Spalangia erythromera Förster, 1850, Forster, 1850

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2009, 2259, Zootaxa 2259, pp. 1-159: 62-70

publication ID

1175­5334

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/2C2C87BE-9E40-A025-FF67-D4E00BD7F56D

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scientific name

Spalangia erythromera Förster, 1850
status

 

9. Spalangia erythromera Förster, 1850  

(Figs 147–167, 173)

Spalangia erythromera Förster, 1850: 512–513   ; lectotype ♀ (NHMW, not examined) by Bouček (1963: 466). Type data: [ Germany] Aachen [lectotype: ♀ Or. Ex., Collect. G. Myer].

Spalangia umbellatarum Förster, 1850: 513–515   ; lectotype ♁ (NHMW, not examined) by Bouček (1963: 467). Type data: [ Germany] Aachen, Cologne, and between Eupen and Malmedy [lectotype: Collect. G. Mayr]. Synonymy by Bouček (1963: 466).

Spalangia spuria Förster, 1850: 515–516   ; lectotype ♀ (NHMW, not examined) by Bouček (1963: 468). Type data: [ Germany] 6 individuals around Aachen and 1 between Eupen and Malmedy [lectotype: ♀ Or. Ex., Collect. G. Myer]. Synonymy by Bouček (1963: 466).

Spalangia erythromera brachyceps Bouček, 1963: 471–472   ; holotype ♀ (NMPC, not examined). Type data: Czechoslovakia, Deblík Hill S of Ústí nad Lab., 15.VI.1957, Bouček. New synonymy.

Description. Female. Length = 1.2–2.7 mm. Legs dark except sometimes knees and almost always basal 3 or 4 tarsal segments yellow, but very rarely tarsi uniformly brown or with only basal segment of front leg yellow. Head in anterior view (Figs 147–149) about 1.0–1.2x as high as wide; in dorsal view about 1.6–1.8x as wide as long; in lateral view (Figs 150, 151) with malar space about 0.7–0.9x as long as eye height and about 0.9– 1.2x eye width. Head capsule (Figs 147–152) smooth and shiny except for setiferous punctures as follows: with complete median sulcus extending ventrally to elongate scrobal depression, otherwise upper face and parascrobal region with at most widely spaced, pinprick-like punctures; scrobal depression with finely coriaceous to coriaceous-granular scrobes on either side of more finely coriaceous to smooth and shiny interantennal region, and with setae extending over smooth, inclined surface of depression from parascrobal region, the setae sometimes originating from tiny bumps near torulus; gena usually rugulose-roughened near oral margin and with linear malar sulcus, but otherwise smooth except for setae; temple mostly smooth except for very sparse setae. Antenna (Figs 164, 165) with scape about 6.4–7.8x as long as wide, the outer surface (Fig. 167) punctate-rugulose to rugulose-roughened but inner surface (Fig. 166) usually more finely sculptured, more or less alutaceous-coriaceous; pedicel about 1.6–2.5x as long as apical width and about 1.9–2.3x as long as fu 1; funicle at with least apical four segments transverse with fu 7 about 1.3–2.0x as wide as long, and sometimes all funicular segments transverse in smaller specimens, but fu 1 about 0.9–1.3x as long as wide and fu 2 often subquadrate; clava about 1.8–2.4x as long as wide.

Pronotal collar in lateral view only very low convex behind neck and with circumpronotal band anterolaterally, but anteriorly smoothly rounded to neck; without cross-line posteriorly, smooth and shiny except for setae at most originating from tiny bumps rather than obvious circular depressions (Fig. 153) or variably extensively and conspicuously coriaceous to longitudinally strigose posteriorly in region of presumptive cross-line (Fig. 154) and/or sometimes strigose-rugose posterolaterally. Mesoscutal median lobe (Figs 153, 154) with anterior convex region finely coriaceous to transversely alutaceous posteriorly; internotaular region smooth and shiny to distinctly coriaceous lateral to median punctate-rugose region extending virtually to transscutal articulation, the sculptured region usually divided by irregular median carina (Fig. 154). Axillae (Figs 153, 154) smooth and shiny except for setae. Scutellum (Figs 153, 154) low convex, usually shiny but rarely coriaceous laterally adjacent to scutoscutellar suture, and sparsely though variably extensively setose with setae originating from at most pinprick-like setiferous punctures; frenum (Figs 153–159) with complete, uniformly developed crenulate frenal line, the punctures of similar depth and width so as to form strongly transverse ∩-shape, including an obliquely angled to almost longitudinal lateral puncture abruptly recurved from transverse portion across scutellum. Mesopleuron (Figs 160–162) comparatively smooth and shiny except as follows: pectal region bare except for 1 posteroventral seta; acropleuron longitudinally striate-carinate with ridges extending posteriorly onto alar shelf; subalar scrobe sometimes a largely smooth, distinctly concave, vertical depression delimited from upper mesepisternum by one or more oblique carinae, but often more extensively longitudinally to obliquely carinate or strigose and not distinctly differentiated from upper

Figs 147–155. Spalangia erythromera Förster.   147–149, head, anterior view: 147 & 148, N ♀, 149, P ♀; 150 & 151, head, lateral view: 150, N ♀, 151, P ♀; 152, N♁ head, lateral view; 153, N ♀ mesosoma, dorsal view; 154 & 155, thorax, dorsolateral view, 154, N ♀, 155, P ♀. Abbreviations, N = Nearctic, P = Palaearctic.

Figs 156–163. Spalangia erythromera Förster.   156, N♁ thorax, dorsolateral view; 157–159, frenum–petiole, posterodorsal view: 157, N ♀, 158, N♁, 159, P ♀; 160–162, mesopleuron: 160, N ♀, 161, N♁, 162, P ♀; 163, N♁ antenna (insert: scape–fu 1). Abbreviations, N = Nearctic, P = Palaearctic.

mesepisternum; episternal scrobe quite a distinct depression connected to subalar scrobe by a linear furrow; upper and lower mesepimeron smooth or upper mesepimeron in part finely strigose-alutaceous and lower mesepimeron in part coriaceous-alutaceous; upper and lower mesepisternum differentiated by complete line of closely spaced setae and by carinate transepisternal line over at least anterior half (Figs 160, 161), the upper mesepisternum variably extensively, obliquely carinate-strigose anteriorly and smooth and shiny or sometimes finely mesh-like coriaceous posteriorly. Fore wing hyaline; sometimes extensively setose behind submarginal vein except for vannal region, but mediocubital fold with at least 4 and usually several setae in one or two partial lines and basal cell with 1 or more lines of setae. Propodeum (Figs 157–158) with distinct postspiracular sulcus; callus usually completely reticulate-rugose, rarely with smooth and shiny region adjacent to postspiracular sulcus posterior to level of spiracle; plical region with narrowly V- shaped paramedian crenulate furrows delineating median carina, the carina in lateral view usually distinctly convex except is small specimens; supracoxal bands continuous with paramedian crenulate furrow; panels smooth and shiny.

Petiole (Figs 159, 161) about 1.6–1.9x as long as medial width; longitudinally carinate or punctate-reticulate between carinae; without or only rarely with 1 seta laterally. Gaster smooth and shiny or with very fine coriaceous sculpture on at least Gt 2 and Gt 3.

Male. Length = 1.2–2.0 mm. Antenna (Fig. 163) with scape about 4.7–6.5x as long as wide, the sculpture similar to female except inner and ventral surfaces (Fig. 163, insert) smooth and shiny to finely alutaceous and ventrally with variably conspicuous line of setae, but setae at most about as long as width of scape; pedicel often subglobular, but sometimes up to about 1.8x as long as wide; flagellum with setae much shorter than width of respective segment; funicle with fu 1 (Fig. 163, insert) about 1.4–3.0x as long as wide and about 1.3– 2.5x as long as pedicel, and subsequent segments sometimes slightly transverse in small specimens but usually subquadrate to distinctly longer than wide, with fu 7 about 0.8–1.4x as long as wide. Otherwise similar to female except as follows. Head in anterior view about 0.9–1.1x as wide as long; in lateral view (Fig. 152) with malar space about 0.6–0.7x eye height and about 0.8–1.0x eye width; scrobal depression sometimes completely smooth and shiny or with scrobes only very finely coriaceous. Mesoscutal median lobe sometimes with internotaular region only obscurely sculptured (Fig. 156). Fore wing sometimes with slight yellowishbrown tinge. Petiole (Fig. 158) about 2.4–2.9x as long as medial width.

Material examined. Nearctic (178♀, 71♁). CANADA: Alberta, Clyde, 7 mi. NE, 10-17.VIII.88, T. Thormin (3♀, 1♁). Magrath, 16 km. S, McIntyre Ranch, 26.VIII-9.IX.90, D. Griffith (1♀). Menaik, 15.VIII.61, K.R. Depner (7♀, 5♁). Midnapore, 26.VII.61, K.R. Depner, Haematobia irritans   (1♁). Rocky Mountain House, 28.VIII.61, K.R. Depner (1♀). Tod Cr., 4.IX.60, K.R. Depner, Haematobia irritans   (1♁). Wagner Bog, 4 km. W Edmonton, 9.VIII.84, T. Thormin (1♁). Writing-on-Stone Prov. Pk., 0.5 km. W, 31.VIII.81, D. McCorquodale (1♀)   . British Columbia, Anahim Lk to Redstone, 1000-1500 m., 17.VII.88, S. & J. Peck (3♀, 3♁). Blue Lk, Hwy 97, 34 km. NW Williams Lake , 17.VIII.78, P. Arnaud (1♀ CASC)   . Cassiar Hwy, Boyar Lk to Stikene R., 6.VIII.98, S. & J. Peck (7♀, 3♁). Osoyoos , Mt. Kobau , 370 m., 24-28.VIII.91, D. Blades & C. Maier (1♀). Sorrento, 17-20.VI.91, H. Goulet (1♁)   . Manitoba, 17 km. N Woodridge on Hwy 210, Sandilands Prov. For., 5-12. (5♀), 12-19. (1♀), 19-26. (1♀, 2♁) VII.87, 26.VII-2.VIII.87 (1♀), R. Roughley   . New Brunswick, York Co., Fredericton, 14, 20, 25.VIII.98, 6.IX.98, D. O̓ Shea (1♀, 3♁). Kouchibouguac Nat. Pk., 2, 23.VIII.78, S.J. Miller (1♀, 1♁)   . Ontario, Almonte — 3 km. N, 17-24.VI.86, 12- 20.VIII.86, 25.IX-2.X.86, Denis & Dumouchel (3♀); 5 km. NW, 5-12.VII.86, H. Goulet (1♀). Constance Bay — 6-13.VII.73, 13-20.VI.73, G. Gibson (8♀, 1♁); 20-27.VII.73, 3-10.VIII.73, L. Masner (2♀); 28.VIII- 9.IX.83, M. Sanborne (2♀). Deerlock , 19.VII.60, S.M. Clark (1♀). London , 1-7.IX.82, 18.IX-1.X.82, A. Tomlin (2♀). Guelph , 24.VII.95, J.M. Dow, composter (3♀ DEBU)   . Nepean — Pine Glen, 20-26.VII.89, L. Masner (1♀); Slack Road, 5-10.VIII.92, L. Masner (1♀, 1♁). Ottawa — 19.VI.1895, P.G. (1♀); 29.VIII.40, 17.VII.41, O. Peck (2♀); VIII.91, J.R. Vockeroth (1♁); 45º21.365'N 75º42.416'W, 5-8.X.08, H. Goulet (1♀). St. Lawrence Is. Nat. Pk. , Grenadier Is., 2.VIII.75, E. Sigler (1♀). Thunder Bay , 10 km. NW Lk Superior, Law Rd, 29.VIII.80, M. Kaulbars (1♀, 1♁) GoogleMaps   . Prince Edward Island, Harrington, 29.VIII.88, 17.IX.92, M.E. Smith (2♀)   . Quebec, Gatineau Pk. — 21.VIII.80, D.C. Darling (1♁ ROMT)   ; King Mt., 27.IX-4.X.00, L. LeSage (1♀). Kazabazua, 7 km. N., 8.VIII.92, A. Davis, ex mushrooms (4♀). Luskville Falls , 17-24.VII.86, Denis & Dumouchel (1♁). Perkins , 24.VIII.77, J.C. Cumming (1♀ DEBU)   . Saskatchewan, Snowden, 28.VII.44, O. Peck (1♀, 1♁)   . USA: Alaska, Chena Hot Sprs., 20.VII.85, H. Andersen (1♀ UCRC)   . Hope, 27.VII.85, H. Andersen (1♀ UCRC)   . No. Birchwood, 28.VII.85, H. Anderson (1♀ UCRC)   . Arizona, Graham ̓s Mts., Hospital Flats campground, 8500', 17.VIII.90, L. Masner (3♀, 3♁)   . California, Marin Co., Mill Valley, 7.XI.55, H.B. Leech, on rotting tomatoes with Drosophila   and other flies (1♀ CASC)   . Modoc Co., Saddle Blkt. Flat, 20.V.71, J. Schuh, ex pack rat nest (1♀ FSCA)   . Riverside Co., Lake Fulmor , IV-VIII.69, D. Hagstrum (1♀ UCRC)   . San Louis Obispo Co., 8 mi. ESE Simmier, San Diego Cr. , T30S R28E sect. 8, 22-30.VI.87, D.B. Wahl (1♁). Sierra Co., Yuba Pass, 21 km. S Portola, 2060 m., 2.VIII.98, S. Heydon (1♀ UCDC)   . Yolo Co., 2 mi. N Rumsey , 10.VI.79 (1♁ UCDC)   . District of Columbia, Rock Cr. Pk., 20.IX.24, under rotten fungi (2♀ USNM)   . Florida, Tallahasse, 18-23.V.86, H. Howden (1♀)   . Georgia, Rabun Co., Chatahochee St. For. nr Turnerville, 5-25.VI.84, S. Marshall (1♀)   . Illinois, Algonquin — 26.VIII.94-98 (1♀ INHS)   ; 4.VI.09, Nason (1♀ INHS)   . McLean Co., Towanda, 10.IX.87, J. Pinto (1♀)   . Maine, York Co., West Lebanon, 17-23.VII.90, 21-27.VIII.90, D.W. Barry (2♀ DENH)   . Maryland, Calvert, 7 km. S Prince Frederick, 24.IX-14.XI.87, BRC Hym. team (4♀). Plummers Island , 14.X.1906, E.A. Schwarz (1♁ USNM)   . Prince George ̓s Co., Hillcrest Hghts., 11-16.IX.79, dung trap (7♀ USNM)   . Michigan, Marquette Co., 28.VI.52, R.R. Dreisbach (1♀ USNM)   . Minnesota, Lac qui Parle, LQP County Park , 6.IX.85, P. Hanson (1♀ OSAC)   . Olmsted Co., 14.VI.1905, C.N. Ainslie (1♁ USNM)   . Missouri, Harrison Co., 6 mi. SE Bethany , 28.VI.87, D.S. Chandler (1♀ DENH)   . Wayne Co., Williamsville, VI.87 (1♀), 1-19.VI.87 (1♀), X.87 (3♀), J.T. Becker   . Montana, Babb, 27.VI.88, H. Andersen (1♀ UCRC)   . Missoula, 15 km. SSW Lolo Hot Springs, 15.IX.95, L.A. Baptiste (1♀ UCDC)   . New Hampshire, Carr Co. — 1 mi. N Wonalancet , E Fk. Spring Brk., 1900 ft, 18.IX-1.X.85, D.S. Chandler (1♀ DENH)   ; The Bowl, 2.5 mi. NW Wonalancet , 18-23.VII.85, 14-21.VIII.85, 29.VIII- 5.IX.85, D.S. Chandler (4♀ DENH)   . Strafford Co. — Durham , 10.VIII.54 (1♀ DENH)   , 11.VII.55 (1♀ USNM)   , R.L. Blickle; 4 mi. W Durham , 14-17.VI.82, R.M. Reeves (1♀ DENH)   ; 3 mi. SW Durham, Spruce Hole , 21.VIII-2.IX.87, D.S. Chandler (1♀ DENH)   . New Mexico, Bluff Spring, Lincoln Nat. For. , 26- 30.VII.77 (1♁)   . New York, Essex Co., Keene Valley , 1200 ft, 20.VII.62, J.G. Chillcott (1♁). Milford Center, 20.VIII.35, H.K. Townes (1♁ AEIC)   . North Carolina, Jackson Co., Whiteside Mt. — 13.IX.87, L. Masner (1♁); nr Highlands, 1600 m., VII-13.IX.87, BRC Hym team (1♁). Macon Co. , Whiteside Mt. , 1600 m., 20.VII.87, BRC Hym. team (1♁). McDowell Co. , 37º00'N 81º30'W, 9.VII-17.IX.87 (14♀, 14♁), 9.IX- 29.XI.87 (2♀, 5♁), BRC Hym. team. Northampton Co. , 7 km. S Jackson, 1-7.VII.87 (1♁) GoogleMaps   . Oklahoma, Latimer Co., Red Oak, X.90, K. Stephan (1♀)   . Oregon, Crook Co., Ochoco Nat. For., 25 mi. E Prineville, Hwy 26, 31.VII.85, A. Finnamore (1♀). Linn Co. , McKenzie Pass , Mt. Washington wilderness, 20.VIII.84, Grissell & Schauff (1♁ USNM)   . Warrenton , 8.VIII.40, H. & M. Townes (1♁ AEIC)   . Wasco Co., Clear Cr. Cmpgd., NE Warm Spring Jct., 8.VII.86, P. Hanson (1♀ OSAC)   . Pennsylvania, Cambria Co., 3 km. N Wilmore, 650 m. 30.V.91, L. Masner (1♁)   . South Carolina, Anderson Co., Pendleton, 250 m., 8-10.VI.87 (6♀), 10-17.VI.87 (2♀, 1♁), 17-27.VI.87 (5♀), 1.VII.87 (2♀), 1-7.VII.87 (4♀), 23-29.VII.87 (1♀, 1♁), 6- 14.VIII.87 (2♀), 15-20.VIII.87 (2♀), 14.VIII-9.IX.87 (1♀), 29.VIII-2.IX.87 (1♀), BRC Hym. team   . Tennessee, Benton Co., 29.VI.62, 21.VII.52, T.J. Walker (2♀ USNM)   . Utah, Cache Co., Logan Canyon, 15- 31.IX.76, 15-31.IX.76, G.F. Knowlton, ex cow dung (2♀ USNM)   . Summit Co., Bear R. Wasatch Nat. For., 1- 11.VIII.79, 8400 ft, S. & J. Peck (1♀)   . Virginia, Clarke Co., Blandy Exptl. Farm, 2 mi. S. Boyce, 12.IX- 3.X.95, D.R. Smith (1♀). Montgomery Co., 8 km. NW Blacksburg, 1-8.VII.87 (1♁), 1-17.VIII.87 (2♀), BRC Hym. team. Warren Co. , Shenandoah Nat. Pk. — Big Meadows, 8VII-20.VIII87, 1300 m., BRC Hym. team (1♀); Compton Gap, 800 m., VII-23.VIII. 87, 800 m., BRC Hym. team (1♀, 1♁)   . Washington, Ashford , 13.VII.40, H. & M. Townes (1♁ AEIC)   . Wyoming, Sublette Co., Wind River Mts. , Big Sandy Cmpgd., 27.VIII.85, P. Hanson (1♁ OSAC)   .

Figs 164–172. Figs 164–167, Spalangia erythromera Förster.   164 & 165, ♀ antenna (inserts: pedicel and fu 1); 166 & 167, ♀ scape, 166, inner view; 167, outer view. Figs 168–172, Spalangia crassicornis Bouček.   168, ♀ antenna (insert: pedicel and fu 1); 169 & 170, ♀ scape, 169, inner view; 170, outer view; 171, ♀ head, frontolateral view; 172, ♀ pronotum and mesonotum, dorsolateral view. Arrow points to median furrow of pronotum in Fig. 172.

Neotropical (1♀). VENEZUELA: Araugua , Maracay, Rancho Grande, cloud forest, 1200 m., 1- 10.VIII.87, Borden & Peck (1♀)   .

Distribution. Common throughout western Europe ( Noyes 2003) and in the Nearctic region extending from Alaska to at least southern USA and possibly into South America (Fig. 173) (see further under Recognition).

Biology. The horn fly, H. irritans   , is the only confirmed New World host record based on voucher specimens of Depner (1968). Noyes (2003) also listed Muscina sp.   ( Muscidae   ) and several other hosts in Anthomyiidae   , Lonchaeidae   , Phoridae   and Sepsidae   in Europe.

Recognition. I include S. erythromera   as one of five species in the subpunctata   species group as discussed under S. subpunctata   . Individuals of S. erythromera   are differentiated from all other New World Spalangia   by a combination of two features: pronotal collar lacking distinct circular setiferous punctures or a crenulate cross-line (species-group feature), but scutellum having a uniformly developed, strongly transverse, ∩-like frenal sulcus (Figs 153–159). Other New World species with a similarly smooth pronotal collar (mostly other subpunctata   -group and drosophilae   -group species) have the frenal line obviously interrupted medially or the punctures that form the line are largest laterally and become progressively smaller medially so that even if the line is complete it is tapered and usually effaced toward the midline (Figs 442, 443).

Almost all observed New World specimens of S. erythromera   have mostly yellow tarsi, though I saw two females from Quebec and one from New Brunswick as well as males from British Columbia that have uniformly brownish tarsi except sometimes for the basal segment of the front leg. This darker tarsal color pattern is similar to that described for the morphologically very similar European species, S. crassicornis Bouček   , which is a parasitoid of myrmecophilous Diptera   associated with Lasius fuliginosus Latreille   ( Formicidae   ) ( Bouček 1963). My concept of S. crassicornis   is based on the four female paratypes deposited in the BMNH by Bouček (1963) and a female identified as S. crassicornis   in NMPC labelled “ Austria: Lienz, Lavant, 22.VII.86, A. Kofler”. The features given by Bouček (1963) to differentiate individuals of S. crassicornis   from S. erythromera   either are not exhibited by all specimens, including tarsal color and presence of a median longitudinal rugose groove on the pronotal collar (Fig. 172: arrow), or are relative features, such as thickness of the legs and antennae (cf. Bouček 1963, figs 35, 40, 43). However, the very few females of S. crassicornis   I saw do have an obviously thicker and more strongly sculptured scape (Figs 168–170), and the scrobal depression is more extensively coriaceous to transversely coriaceous-strigose above the toruli (Fig. 171) than for females of S. erythromera   . I have not seen any males or any specimens from the New World that I identify as S. crassicornis   , though the single New World male with a head that I tentatively identify as S. nigripes   has the scrobes and inner half of the parascrobal region sculptured similar to female S. crassicornis   . Individuals, particularly males, of S. nigripes   are quite similar to S. erythromera   except for typically being larger and having circular setiferous punctures on both the pronotal collar and gena (see further under S. nigripes   ).

Individuals of S. erythromera   with dark tarsi could also be mistaken for S. subpunctata   , but in addition to the difference in structure of the frenal line have an even shinier mesopleuron with a more extensively carinate transepisternal line and closely spaced line of ventral setae (Figs 160, 161) than for most S. subpunctata   (Figs 440, 441). Furthermore, even though the pronotal collar of S. subpunctata   is extensively coriaceous (Fig. 438), it is not partly roughened (longitudinally strigose to strigose-rugulose) as in most S. erythromera   with an obviously sculptured pronotal collar (Fig. 154).

When Bouček (1963) differentiated his new subspecies S. brachyceps erythromera   from S. e. erythromera   he described the pronotal collar of the nominate subspecies as having “sparse punctures, these usually lengthened to rugose and dense in a cross-belt before hind margin, here in a shallow transverse impression” ( Bouček 1963: 408, fig. 39). This pronotal sculpture describes most specimens of S. erythromera   I examined from Europe (Fig. 155), whereas specimens from most parts of North America, including the three from Canada (CNC) that Bouček (1963) tentatively assigned to S. brachyceps erythromera   , have quite a smooth and shiny pronotal collar (Figs 153, 156). Comparatively few North American specimens have some distinct longitudinal wrinkling or rugae posterolaterally or in a slender band in the region of the presumptive pronotal crossline (Fig. 154). Such specimens tend to be larger, have a more distinctly elongate fu 1 (Fig. 165, insert), and a slightly more elongate head (Fig. 148) than specimens with a smooth pronotal collar, which agrees with the key differential features given by Bouček (1963: 468) to separate S. e. erythromera   from S. brachyceps erythromera   . However, as noted by Bouček (1963), the differences could all be correlated with size and possibly to parasitism of different hosts. I could not find additional quantifiable differences and therefore recognize only one species, S. erythromera   . Graham (1969) discussed S. erythromera brachyceps   but did not include subspecies in his list of synonymy for S. erythromera   , whereas Noyes (2003) listed S. erythromera brachyceps   as a synonym of S. erythromera   in his Internet database. This synonymy has been followed by other online catalogs but the names have never before been synonymized formally.

Fig. 173. Distribution of Spalangia erythromera Förster.  

The female I identify as S. erythromera   from Venezuela is anomalous because it is the only one I have seen south of the USA, but I cannot differentiate it from other females I assign to the species. I do not include in S. erythromera   or describe as a new species a CNC male labelled “ Ecuador: Napo Prov., El Chaco, 2000m, 11.II.83, M. Sharkey & L. Masner” that has a smooth and shiny pronotal collar, a complete frenal line, and a shiny mesopleuron similar to S. erythromera   . Although this male keys to S. erythromera   , it has a conspicuously longer flagellum with fu 1 about 4.7x as long as wide, fu 2 the shortest segment but still twice as long as wide, and the subsequent segments all more than twice as long as wide. The legs are brown with the trochanters, knees, tibiae apically, and basal four tarsal segments yellowish. The fore wing also has a yellowish-brown tinge and is extensively setose behind the submarginal vein, including the vannal region, and the petiole is about 4x as long as its medial width. I have little doubt that this male does not belong to S. erythromera   , but I prefer not to describe it as a new species until it can be associated with females and these differentiated from S. erythromera   females.

DEBU

Ontario Insect Collection, University of Guelph

UCRC

University of California, Riverside

FSCA

Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology

UCDC

R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

INHS

Illinois Natural History Survey

DENH

University of New Hampshire

OSAC

Oregon State Arthropod Collection

AEIC

American Entomological Institute

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Pteromalidae

Genus

Spalangia

Loc

Spalangia erythromera Förster, 1850

Gibson, Gary A. P. 2009
2009
Loc

Spalangia erythromera brachyceps Bouček, 1963: 471–472

Boucek, Z. 1963: 472
1963
Loc

Spalangia erythromera Förster, 1850: 512–513

Boucek, Z. 1963: 466
Forster, A. 1850: 513
1850
Loc

Spalangia umbellatarum Förster, 1850: 513–515

Boucek, Z. 1963: 467
Boucek, Z. 1963: 466
Forster, A. 1850: 515
1850
Loc

Spalangia spuria Förster, 1850: 515–516

Boucek, Z. 1963: 468
Boucek, Z. 1963: 466
Forster, A. 1850: 516
1850