, 1803   . Type by subsequent designation, apparently by Jordan (1917). Gender : Masculine.

Clarias Cuvier, 1816: 206   . Type species not clearly established and may not have been proposed inasmuch as the name has been generally attributed to Scopoli or Gronovius. Proposed originally with two species. Gender: Masculine.

Cossyphus M’Clelland, 1844a: 403   . Type species: Cossyphus ater M’Clelland, 1844   . Type by monotypy. Gender: Masculine. Preoccupied several times, first by Cossyphus Olivier, 1791   , in Insecta  ; replaced by Phagorus M’Clelland, 1844   .

Phagorus M’Clelland, 1844b: 225   [errata]. Type species: Cossyphus ater M’Clelland, 1844   . Type by being a replacement name. Gender: Masculine. Replacement for Cossyphus M’Clelland, 1844   ; preoccupied by Cossyphus Olivier, 1791   .

Dinotopteroides Fowler, 1930: 41   . Type species: Dinotopteroides prentissgrayi Fowler, 1930   . Type by original designation. Gender: Masculine.

Prophagorus Smith, 1939: 236   . Type species: Clarias nieuhofii Valenciennes, 1840   . Type by original designation. Gender: Masculine.

Anguilloclarias Teugels, 1982a: 13   . Type species: Clarias theodorae Weber, 1897   . Type by original designation. Gender: Masculine. Originally proposed as a subgenus of Clarias   .

Brevicephaloides Teugels, 1982a: 14   . Type species: Clarias camerunensis Lönnberg, 1895   . Type by original designation. Gender: Masculine. Also appeared in Teugels (1982b: 739). Originally proposed as a subgenus of Clarias   .

Clarioides Teugels, 1982a: 12. Type species: Clarias angolensis Steindachner, 1866   . Type by original designation. Gender: Masculine.

Platycephaloides Teugels, 1982a: 11   . Type species: Clarias platycephalus Boulenger, 1902   . Type by original designation. Gender: Masculine. Originally as a subgenus of Clarias   . Also appeared in Teugels (1982b: 736).

Remarks: Clarioides was first proposed as subgenus of Clarias   in David & Poll (1937: 231) but without a type species and, therefore, cannot be treated as available from that publication [ICZN Art. 13.3]. Heterobranchoides   was first proposed as a subgenus of Clarias   by David (1935: 82, 99), but was not assigned a type species and the name is, therefore, not available from that publication. The name appears again in David & Poll (1937: 230), but as a synonym of Clarias   and not as a valid name. It is, therefore, also not available from that reference. See Teugels (1983) for comments on the validity of Dinotopteroides   as a natural subgroup of Clarias   .

Review: Debouche et al. (1979), Teugels (1982c, 1986a, African species).

Clarias agboyiensis Sydenham, 1980  

Clarias (Clarioides) agboyiensis Sydenham, 1980: 660   , figs. 1–2. Type locality: Agboyi Creek   GoogleMaps , a ditributary of the Ogun, Lagos State, south-west Nigeria, 6º36'N, 5º24'E. Holotype: BMNH 1959.8.18.66.

Clarias (Clarioides) isheriensis Sydenham, 1980: 663   , figs. 3–4. Type locality: Energo Project   GoogleMaps site, Lagos-Badagry expressway, Lagos State, Nigeria, 6º29'N, 3º15'E. Holotype: BMNH 1976.3.17.3.

Distribution: West Africa, from Ghana to Nigeria (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias albopunctatus Nichols & La Monte, 1953  

Clarias albopunctatus Nichols & La Monte, 1953: 1   , fig. 1. Type locality: Kotto River, about 225 miles north of Bangassou, eastern French Equatorial Africa. Holotype: AMNH 19840 View Materials ; holotype illustrated by Teugels (1986a: 94, fig. 49).

Distribution: Lake Chad, Benue River and central Congo River (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias alluaudi Boulenger, 1906  

Clarias Alluaudi Boulenger, 1906b: 437   . Type locality: Entebbe and Bunuako; [and] Kavirondo Bay, Lake Victoria [restricted to Bunuako by lectotype designation]. Lectotype: BMNH 1906.5.30.159, designated by Teugels (1986a: 120); lectotype illustrated by Seegers (1996: fig. 144).

Clarias hilgendorfi Boulenger, 1911c: 54   . Type locality: Lake Rukwa. Holotype: BMNH 1911.3.27.41; illustrated in Seegers (1996: fig. 146).

Distribution: Lakes Victoria, Kyoga, Edward, Rukwa and Tanganyika (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias anfractus Ng, 1999  

Clarias anfractus Ng, 1999d: 18   , figs. 1a, 2a, 3a, 4a. Type locality: Borneo: Sabah, Danum , forest stream 600 m into conservation area, tributary of Sungai Segama. Holotype: ZRC 42598 View Materials .

Distribution: Segama and Kalabakan River drainages, northeastern Borneo (Ng, 1999d).

Clarias angolensis Steindachner, 1866  

Clarias angolensis Steindachner, 1866: 766   , pl. 13 (figs. 4, 7). Type locality: Angola. Holotype: NMW 46891 View Materials ; holotype illustrated in Teugels (1986a: 68, fig. 35).

Clarias brevinuchalis Lönnberg & Rendahl, 1922: 123   , fig. 2. Type locality: Upper Congo. Holotype: NRM 9640 View Materials .

Clarias confluentus Nichols & La Monte, 1933b: 3   , fig. 3. Type locality: Luluabourg , Kasai District, Belgian Congo. Holotype: AMNH 12340 View Materials .

Clarias (Clarioides) curtus Matthes, 1964: 102   , pl. 4a. Type locality: Rivière Kululu (mare), Zaïre. Holotype: MRAC 138667 View Materials .

Distribution: Lower and Central Congo River system (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias anguillaris (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Silurus anguillaris Linnaeus, 1758: 305   . Type locality: Nile. Syntype: NRM LP 71.

Clarias Hasselquistii Valenciennes   , in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840b: 362 (280 in Strasbourg deluxe edition), pl. 446. Type locality: Nil. Syntypes: MNHN b-0287 (1), MNHN b-0288 (2).

Clarias Senegalensis Valenciennes   , in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840b: 376 (279 in the Strasbourg deluxe edition). Type locality: Sénégal. Syntypes: MNHN a-8667 (1, dry), MNHN a-9429 (1, dry).

Clarias parvimanus Günther, 1864: 15   . Type locality: Nile. Holotype: BMNH 1859.7.29.21.

Clarias budgetti Boulenger, 1900e: 513   . Type locality: River Gambia. Syntypes (3): BMNH 1901.7.17.4–6 (3).

Clarias anguillaris nigeriensis Pellegrin, 1923a: 213   . Type locality: Branche nontante de la boucle du Niger entre Mopti et Niafunké. Holotype: MNHN 1922-0161 View Materials (skull).

Distribution: Niger, Benoue, Gambia, lower Senegal and lower and middle Nile Rivers; Chad system; coastal rivers of Benin, Togo, Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire; and relict populations in Mauritania and southern Algeria (Teugels, 1986b).

Remarks: Teugels & Roberts (1987: 95) list NRM LP 71 as the holotype of Silurus anguillaris   , however, the original description of that species lists a range of meristic values that implies that more than one specimen contributed to the diagnosis. Thus, the specimen mentioned by Teugel & Roberts must be considered a syntype. See Benech et al. (1993) for characters that distinguish this species from Clarias gariepinus   .

Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Silurus batrachus Linnaeus, 1758: 305   . Type locality: Africa, Asia. Syntypes: Whereabouts unknown [not NRM LP 71 as reported by Fernholm & Wheeler (1983: 219–220); see discussion in Teugels & Roberts (1987: 95)].

Macropteronotus jagur Hamilton, 1822: 145   , 374. Type locality: in ponds and ditches [Ganges River]. No types known.

Macropteronotus magur Hamilton, 1822: 146   , 374, pl. 26 (fig. 45). Type locality: in ponds and ditches [Ganges River]. No types known.

Plotosus (Clarias) hamiltonii Swainson, 1839: 307   . Type locality: in ponds and ditches [Ganges River]. No types known. On “Ham. 146, pl. 26, f. 45” [= Hamilton (1822: 146, pl. 26, fig. 45)]. Unneeded new name for Macropteronotus magur Hamilton, 1822   .

Clarias punctatus Valenciennes   , in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840b: 384 (285 in the Strasbourg deluxe edition). Type locality: Java. Holotype (10 pouces): at MNHN, whereabouts unknown.

Distribution: Widely distributed in South and Southeast Asia.

Remarks: More than one species is included within what is currently called Clarias batrachus   . A clarification of the situation requires both demarcation of species and replacement of the missing primary types of Macropteronotus jagur   and M. magur   .

Clarias batu Lim & Ng, 1999  

Clarias batu Lim & Ng, 1999: 157   , figs. 1, 2, 4a, 5a, 7. Type locality: Sungai Baharu , on right side of Tekek-Juara trail, towards Juara, Pulau Tioman, Pahang, Malaysia. Holotype: ZRC 40087 View Materials .

Distribution: Peninsular Malaysia.

? Clarias brachysoma Günther, 1864  

Clarias brachysoma Günther, 1864: 20   . Type locality: Ceylon. Syntypes: BMNH 1859.5.31.6–8 (3).

Distribution: Sri Lanka.

Clarias buettikoferi Steindachner, 1894  

Clarias bulumae Steindachner, 1894: 55   . Type locality: Buluma , Liberia. Holotype: RMNH 3340 View Materials . Originally as: Clarias bulumae   n. sp.?

Clarias Büttikoferi Steindachner, 1894: 53   . Type locality: Buluma , Liberia. Holotype: registered at RMNH, but apparently not returned by Steindachner (Teugels, 1986a: 88).

Clarias liberiensis Steindachner, 1894: 54   , pl. 3 (fig. 2). Type locality: Buluma und aus dem Junk-flusse, Liberia [restricted to Junk-Flusse by lectotype designation]. Lectotype: RMNH 3342 View Materials , designated by Sydenham (1978: 355); lectotype illustrated by Teugels (1986a: 47, fig. 47).

Clarias guineensis Osório, 1909: 104   , pl. (fig. 3). Type locality: Guinée, Bolama, Postugo. Holotype: MB (destroyed).

Clarias dorsimarmoratus Ahl, 1937a: 239   . Type locality: 40–50 km landeinwärts Freetown , Sierra Leone. Holotype: ZMB 20939 View Materials .

Distribution: Comoe River, Côte d’Ivoire, to Guinea Bissau (Teugels, 1986b).

Remarks: Teugels (1986a: 88) appears to be the first to treat all three Steindachner names as synonyms and thus acted as first reviser in selecting Clarias buettikoferi   as the valid name for the species.

Clarias buthupogon Sauvage, 1879  

Clarias buthupogon Sauvage, 1879: 96   . Type locality: Doumé [Fleuve Ogôoué]. Holotype: MNHN a-0896; holotype illustrated by Teugels (1986a: 80, fig. 44).

Clarias megapogon Sauvage, 1880c: 39   . Type locality: Doumé [Fleuve Ogôoué]. Holotype: MNHN a-0896. Either an emendation or lapsus calami for Clarias buthupogon Sauvage.  

Clarias zygouron Nichols & Griscom, 1917: 704   , fig. 18. Type locality: Malela , Congo. Holotype: AMNH 6698 View Materials .

Clarias lindicus Boulenger, 1920a: 26   , fig. 13. Type locality: Bafwasende sur la Lindi , Congo Belge. Holotype: MRAC 7112 View Materials .

Clarias obscurus Poll, 1948: 22   , figs. 8–9. Type locality: Pweto , Lac Moero. Holotype: IRSNB 86 View Materials .

Chlarias angolensis macronema Fowler, 1949: 257   , figs. 43–47. Type locality: Oka , 18 mi. north of Eovo, Congo system. Holotype: ANSP 71903 View Materials .

Distribution: Coastal rivers, from Nigeria to the Congo River system (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias camerunensis Lönnberg, 1895  

Clarias camerunensis Lönnberg, 1895: 182   . Type locality: Cameroons. Lectotype: ZMUU 283 View Materials (88 mm TL, largest specimen); lectotype illustrated in, and designated by, Teugels (1986a: 154, fig. 85).

Clarias walkeri Günther, 1896a: 274   , pl. 14 (fig. b). Type locality: Ogowe River. Holotype: BMNH 1896.5.5.54.

Clarias breviceps Boulenger, 1900a: 135   , pl. 48 (fig. 6). Type locality: Marais Scala N’toto, Mayumbe. Syntypes: BMNH 1899.11. 27.93 (1), MRAC 271 View Materials   (1).

Clarias poensis Boulenger, 1908b: 1078   , fig. 252. Type locality: Fernando Po. Holotype: BMNH 1904.7.23.49.

Clarias monkei Keilhack, 1910: 119   . Type locality: in einem Kleinen Bache im Urwald 2 km südlich von Logobaba (4º2'N, 9º45'Ö), Kamerun. Syntypes (3): ZMB 17769 View Materials (3).

Clarias duchaillui Fowler, 1915a: 226   , fig. 7. Type locality: Gaboon. Holotype: ANSP 8567 View Materials [but published as ANSP 8568 View Materials ].

Clarias nigeriae Popta, 1919: 4   . Type locality: Wari , mouth of the Niger, West Africa. Holotype: RMNH 10332 View Materials .

Clarias (Allabenchelys) submarginatus thysvillensis   David & Poll, 1937: 231. Type locality: Grottes de Thysville , Congo Belge. Holotype: MRAC 37550 View Materials .  

Distribution: Coastal rivers of Togo to the lower and central Congo River system (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias cataractus (Fowler, 1939)  

Phagorus cataractus Fowler, 1939: 54   , figs. 1–3. Type locality: Waterfall at Trang, Siam. Holotype: ANSP 68462 View Materials .

Distribution: Peninsular Thailand and, possibly, Cambodia (Rainboth, 1996).

Clarias cavernicola Trewavas, 1936  

Clarias cavernicola Trewavas, 1936   , 70, pl. 2 (figs. 7–9). Type locality: Aigamas Cave , north of Otavi, South-West Africa. Lectotype: BMNH 1935.3.20.174, designated by Teugels (1986a: 134).

Distribution: Caves of south west Africa (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias dayi Hora, 1936  

Clarias dayi Hora, 1936b: 350   , figs. 3, 4c. Type locality: Wynaad [ India]. Holotype: at ZSI [on “Day’s Wynaad specimen”].

Distribution: Tamil Nadu, India (Manimekalan & Arunachalam (2002).

Remarks: Treated in current literature as valid or as a synonym of Clarias dussumieri Valenciennes, 1840   .

Clarias dhonti (Boulenger, 1920)  

Allabenchelys dhonti Boulenger, 1920c: 402   , fig. 8. Type locality: Kabeke, a village 30 miles south of Tumbwe, on the Niemba River, near the west coast of Lake Tanganyika. Syntypes (10): BMNH 1919.7.24.20–27 (8), MNHN 1919-0467 View Materials (1), MRAC 6991 View Materials (1). One syntype ( MRAC 6991 View Materials )   illustrated in Teugels (1986a: 176, fig. 91) but incorrectly listed therein as the holotype   .

Distribution: Niemba River, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias dialonensis Daget, 1962  

Clarias dialonensis Daget, 1962: 120   , fig. 39; pl. 11 (fig. 26). Type locality: Bafing près Mamou (Fouta Dialon). Lectotype: MNHN 1959-0107 View Materials ; lectotype illustrated in, and designated by, Teugels (1986a: 145, fig. 81) as Clarias laeviceps dialonensis   .

Distribution: Fouta Dialon, Guinea, and coastal rivers of Sierra Leone (Teugels, 1986b).

Remarks: Treated by Teugels (1986a: 145; 1986b: 88) as a subspecies of Clarias laeviceps   .

Clarias dumerilii Steindachner, 1866  

Clarias Dumerilii Steindachner, 1866: 766   , pl. 14 (fig. 5). Type locality: Angola. Neotype: BMNH 1864.7.13.42, designated by Teugels (1986a: 148).

Clarias ngola Lönnberg & Rendahl, 1920: 170   , fig. 1. Type locality: Kingoyi , Lower Congo. Holotype: NRM 9908 View Materials .

Clarias lualae Lönnberg & Rendahl, 1922: 122   , fig. 1. Type locality: Luala River , tributary of the Congo, near Kinkenge, Congo basin. Syntypes: NRM 39931 View Materials (2).

Distribution: central and upper Congo River system and the Luapula system (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias dussumieri Valenciennes, 1840  

Clarias Dussumieri Valenciennes   , in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840b: 382 (283 in the Strasbourg deluxe edition). Type locality: Malabar, ... Mahé, ... Pondicherry. Syntypes: MNHN b-0686 (3), MNHN b-0687 (1).

Distribution: South Asia.

Clarias ebriensis Pellegrin, 1920  

Clarias ebriensis Pellegrin, 1920: 118   . Type locality: Eau stagnante près Bingerville, Côte d’Ivoire. Lectotype: MNHN 1920-0037 View Materials , designated by Teugels & Thys van den Audenaerde (1981: 18); lectotype illustrated by Teugels (1986a: 131, fig. 72).

Clarias dahomeyensis Güntert, 1938: 296   . Type locality: Porto Novo , Dahomey. Syntypes: NMW 46922 View Materials (18), NMW 469223 View Materials   (9).

Distribution: Coastal rivers and lagoons from Nigeria to Côte d’Ivoire (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias engelseni (Johnsen, 1926)  

Allabenchelys engelseni Johnsen, 1926: 8   , figs. 2–3. Type locality: Aluma , Ramadalla and Yei, Sudan. Syntypes (15): BMNH 1925.12.30.11 (1), ZMUB 4131 View Materials a–b (2), ZMUB 4132 View Materials a–e (3 + 2 skeletons).

Distribution: Sudan (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias falconeri Lydekker, 1886  

Clarias falconeri Lydekker, 1886: 247   , pl. 37, fig. 1. Type locality: Siwalik Hills , India. Lower Pliocene. Holotype: BMNH 16402 b (middle part of skull).  

Distribution: Siwalik Hills, India; Lower Pliocene.

Clarias fuscus (La Cepède, 1803)  

Macropteronotus fuscus La Cepède, 1803: 84   , 88, pl. 2 (fig. 2). Type locality: China. No types known; based on an unpublished painting.

Clarias pulicaris Richardson, 1845: 135   , pl. 62 (figs. 5–6). Type locality: Canton , China. Holotype: BMNH 1968.3.11.21 (larger of two specimens).

Distribution: Ishigakijama, Japan; Taiwan, and south China (Masuda et al., 1984); northeastern Laos, and northern Vietnam (Kottelat, 2001a).

Clarias gabonensis Günther, 1867  

Clarias Gabonensis Günther, 1867b: 111   . Type locality: River Ogowe , Gaboon. Holotype: BMNH 1867.5.22.3.

Clarias dolloi Boulenger, 1896a: 311   . Type locality: Monsembe , upper Congo. Syntypes: BMNH 1896.3.9.18–20 (3).

Clarias congicus Poll, 1942a: 6   , figs. 2–3. Type locality: Lac Tumba , Congo belge. Holotype: MRAC 57759 View Materials .

Distribution: Lower and middle Congo River system, including Lake Tumba and the Pool Malebo; Chiloango system and Ogowe River (Teugels, 1986b).

Remarks: Redescription and comments on status (Teugels, 1982b).

Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)  

Silurus (Heterobranchus) Gariepinus Burchell, 1822: 425   (footnote), figure on p. 445. Type locality: Vaal River   GoogleMaps at Smidtsdrift, above confluence with Riet River, Cape Province, South Africa (28º42'10"S, 24º04'29"E), by neotype designation. Neotype: SAIAB 520 View Materials , illustrated in Skelton & Teugels (1992: fig. 2). Neotype designated by Teugels (1986a: 35), or Skelton & Teugels (1992: 1) [see Remarks, below].

Clarias capensis Valenciennes   , in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840b: 377 (279 in the Strasbourg deluxe edition). Type locality: Cap de Bonne-Espérience (in error). Holotype: MNHN a-9431 (dry).

Clarias lazera Valenciennes   , in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840b: 372 (275 in the Strasbourg deluxe edition). Type locality: Nil. Syntypes (3, plus one skeleton): MNHN 0000-1578 (1).

Clarias Syriacus Valenciennes   , in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840b: 375 (275 in the Strasbourg deluxe edition). Type locality: Syrie. Holotype: MNHN a-9426.

Clarias mossambicus Peters, 1852: 682   . Type locality: Tette, Mozambique. Syntypes: possibly FMNH 54274 View Materials (1)   , ZMB 3068 View Materials (1)   , ZMB 6591 View Materials (1)   , ZMB 6592 View Materials (1)   , ZMB 6593 View Materials   (1).

Clarias macracanthus Günther, 1864: 16   . Type locality: Upper Nile. Syntypes (5, one a skeleton): BMNH 1855.12. 26.453 (1), BMNH 1862.6   .17.51 (1), BMNH 1866.9.9.67–68 (2).

Clarias orontis Günther, 1864: 15   . Type locality: Orontes. Syntype: BMNH 1855.6.25.3. On Silurus anguillaris   of Russell (1794: 217, pl. 8) and Clarias   of Gronovius (1763: 100).

Clarias xenodon Günther, 1864: 16   . Type locality: Senegal, West Africa. Holotype: BMNH 1863.7. 30.3.

Clarias robecchii Vinciguerra, 1893: 450   . Type locality: Uebi Scebeli [ Somalia]. Syntypes: MSNG 8138 View Materials (2).

Clarias smithii Günther, 1896b: 219   , fig. 1. Type locality: middle course of the Shebeli Somaliland. Holotype: BMNH 1895.12.31.65.

Clarias guentheri Pfeffer, 1896: 28   . Type locality: Sansibar. Syntypes: Based on specimens identified as Clarius gariepinus   in Playfair & Günther (1867: 113), including BMNH 1867.3.9.388 (1, stuffed) and BMNH 1867.3.9.581 (stuffed, not found) and literature sources.

Clarias microphthalmus Pfeffer, 1896: 28   . Type locality: Mbake, Ugogo, Bubu, Deutsch Ost-Africa. Holotype: ZMH H477 View Materials .

Clarias longiceps Boulenger, 1899b: 103   , pl. 41 (fig. 1). Type locality: Boma swamps, [ Congo basin]. Syntypes: BMNH 1899.11.27.15–17 (3), MRAC 902–905 View Materials (4)   , MRAC 906–910 View Materials (5)   , MRAC 911–915 View Materials (5)   , MRAC 916–920 View Materials (5)   , MRAC 921–922 View Materials   (2).

Clarias moorii Boulenger, 1901d: 13   . Type locality: Lake Albert. Holotype: BMNH 1905.9.7.47.

Clarias tsanensis Boulenger, 1902c: 438   . Type locality: Lake Tsana , Abyssinia. Syntypes (5): BMNH 1902.12.13.441–443 (3).

Clarias vinciguerrae Boulenger, 1902c: 438   . Type locality: Awhorra , Kassam River, Abyssinia. Holotype: BMNH 1902.12.13.444.

Clarias malaris Nichols & Griscom, 1917: 705   , fig. 19. Type locality: Stanleyville , Congo. Holotype: AMNH 6441 View Materials .

Clarias notozygurus Lönnberg & Rendahl, 1922: 125   , fig. 3. Type locality: Lukosi, a tributary to Luala , Lower Congo. Holotype: NRM 9933 View Materials .

Clarias depressus Myers, 1925a: 12   . Type locality: water hole of a hippopotamus, on the Albano River about 6 km. west of Addagalla, Abyssinia. Syntypes: AMNH 8204 View Materials (2).

Clarias mülleri Pietschmann, 1939: 184   . Type locality: Eritrea. Holotype: at Museo di Trieste.

Distribution: Nearly Pan African, as well as Asia Minor (Teugels, 1986b); introduced into Laos (Kottelat, 2001b).

Remarks: Teugels (1986a: 35) cites “Bruton & Teugels (1986)” as source of neotype designation of Silurus (Heterobranchus) gariepinus Burchell. That   publication has not been found and may not have preceded Teugels (1986a). Tentatively, Teugels (1986a) is considered the actual source of neotype designation. Seegers (1996: 206) was similarly unable to locate the Bruton & Teugels source and, instead, cited Skelton & Teugels (1992) as source of the actual neotype designation. See Benech et al. (1993) for characters that distinguish this species from Clarias anguillaris   .

Clarias hilli Fowler, 1936  

Clarias hilli Fowler, 1936b: 299   , figs. 59–62. Type locality: Saidi's Village , Belgian Congo. Holotype: ANSP 65879 View Materials .

Clarias gracilis Fowler, 1936b: 303   , figs. 75–78. Type locality: Saidi's Village , Belgian Congo. Holotype: ANSP 66098 View Materials .

Distribution: middle Congo River system and Lake Albert (Teugels, 1986b).

Remarks: Teugels (1986b: 181) gave precedence to Clarias hilli   and placed C. gracilis   as a synonym, thereby acting as first reviser.

Clarias insolitus Ng, 2003  

Clarias insolitus Ng, 2003   h: 2, figs. 1, 2a. Type locality: Borneo: Kalimantan Tengah, Barito River drainage, small stream flowing into Sungai Rekut (tributary of Sungai Busang ) about 1.5 km upstream from the Project Barito Ulu base camp on Sungai Busang. Holotype: MZB 6112 View Materials .

Distribution: Barito River basin, southern Borneo (Ng, 2003h).

Clarias intermedius Teugels, Sudarto & Pouyaud, 2001  

Clarias intermedius Teugels, Sudarto & Pouyaud, 2001: 86   , fig. 5. Type locality: Palangkaraya market, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 10574 View Materials .

Distribution: Central Kalimantan, between the Sampit and Barito river basins, Borneo (Teugels et al., 2001).

Clarias jaensis Boulenger, 1909  

Clarias jaensis Boulenger, 1909: 188   . Type locality: Ja River at Bitye , South Cameroon. Lectotype: BMNH 1909.4.29.77, designated by Teugels (1986a: 55). Illustrated in Boulenger (1911a: 242, fig. 201).

Clarias cameronensis Holly, 1927c: 422   , unnumbered figure. Type locality: Nachtigalschnellen des Sanagaflussses. Holotype: NMW 13374 View Materials . Considered by Pellegrin (1929b) to be preoccupied by Clarias camerunensis Lönnberg, 1895   ; replaced by Clarias Hollyi Pellegrin, 1929   .

Clarias Hollyi Pellegrin, 1929b: 359   (footnote). Type locality: Nachtigalschnellen des Sanagaflussses. Holotype: NMW 13374 View Materials . Replacement for Clarias cameronensis Holly, 1927   ; considered preoccupied by Clarias camerunensis Lönnberg, 1895   .

Clarias (Clarioides) aboinensis Sydenham & Olawoye, 1981: 234   , fig. 1. Type locality: Ugbenu market, near Ologbo, Bendel State, Nigeria. Holotype: BMNH 1980.5.12.1.

Distribution: southeast Nigeria, south Cameroon and Gabon (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias kapuasensis Sudarto, Teugels & Pouyaud, 2003  

Clarias kapuasensis Sudarto, Teugels & Pouyaud, 2003: 156   , figs. 2a–b. Type locality: Nanga Pinoh in peat swamp bordering the river Melawi in the upper part of the Kapuas River, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 10965 View Materials .

Distribution: Kapuas River basin, Borneo (Sudarto, Teugels & Pouyaud, 2003).

Clarias laeviceps Gill, 1862  

Clarias laeviceps Gill, 1862: 139   , footnote. Type locality: [probably from Liberia]. Holotype: USNM 4099 View Materials ; holotype illustrated by Teugels (1986a: 143, fig. 79).

Clarias kingsleyae Günther, 1903: 334   . Type locality: Odumasi [and] Infoan on the R. Offim , Gold Coast. Syntypes (2): BMNH 1903.4   . 24.65 (1), BMNH 1903.4   .24.66 (1).

Clarias vandenhoutei Poll, 1941b: 137   , fig. 3. Type locality: confluence de la rivière Masei et la rivière Bon de Boan , Côte d’Ivoire. Holotype: MRAC 66360 View Materials .

Distribution: from Saint Pauls River, Liberia, to Volta River system, Ghana (Teugels, 1986b).

Remarks: Redescribed in Teugels (1981) with comments on the status of the species.

Clarias lamottei Daget & Planquette, 1967  

Clarias lamottei Daget & Planquette, 1967: 279   , fig. 1. Type locality: Aoué Bla, marigot affluent du Nzi, bassin du Bandama près Lamto, Côte d’Ivoire. Holotype: MNHN 1966-1104 View Materials ; holotype illustrated by Teugels (1986a: 20, fig. 15).

Distribution: Nzi River, tributary of the Bandama, Côte d’Ivoire (Teugels, 1986b).

Remarks: Considered by Teugels (2003b) as likely to be an intergeneric hybrid between a species of Clarias   and Heterobranchus   .

Clarias leiacanthus Bleeker, 1851  

Clarias leiacanthus Bleeker, 1851e: 430   . Type locality: Sambas, in fluviis. Holotype (160 mm TL): possibly BMNH 1863.12.4.85 (124 mm SL).

Clarias liacanthus Günther, 1864: 20   . Type locality: Sambas, in fluviis. Holotype: possibly BMNH 1863.12.4.85 (124 mm SL). Unjustified emendation of Clarias leiacanthus Bleeker, 1851   .

Distribution: Kapuas River (Roberts, 1989a).

Clarias liocephalus Boulenger, 1898  

Clarias liocephalus Boulenger, 1898d: 496   . Type locality: Lake Tanganyika. Lectotype or Holotype: BMNH 1898.9.9.70. Described in more detail and illustrated in Boulenger (1898f: 24, pl. 7, figs. 2, 2a) with locality as Kinyamkolo   . BMNH 1898.9.9.70 illustrated in Seegers (1996: 209, fig. 149) as holotype   . The original description did not indicate how many specimens were included in the concept of this species. Recent authors (e. g., Teugels , 1986; Eschmeyer et al., 1998) have interpreted BMNH 1898.9.9.70 as a holotype   , but BMNH 1898.9.9.71 was registered as the same species from the same locality. Therefore , the two specimens should probably have been treated as syntypes   . Since it was unclear whether more than one specimen was involved in the original description, Teugels (1986) interpretation of a holotype   made that specimen the lectotype.

Clarias carsonii Boulenger, 1903b: 362   . Type locality: Fwambo , British Central Africa. Holotype: BMNH 1894.12.20.20.

Clarias neumanni Hilgendorf, 1905: 409   . Type locality: Utim, im Guasso Nyiro in den Nguruman-Salzee fliessend, unter 36ºÖ L., 1º50'S Br. Holotype: at Nairobi Museum , Kenya, but Seegers (1996: 214, fig. 152, bottom) illustrated BMNH 1905.7.25.49 as the holotype.

Clarias phillipsi Norman, 1925a: 189   , pl. 11. Type locality: Lake Chahafi , S.O. Uganda. Holotype: MCZ 31519 View Materials .

Clarias ornatus Poll, 1943b: 306   . Type locality: Bururi, Haute Malagarazi , Lac Tanganika. Holotype: MRAC 56002 View Materials ; illustrated in Poll (1946: 230, fig. 25).

Clarias youngicus Ricardo-Bertram, 1943: 208   . Type locality: Lake Young , Shiwa Ngandu, (Bangweulu region). Syntypes: BMNH 1943.7.27.377–382 (6).

Distribution: Lakes Victoria, Edward, George, Kivu, Tanganyika, Malawi and small lakes of Uganda and Rwanda; Kagera system, Malagarazi System, Ruzizi River, Tana River, Bangweulu-Moero system (Teugels, 1986b); Lake Rukwa basin (Seegers, 1996).

Clarias longior Boulenger, 1907  

Clarias longior Boulenger, 1907b: 51   . Type locality: Kribi and Lobi Rivers, South Cameroon [restricted to Kribi River, by lectotype designation]. Lectotype: BMNH 1904.10.26.63, designated by Sydenham (1978: 369).

Clarias melanopogon Fowler, 1936b: 301   , figs. 71–74. Type locality: Thirty kilometers east of Kribi, Cameroons. Holotype: ANSP 66075 View Materials .

Distribution: Kribi, Lobi and Ntem Rivers of South Cameroon (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias maclareni Trewavas, 1962  

Clarias maclareni Trewavas, 1962: 157   , fig. 3. Type locality: L. Barombi-ma-Mbu, northwestern Cameroons. Holotype: BMNH 1959.8.18.174.

Distribution: Lake Barombi-ma-Mbu; known only from the type locality (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias macrocephalus Günther, 1864  

Clarias macrocephalus Günther, 1864: 18   . Type locality: Siam. Lectotype: BMNH 1862.11.1.216; lectotype designated by Teugels et al. (1999: 294).

Distribution: Mekong and Chao Phraya River basins, and possibly Philippines (Kottelat, 2001b).

Remarks: Redescribed in Teugels et al. (1999: 294).

Clarias macromystax Günther, 1864  

Clarias macromystax Günther, 1864: 17   . Type locality: Gambia [in error]. Holotype: BMNH 1862.5.20.4.

Distribution: Oueme River, Benin, to the Niger delta and the Niger and Benue Rivers (Teugels, 1986b).

Remarks: Teugels (1986a: 76) indicated that the stated type locality appears to be in error.

Clarias meladerma Bleeker, 1846  

Clarias meladerma Bleeker, 1846a: 178   . Type locality: Batavia. Syntypes (size and number not stated): RMNH 13709 View Materials (1), RMNH 16413 View Materials (1). Illustrated in Bleeker (1862–63: pl. 97 [Silur. pl. 49], fig. 2) as Clarias melanoderma   .

Clarias melasoma Bleeker, 1852b: 427   . Type locality: Prabukarta, Borneo austro-orientalis, in flumne Kusan; Palembang, Sumatrae austro-orientalis, in flumine Mussi. Syntypes (2, 170– 300 mm TL): RMNH 6802 View Materials (1).

Clarias melanoderma Bleeker, 1858b: 341   . Type locality: Batavia. Syntypes: RMNH 13709 View Materials (1), RMNH 16413 View Materials (1), RMNH 6802 View Materials (1). Unneeded new name for Clarias meladerma Bleeker   , and Clarias melasoma Bleeker.  

Distribution: Mekong River basin, and Sumatra, Borneo and Java (Kottelat, 2001b); also the Philippines (Rainboth, 1996).

Clarias microstomus Ng, 2001  

Clarias microstomus Ng, 2001c: 158   , fig. 1. Type locality: Borneo: Kalimantan Timur, Kayan River drainage, Ladang   GoogleMaps near Sungai Pingai   GoogleMaps , 2º0'9.6"N, 115º9'13.8"E. Holotype: MZB 9336 View Materials .

Distribution: Mahakam and Kayan River basins, eastern Borneo (Ng, 2001c).

Clarias ngamensis Castelnau, 1861  

Ciarias N'gamensis Castelnau, 1861: 63. Type locality: lac N’gami, [now: Lake Ngami , S. W. Africa (17º50'W, 21º00'E), by neotype designation]. Neotype: BMNH 1910.5.31.27, designated by Teugels (1983: 17). Published name clearly intended as Clarias   N'gamensis.  

Clarias Mellandi Boulenger, 1905b: 644   . Type locality: Lake Bangwelo. Holotype: BMNH 1905.11.10.7.

Dinotopterus jallae Gilchrist & Thompson, 1917: 556   , fig. 165. Type locality: Sheskeke , southern Rhodesia. Holotype: SAM 14297 View Materials [now at AMG].

Dinotopteroides prentissgrayi Fowler, 1930: 41   , fig. 10. Type locality: Chouzo , Quanza River, Angola. Holotype: ANSP 51798 View Materials .

Distribution: Quanza, Cunene, Okavango, Chobe, Zambezi above Victoria Falls, upper Lualaba, Luapula, Pungwe, Buzi, Save, Limpopo, Incomati, lower Pongolo, and lower Sabi River; Lake Ngami, Moero, Bangweulu, and Malawi (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias nieuhofii Valenciennes, 1840  

Clarias Nieuhofii Valenciennes   , in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840b: 386 (287 in the Strasbourg deluxe edition). Type locality: Indies. Holotype: MNHN b-0300.

Clarias pentapterus Bleeker, 1851d: 206   . Type locality: Bandjarmassing, in fluviis. Holotype (350 mm TL): Whereabouts unknown.

Clarias gilli Smith & Seale, 1906: 74   , figs. a–b. Type locality: Rio Grande , Mindanao, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 55620 View Materials .

Distribution: Sumatra, Kalimantan, India, Thailand and the Philippines (Sudarto et al., 2004); Coastal and, probably, Mekong side of Cardamom Range, Cambodia (Rainboth, 1996).

Clarias nigricans Ng, 2003  

Clarias nigricans Ng, 2003   g: 393, figs. 1, 2, 3a. Type locality: Borneo : Kalimantan Timur, market in Samarinda. Holotype: MZB 10705 View Materials .

Distribution: Mahakam River basin, Borneo (Ng, 2003e).

Clarias nigromarmoratus Poll, 1967  

Clarias nigromarmoratus Poll, 1967: 229   , fig. 106. Type locality: Riv. Luíta, Angola. Holotype: MD 6484.

Distribution: central Congo River system (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias olivaceus Fowler, 1904  

Chlarias olivaceus Fowler, 1904: 499   , pl. 28 (lower figure). Type locality: Padang , Sumatra. Holotype: ANSP 27280 View Materials .

Distribution: Highland rivers of western Sumatra (Tan & Ng, 2000).

Clarias pachynema Boulenger, 1903  

Clarias pachynema Boulenger, 1903c: 438   . Type locality: Ja River , southern Cameroon. Lectotype: BMNH 1903.7.28.191, illustrated in, and designated by, Teugels (1980: 686, fig. 61; 214.5 mm TL).

Clarias esamesae Boulenger, 1911e: 372   . Type locality: Esamesa , south Cameroon. Holotype: BMNH 1911.5.30.28.

Clarias oxycephalus Boulenger, 1913: 67   . Type locality: Nyong River , S. Cameroon. Holotype: BMNH 1913.10.29.7.

Distribution: Coastal rivers of south Cameroon, Oowe system and central Congo River system (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias planiceps Ng, 1999  

Clarias planiceps Ng, 1999d: 22   , figs. 4b, 5, 6. Type locality: Borneo : Sarawak, Belakin area, Ulu Sungai Anap. Holotype: SMK uncataloged.

Distribution: Upper reaches of the Rajang and Kapuas Rivers, western Borneo, and Kayan River, eastern Borneo (Ng, 1999d).

Clarias platycephalus Boulenger, 1902  

Clarias platycephalus Boulenger, 1902d: 35   , pl. 10 (fig. 1). Type locality: Monsembé, Haut-Congo. Holotype: BMNH 1901.12.21.43.

Clarias ekibondoi Fowler, 1936b: 300   , figs. 63–66. Type locality: Ekibondo's Village , Belgain Congo. Holotype: ANSP 65886 View Materials .

Clarias varispinis Fowler, 1936b: 301   , figs. 67–70. Type locality: Nola , Middle Congo. Holotype: ANSP 65887 View Materials .

Distribution: lower and central Congo River basin (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias pseudoleiacanthus Sudarto, Teugels & Pouyaud, 2003  

Clarias pseudoleiacanthus Sudarto, Teugels & Pouyaud, 2003: 156   , figs. 2a–b. Type locality: Satong , peat swamp at ca. 30 km after Ketapang on the road to Sudadana, Borneo, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 10964 View Materials .

Distribution: Borneo.

Clarias pseudonieuhofii Sudarto, Teugels & Pouyaud, 2004  

Clarias pseudonieuhofii Sudarto, Teugels & Pouyaud, 2004: 15   , fig. 3. Type locality: Semitau , near the Danau Sentarum Reserve, upstream Kapuas R. on the road between Sintang and Putussibau, West Kalimantna, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 10966 View Materials .

Distribution: Upper Kapuas River, West Kalimantan, Borneo (Sudarto et al., 2004: 16).

Clarias salae Hubrecht, 1881  

Clarias salae Hubrecht, 1881: 68   . Type locality: St. Paul’s River , Liberia. Lectotype: RMNH 5373 View Materials (smallest specimen); lectotype illustrated in, and designated by, Teugels (1986a: 103, fig. 54).

Distribution: Konkoure system, Guinea, to the Cavally River, Côte d’Ivoire (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias stappersii Boulenger, 1915  

Clarias Stappersii Boulenger, 1915: 168   . Type locality: Ruisseau affluent de la Lukinda, Tanganika-Moero. Holotype: MRAC 14139 View Materials .

Distribution: Luapula-Moero system, Kafue River, upper Zambezi River and Cunene River (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias submarginatus Peters, 1882  

Clarias submarginatus Peters, 1882: 74   . Type locality: Westafrica ( Tooxlong River). Lectotype: ZMB 11895 View Materials (largest specimen), designated by Sydenham (1978: 358); lectotype illustrated by Teugels (1986a: 107, fig. 56).

