Licornus tama, Villarreal & Kury, 2012

Villarreal, Osvaldo & Kury, Adriano B., 2012, Licornus Roewer, 1932: newly transferred to Ampycinae and first record of the family Gonyleptidae (Opiliones: Laniatores) from Venezuela, Zootaxa 3544, pp. 71-78: 73-76

publication ID


publication LSID

persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Licornus tama

sp. nov.

Licornus tama   sp. nov.

( Figs 1–19; Table 1)

Type material. Holotype male ( MIZA 1723 View Materials ), Venezuela, Táchira State, Parque Nacional Tamá, sector Río Negro- Moretón , vía Media Libra , 7º33'50.05'' N 72º12'1.04'' W, 528 m; I.2010 (Villarreal M.O., Arias Q., Escalona H.) GoogleMaps   . Paratypes: male and 3 females ( MIZA 1723 View Materials ). 1 female ( MNRJ 19386 View Materials ). All collected with the holotype   .

Diagnosis. General color dark brown with lateral margin of dorsal scutum with row of yellowish white flattened tubercles extending and growing in size from carapace to area III, following outline of scutum. Stigmatic area of male with 2 heavy posterolateral acuminate projections. Ventral plate of penis much elongate trapezoid with small V-shaped cleft. Lateral margins straight, subparallel, tapering slightly at distal part. With 1 small mesodorsal macroseta, a row of 5 medial aligned macrosetae — distal ones smaller, and 3 macrosetae aligned in a ventral row. Stylus surpassing ventral plate in situ because situated atop long glans complex. Dorsal process of glans penis present. Stylus C-shaped.

Description of male (holotype). Measurements. Dorsal scutum length 6.1, Prosomal length 2.4, Anterior prosomal 5.7, Median dorsal width 2.9, Interocular distance 0.8. Chelicera: Basichelicerite 0.9, Hand 1.6, Movable finger 0.6.

Dorsum ( Figs 1–4). Outline of dorsal scutum in dorsal view bell-shaped. Mesotergum divided into 4 wellmarked areas, area I divided into left and right halves by longitudinal straight groove. Ocularium low, armed with a dorsal pair of larger tubercles and some smaller granules. Carapace much smaller than abdominal scutum, with some granules arranged in two rows in the anterior margin, and some disperse granules in the posterior area. Lateral margin of dorsal scutum with row of yellowish white flattened tubercles extending and growing in size from carapace to area III, following outline of scutum. Scutal area I with some anterior granules and a posterior row of 4–5 yellowish white granules; II with approximately 2 rows of yellowish white granules and some additional granules; III with 2 large spines (spiniform tubercles) and some granules in lateral and mesoanterior area; IV with a row of about 13 granules. Posterior margin and free tergites each with a transverse row of granules; III with a posterior medial projection.

Venter ( Fig. 3). Stigmatic area elongate, with 2 heavy posterolateral acuminate projections, in the holotype a teratologic projection was observed in the right side. Free sternites each with a transverse row of granules.

Chelicera ( Figs 1, 3). Chelicera neither swollen nor elongate, with well-marked bulla with a little ectoproximal tubercle.

Pedipalpus ( Figs 7–8). Coxa with a ventral setiferous tubercle. Trochanter with 1 dorsal and 2 ventral setiferous tubercles. Femur with 1 ventroproximal setiferous tubercle, 1 mesodistal and a row of 3 ventroectal. Patella smooth and unarmed. Tibia: ectal and mesal with 2 large setiferous tubercles and 1 small distal (IIi). Tarsus: ectal with 4 conspicuous setiferous tubercles (IiIi); mesal with 5 (iIiII) and some very small lateral setae.

Legs ( Figs 9–15). Coxa I with 2 dorsal tubercles; II with 1 dorsal tubercle, 1 retrolateral very large spiniform process and 1 small tubercle fused to coxa III; coxa IV, in dorsal view, surpassing dorsal scutum, with numerous granules and 1 large tubercle posteriorly projected. Trochanter I unarmed; II-III with 2 retrolateral tubercles; IV with some little tubercles in both sides and 1 prolateral distal very large and curved tubercle. Femora I-III with 6 longitudinal rows of granules (2 ventral, 1 retrolateral, 1 prolateral and 2 dorsal), the ventral rows more conspicuous; II with the retrolateral and proximal tubercles larger; III curved with the retrolateral tubercles larger; IV with 7 longitudinal rows of granules (2 ventral, 1 retrolateral, 2 prolateral and 2 dorsal), the ventral and dorsodistal larger and 1prolateral distal curve tubercle. Patellae I-II unarmed; III with some granules and 1 conspicuous ventrodistal tubercle; IV with some tubercles ad 1 ventrodistal larger. Tibiae I–III with 7 longitudinal rows of granules, IV with 7 rows of tubercles of diverse sizes (2 ventral, 1 retrolateral, 2 prolateral and 2 dorsal), the 3 retrolateral ventral larger and rounded. Metatarsi I–III straight and inconspicuous; IV with row of tubercles which increase their size to the distal portion, and 1 distinctive retrolateral and proximal tubercle, larger than others. Tarsal formula ( Figs 12–15). 5(2) / 8(3) / 7 / 7.

view. 12–15. Tarsal formula, legs I – IV. 16–17. Distal portion of the penis: 16. Lateral view. 17. Dorsal view. Scale bar: 1 mm.

Penis ( Figs 16–17). Laterally with convex dorsal margin and ventral margin straight, with a concave ventral basal plate, which is facing the same direction as the shaft of the penis. Ventral plate long, with lateral margins straight, subparallel, tapering slightly at distal part. Distal border with small V-shaped cleft. With 1 small mesodorsal macroseta, a row of five medial aligned macrosetae—distal ones smaller, and three macrosetae aligned in a ventral row. Glans elongate distally surpassing ventral plate, with the final portion strongly curved posteriorly, at a straight angle and the presence of great and sharp stylus, with slightly swollen apex.

Coloration ( Figs 1–4). Dorsal scutum dark brown, with reticulated in carapace and lateral groove, with yellow spots between prosomal groove and groove III, and some little spots irregularly distributed. Chelicerae, pedipalps and trochanters yellowish brown reticulated; rest of the legs dark with few slight spots.

Differential characters of the female. Measurements. Dorsal scutum length 5.7, Prosomal length 2.2, Anterior prosomal width 5.4, Median dorsal width 2.7, Interocular distance 0.9. Chelicera: Basichelicerite 0.8, Hand 1.4, Movable finger 0.5.

Dorsal tubercles of area III smaller. Free tergite III without apophysis. Distal tubercles of coxa IV smaller. Retrolateral spiniform apophysis of trochanter IV smaller and not curved. Ventral and conspicuous spines of tibia IV absent. Proximal spine of metatarsus IV absent. Live male and female paratypes are illustrated in Figs 18–19   .

Etymology. Tama is a name in apposition referring to the type-locality of the species.

Comparisons. The penes of congeneric species have not been described, however, Licornus tama   sp. nov. can be distinguished by external characters. Males of L. atroluteus   ( Fig. 20) are not known, but the females present a differential pattern of coloration with areas I and III obscured and the shape of the dorsal scutum, not sharply widened. An accurate placement of this species must wait until males are studied in the future. Licornus perfectus   ( Fig. 21) seems to be most closely related to the new species, however can be differentiated by the size and shape of the trochanteral tubercles in the leg IV, size of the posterior projection, and absence of coxal tubercles in L. perfectus   .