Dallatorrella rubriventris Kieffer, 1911: 244

LIU, ZHIWEI, 2001, Phylogeny, Biogeography, and Revision of the Subfamily Dallatorrellinae (Hymenoptera: Liopteridae), American Museum Novitates 3353 (1), pp. 1-22 : 16-18

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1206/0003-0082(2001)353<0001:PBAROT>2.0.CO;2

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/29285400-FFAD-FFDF-3EFD-F917D72AC943

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Carolina

scientific name

Dallatorrella rubriventris Kieffer, 1911: 244
status

 

Dallatorrella rubriventris Kieffer, 1911: 244 , 3.

DESCRIPTION: Length: 3 5.5–8.0 mm; ♀

5.0–8.0 mm. Head yellow, except vertex dark brown. Mesosoma black; legs black to dark brown. Metasoma yellow. Wings transparent, forewing with a very faint ferruginous mark distally along anterior margin.

Vertex foveate­reticulate with hair. Gena mostly glabrous and shallowly foveate with hair anteriorly and posteriorly; upper face rugose and sparsely pubescent; antennal scrobe glabrous and somewhat punctate with hair close to base antennal socket. Median frontal carina strongly raised into a prominent laminate, dorsally slightly flattened and triangular (in lateral view) process between ocellar plate and antennal sockets, indistinct in upper lower face and distinct in lower part of lower face. Lower face mostly glabrate and relatively densely punctate with hair in upper part and ventrally radiating striate. Eyes prominent, strongly protruding, but not so much beyond temple as in the other congeneric species, 1.2 times as long as height of malar space. Malar space glabrate and sparsely punctate with hair, with very faint vertical impression beneath eye. Clypeus laterally distinctly incised, anteroventrally with a broad triangular emargination, with radiating striation. Lateral pronotal carina distinct, but not crest like lateroventally, dorsomedially not reaching pronotal crest. Lateral pronotal area almost entirely foveatereticulate, foveae less prominent lateroventrally; lateroventral margin straight. Mesoscutum strongly costulate transversely and sparsely punctate with long hair; median mesoscutal impression only present as a short impression posteriorly; notauli percurrent, strongly diverging anteriorly; parascutal carina conspicuously raised and produced posteriorly into a triangular process ventrally turned apically. Lateral margin of axilla not raised. Lateral bar moderately wide and foveate, laterally slightly curved inward, shortest distance between lateral margins of lateral bars distinctly smaller than maximal width of scutellum. Scutellar sulcus subdivided by a median and two or more submedian carinae into multiple large foveae. Dorsal surface of scutellum foveate­reticulate with long hair, strongly sloping posteriorly. In dorsal view, scutellum rounded posteriorly. Axillula with inconspicuous whitish pubescence. Mesopleuron glabrous; mesopleural triangle with sparse pubescence. Metepisternum scabrous; metapleural carina projected ventrally into a robust, short process. Lateral propodeal carina slightly raised dorsally throughout. Metasomal T3 only slightly shorter than T4–T5 combined. T6 slightly longer than T4 and T5 combined. T7 posteriorly oblique and nearly straight, 1.6 as long as T6 and about twice as long as T8. All post petiolar terga dorsolaterally punctate with hair; punctures coars­ er and denser on T7 and T8. Apical metatibial process apically tapering, distinctly reaching beyond apex of metatibia. Pubescence sparse on femurs and tibiae, denser ventrally, conspicuous on tarsomeres.

DIAGNOSIS: The species is most easily distinguished from other species of the genus by its body color pattern and its glabratepunctate lower face (fig. 36).

DISTRIBUTION: Australia.

MATERIAL EXAMINED: 3♀ 53: 13 (holotype, NHM #7.12.), Australia: New South Wales; 33 , Australia: New South Wales ( MCZ), 13 , Australia ( NHM, London ), 3♀ , Australia: New South Wales and New Queensland ( ANIC) .

Dallatorrella sinica Liu , new species

Figures 29, 31, 33 View Figs , 35 View Figs

DESCRIPTION: Length: ♀ 8.0 mm. Body and legs almost entirely black, except metasoma dark brownish ventrally. Wings evenly ferruginous.