Clarias hollyi Fowler, 1936b: 304   , figs. 79–82. Type locality: Thirty kilometers east of Kribi, Cameroons. Holotype: ANSP 66118 View Materials . Preoccupied by Clarias hollyi Pellegrin, 1929   ; apparently not replaced.

Distribution: Kribi and Lobi Rivers, south Cameroon (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias sulcatus Ng, 2004  

Clarias sulcatus Ng, 2004d: 290   , fig. 1. Type locality: Malaysia: Terengganu: Pulau Redang , stream on east slope of west ridge. Holotype: ZRC 22666 View Materials .

Distribution: Rendang Island, off northeastern Malay Peninsula (Ng, 2004d).

Clarias teijsmanni Bleeker, 1857  

Clarias Teijsmanni Bleeker, 1857a: 344   . Type locality: Tjikoppo, provinciae Buitenzorg , 900 metr. p.m. supra mare [Java]. Holotype (110 mm TL): possibly AMS B.8031 (1), or BMNH 1863.12.4.62 (1).

Clarias pulcher Popta, 1904: 179   . Type locality: le Howong, Bornéo central. Holotype RMNH 7542 View Materials ; described in more detail, with illustration of holotype, in Popta (1906: pl. 1, fig. 2).

Distribution: Kapuas River, Borneo (Roberts, 1989a), and Java.

Clarias theodorae Weber, 1897  

Clarias theodorae Weber, 1897: 150   . Type locality: Natal: Umhloti-Fluss, Süd-Afrika. Holotype: ZMA 100647 View Materials ; holotype illustrated by Teugels (1986a: 111, fig. 58).

Clarias amplexicauda Boulenger, 1902d: 36   , pl. 10 (fig. 2). Type locality: Banzyville, [Haut Ubangi]. Holotype: MRAC 1158 View Materials .

Clarias Fouloni Boulenger, 1905b: 644   . Type locality: Lake Bangwelo. Holotype: BMNH 1905.11.10.8.

Clarias macrurus Boulenger, 1915: 168   . Type locality: Ruisseau affluent de la Lukinda, Tanganika-Moero. Holotype: MRAC 14256 View Materials .

Distribution: Zambezi, Kafue, Shire, upper Congo, Chobe, Okavango, Cunene, Pungwe, Sabi, Lundi, Limpopo, Incomati, Pongola, Umgeni rivers; Lakes Tanganyika, Bangweulu Kobo, Niumbe, Mweru, Malawi, and Sibaya (Teugels, 1986b).

Clarias werneri Boulenger, 1906  

Clarias Werneri Boulenger, 1906c: 569   . Type locality: Gondokoro , and Lake Victoria (at Bunjako, Buganga, and Munyonyo), Uganda [restricted to Buganga, by lectotype designation]. Lectotype: BMNH 1906.5.30.165; designated by Teugels (1986a: 126).

Distribution: Lakes Victoria, Kioga, Edward, and Tanganyika; upper Nile River (Teugels, 1986b).

NMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Siluriformes

Family

Clariidae

Loc

CLARIIDAE Bonaparte, 1846

Published, First 2007
2007
Loc

Clarias sulcatus

Ng 2004: 290
2004
Loc

Clarias kapuasensis

Sudarto, Teugels & Pouyaud 2003: 156
2003
Loc

Clarias intermedius

Teugels, Sudarto & Pouyaud 2001: 86
2001
Loc

Clarias anfractus

Ng 1999: 18
1999
Loc

Clarias planiceps

Ng 1999: 22
1999
Loc

Clarias (Clarioides) aboinensis

Sydenham & Olawoye 1981: 234
1981
Loc

Clariallabes heterocephalus

Poll 1967: 233
1967
Loc

Clarias nigromarmoratus

Poll 1967: 229
1967
Loc

Clariallabes platyprosopos

Jubb 1965: 393
1965
Loc

Clarias (Clarioides) curtus

Matthes 1964: 102
1964
Loc

Clarias maclareni

Trewavas 1962: 157
1962
Loc

Bathyclarias euryodon

Jackson 1959: 120
1959
Loc

Bathyclarias ilesi

Jackson 1959: 116
1959
Loc

Bathyclarias rotundifrons

Jackson 1959: 118
1959
Loc

Bathyclarias worthingtoni

Jackson 1959: 123
1959
Loc

Clarias centralis

Poll & Lambert 1958: 334
1958
Loc

Clariallabes petricola

Greenwood 1956: 556
1956
Loc

Clariallabes melas lembesseensis

Fowler 1949: 259
1949
Loc

Chlarias angolensis macronema

Fowler 1949: 257
1949
Loc

Clarias obscurus

Poll 1948: 22
1948
Loc

Clarias ornatus

Poll 1943: 306
1943
Loc

Clarias youngicus

Ricardo-Bertram 1943: 208
1943
Loc

Clarias congicus

Poll 1942: 6
1942
Loc

Clariallabes simeonsi

Poll 1941: 4
1941
Loc

Clarias (Allabenchelys) uelensis

Poll 1941: 14
1941
Loc

Clarias vandenhoutei

Poll 1941: 137
1941
Loc

Phagorus cataractus

Fowler 1939: 54
1939
Loc

Clarias mülleri

Pietschmann 1939: 184
1939
Loc

Allabenchelys pietschmanni Güntert, 1938: 299

Guntert 1938: 299
1938
Loc

Clarias dahomeyensis Güntert, 1938: 296

Guntert 1938: 296
1938
Loc

Clarias dorsimarmoratus

Ahl 1937: 239
1937
Loc

Clarias (Allabenchelys) submarginatus thysvillensis

David & Poll 1937
1937
Loc

Clarias dayi

Hora 1936: 350
1936
Loc

Clarias hilli

Fowler 1936: 299
1936
Loc

Clarias gracilis

Fowler 1936: 303
1936
Loc

Clarias melanopogon

Fowler 1936: 301
1936
Loc

Clarias ekibondoi

Fowler 1936: 300
1936
Loc

Clarias varispinis

Fowler 1936: 301
1936
Loc

Clarias hollyi

Fowler 1936: 304
1936
Loc

Clarias longibarbis

Worthington 1933: 309
1933
Loc

Clarias confluentus

Nichols & La Monte 1933: 3
1933
Loc

Dinotopteroides prentissgrayi

Fowler 1930: 41
1930
Loc

Clarias

Hollyi Pellegrin 1929
1929
Loc

Clarias hollyi

Pellegrin 1929
1929
Loc

Allabenchelys attemsi

Holly 1927: 202
1927
Loc

Clarias cameronensis

Holly 1927: 422
1927
Loc

Clarias depressus

Myers 1925: 12
1925
Loc

Clarias phillipsi

Norman 1925: 189
1925
Loc

Clarias anguillaris nigeriensis

Pellegrin 1923: 213
1923
Loc

Clarias brevinuchalis Lönnberg & Rendahl, 1922: 123

Lonnberg & Rendahl 1922: 123
1922
Loc

Clarias lualae Lönnberg & Rendahl, 1922: 122

Lonnberg & Rendahl 1922: 122
1922
Loc

Clarias notozygurus Lönnberg & Rendahl, 1922: 125

Lonnberg & Rendahl 1922: 125
1922
Loc

Clarias lindicus

Boulenger 1920: 26
1920
Loc

Clarias ngola Lönnberg & Rendahl, 1920: 170

Lonnberg & Rendahl 1920: 170
1920
Loc

Allabenchelys manyangae

Boulenger 1919: 159
1919
Loc

Clarias nigeriae

Popta 1919: 4
1919
Loc

Clarias zygouron

Nichols & Griscom 1917: 704
1917
Loc

Clarias malaris

Nichols & Griscom 1917: 705
1917
Loc

Dinotopterus jallae

Gilchrist & Thompson 1917: 556
1917
Loc

Clarias duchaillui

Fowler 1915: 226
1915
Loc

Clarias

Stappersii Boulenger 1915: 168
1915
Loc

Clarias macrurus

Boulenger 1915: 168
1915
Loc

Clariallabes brevibarbis

Pellegrin 1913: 272
1913
Loc

Clarias oxycephalus

Boulenger 1913: 67
1913
Loc

Clarias hilgendorfi

Boulenger 1911: 54
1911
Loc

Clarias esamesae

Boulenger 1911: 372
1911
Loc

Clarias monkei

Keilhack 1910: 119
1910
Loc

Clarias guineensis Osório, 1909: 104

Osorio 1909: 104
1909
Loc

Clarias jaensis

Boulenger 1909: 188
1909
Loc

Clarias poensis

Boulenger 1908: 1078
1908
Loc

Clarias longior

Boulenger 1907: 51
1907
Loc

Clarias gilli

Smith & Seale 1906: 74
1906
Loc

Clarias neumanni

Hilgendorf 1905: 409
1905
Loc

Clarias

Mellandi Boulenger 1905: 644
1905
Loc

Clarias

Fouloni Boulenger 1905: 644
1905
Loc

Chlarias olivaceus

Fowler 1904: 499
1904
Loc

Clarias pulcher

Popta 1904: 179
1904
Loc

Allabenchelys brevior

Boulenger 1903: 439
1903
Loc

Clarias kingsleyae Günther, 1903: 334

Gunther 1903: 334
1903
Loc

Clarias carsonii

Boulenger 1903: 362
1903
Loc

Clarias pachynema

Boulenger 1903: 438
1903
Loc

Clarias tsanensis

Boulenger 1902: 438
1902
Loc

Clarias vinciguerrae

Boulenger 1902: 438
1902
Loc

Clarias platycephalus

Boulenger 1902: 35
1902
Loc

Clarias amplexicauda

Boulenger 1902: 36
1902
Loc

Clarias moorii

Boulenger 1901: 13
1901
Loc

Clarias budgetti

Boulenger 1900: 513
1900
Loc

Clarias breviceps

Boulenger 1900: 135
1900
Loc

Clarias longiceps

Boulenger 1899: 103
1899
Loc

Clarias theodorae

Weber 1897: 150
1897
Loc

Clarias walkeri Günther, 1896a: 274

Gunther 1896: 274
1896
Loc

Clarias dolloi

Boulenger 1896: 311
1896
Loc

Clarias smithii Günther, 1896b: 219

Gunther 1896: 219
1896
Loc

Clarias guentheri

Pfeffer 1896: 28
1896
Loc

Clarias microphthalmus

Pfeffer 1896: 28
1896
Loc

Clarias camerunensis Lönnberg, 1895: 182

Lonnberg 1895: 182
1895
Loc

Clarias camerunensis Lönnberg, 1895

Lonnberg 1895
1895
Loc

Clarias Büttikoferi Steindachner, 1894: 53

Buttikoferi Steindachner 1894: 53
1894
Loc

Clarias liberiensis

Steindachner 1894: 54
1894
Loc

Clarias robecchii

Vinciguerra 1893: 450
1893
Loc

Clarias melas

Boulenger 1887: 148
1887
Loc

Clarias falconeri

Lydekker 1886: 247
1886
Loc

Clarias submarginatus

Peters 1882: 74
1882
Loc

Clarias salae

Hubrecht 1881: 68
1881
Loc

Clarias megapogon

Sauvage 1880: 39
1880
Loc

Clarias buthupogon

Sauvage 1879: 96
1879
Loc

Gymnallabes apus Günther, 1873a: 142

Gunther 1873: 142
1873
Loc

Clarias Gabonensis Günther, 1867b: 111

Gabonensis Gunther 1867: 111
1867
Loc

Clarias angolensis

Steindachner 1866: 766
1866
Loc

Clarias

Dumerilii Steindachner 1866: 766
1866
Loc

Clarias parvimanus Günther, 1864: 15

Gunther 1864: 15
1864
Loc

Clarias brachysoma Günther, 1864: 20

Gunther 1864: 20
1864
Loc

Clarias macracanthus Günther, 1864: 16

Gunther 1864: 16
1864
Loc

Clarias orontis Günther, 1864: 15

Gunther 1864: 15
1864
Loc

Clarias xenodon Günther, 1864: 16

Gunther 1864: 16
1864
Loc

Clarias liacanthus Günther, 1864: 20

Gunther 1864: 20
1864
Loc

Clarias macrocephalus Günther, 1864: 18

Gunther 1864: 18
1864
Loc

Clarias macromystax Günther, 1864: 17

Gunther 1864: 17
1864
Loc

Clarias laeviceps

Gill 1862: 139
1862
Loc

Clarias melanoderma

Bleeker 1858: 341
1858
Loc

Clarias mossambicus

Peters 1852: 682
1852
Loc

Clarias melasoma

Bleeker 1852: 427
1852
Loc

Clarias leiacanthus

Bleeker 1851: 430
1851
Loc

Clarias leiacanthus

Bleeker 1851
1851
Loc

Clarias pentapterus

Bleeker 1851: 206
1851
Loc

Clarias meladerma

Bleeker 1846
1846
Loc

Clarias pulicaris

Richardson 1845: 135
1845
Loc

Cossyphus M’Clelland, 1844a: 403

M'Clelland 1844: 403
1844
Loc

Cossyphus ater M’Clelland, 1844

M'Clelland 1844
1844
Loc

Phagorus M’Clelland, 1844

M'Clelland 1844
1844
Loc

Plotosus (Clarias) hamiltonii

Swainson 1839: 307
1839
Loc

Macropteronotus jagur

Hamilton 1822: 145
1822
Loc

Macropteronotus magur

Hamilton 1822: 146
1822
Loc

Macropteronotus magur

Hamilton 1822
1822
Loc

Clarias

Cuvier 1816: 206
1816
Loc

Macropteronotus fuscus La Cepède, 1803: 84

La Cepede 1803: 84
1803
Loc

Cossyphus

Olivier 1791
1791
Loc

Insecta

Linnaeus 1758
1758
Loc

Silurus anguillaris

Linnaeus 1758: 305
1758
Loc

Silurus anguillaris

Linnaeus 1758
1758