Vertex densely foveate with hair, except area continued posteriorly from antennal scrobe glabrous. Gena foveate­punctate with hairs. Upper face more or less scrobiculate with dense pubescence laterad to antennal scrobe. Antennal scrobe mostly glabrous and ventrally with dense pubescence. Median frontal carina extended in lower face to the level of ventral margin of eye, distinctly discontinuous beneath antennal socket, strongly raised into a prominent laminate, dorsally slightly flattened and triangular (in lateral view) process between ocellar plate and antennal sockets. Lower face punctate­foveate with dense pubescence in upper two­thirds and ventrally radiating­striate. Eyes prominent, strongly protruding beyond temple, 1.2 times as long as height of malar space. Malar space punctate­foveate with hair, with dis­ tinct vertical impression beneath eye. Clypeus laterally distinctly incised, anteroventrally with a broad triangular emargination, radiating­striate. Lateral pronotal carina distinct, but not crest like lateroventally, almost reaching pronotal crest dorsomedially. Lateral pronotal area almost entirely foveate­reticulate, except a very small glabrous area lateroventrally; lateroventral margin straight. Mesoscutum strongly costulate transversely and sparsely punctate with long hair; median mesoscutal impression only present as a short impression posteriorly; notauli percurrent, strongly diverging anteriorly; parascutal carina conspicuously raised and produced posteriorly into a triangular process. Lateral margin of axilla slightly raised. Lateral bar moderately wide and foveate, laterally not curved inward, shortest distance between lateral margins of lateral bars as wide as maximal width of scutellum. Scutellar sulcus subdivided by two submedian carinae into three large foveae. Dorsal surface of scutellum foveate­reticulate with long hair. In dorsal view, scutellum rounded posteriorly. Axillula with conspicuous whitish pubescence. Mesopleuron glabrous; mesopleural triangle strongly depressed, with conspicuous white pubescence in anterior half and nearly nude posteriorly. Metepisternum glabrate and sparsely punctate with hair; metapleural carina projected ventrally into a robust, short process. Lateral propodeal carina slightly raised dorsally throughout and densely pubescent. Metasomal T3 approximately as long as T4 and T5 combined, as long as T6. T7 posteriorly oblique and nearly straight, 1.5 as long as T6 and about 2 twice as long as T8. All post petiolar terga laterodorsally punctate with hair, punctures coarser and denser on T7 and T8. Apical metatibial process apically tapering, distinctly reaching beyond apex of metatibia. Pubescence sparse on femurs and tibiae, being denser ventrally and conspicuous on tarsomeres.

DIAGNOSIS: This new species is close to D. carinifrons , but with median frontal carina distinctly discontinuous beneath antennal sockets; genae, in front view, distinctly curved medially (fig. 35); and lateral margin of axilla laterally as wide as scutellum behind (fig. 31). In addition, metasoma of the new species is dark brown.

Male unknown.

DISTRIBUTION: China.

MATERIAL EXAMINED: Holotype ♀, China: Yunnan, Xishuangbanna, Meng’a , 1050 – 1080 m, 11 May 1958, S.­Y. Wang coll. ( ZICA, Beijing).

ETYMOLOGY: The name sinica is from Latin, meaning of China, referring to the northernmost distribution of the genus in southwestern China.

PHYLOGENY AND HISTORICAL BIOGEOGRAPHY

Cladistic analysis found three most parsimonious trees with length of 63 steps (CI = 74; RI = 71). The topology of all trees is the same at the base but differs toward the top. The monophyly of Dallatorrella is well supported by seven apomorphic character changes (figs. 42, 43), and relatively high bootstrap and jackknife values (fig. 42).

Biogeographically, seven of the nine species of Dallatorrellinae recognized in this paper are distributed in southeast and eastern Asia. The two species of the subfamily that do not occur in this region are from Australia and Papua New Guinea, and they nest in an unresolved terminal cluster with three others from the Oriental region in the strict consensus tree. The cladogram suggests that Dallatorrellinae originated in the Oriental region and subsequently dispersed to the Australian region, contrary to an earlier hypothesis by Ronquist (1995a). Ronquist suggested the Dallatorrellinae originated in the Australian region and subsequently dispersed to the Oriental region. However, Ronquist’s hypothesis was not based on a phylogenetic analysis of relationships within the subfamily.

Ronquist (1995b) also reconstructed the historical biogeography of the Liopteridae based on his phylogenetic analysis of the family. Since Ronquist (1995b), more work has been done on the phylogeny and historical biogeography of several of the major lineages of Liopteridae . In addition to the present study, a forthcoming study on the subfamily Mayrellinae suggests that the Mayrellinae has originated in either the Nearctic or eastern Palearctic, with a clade subsequently dispersed to Africa (Liu et al., in prep.). Thus, both Mayrellinae and Dallatorellinae have a Laurasian origin. Consequently, the split of the Dallatorrellinae from the stem species of the two Gondwanian subfamilies Liopterinae and Oberthuerellinae probably corresponds to the breakup of Pangea into Gondwana and Laurasia in the Middle to Late Jurassic (180–145 mybp) (fig. 44).

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection