Cryphalus itinerans Johnson,

Johnson, Andrew J., Li, You, Mandelshtam, Michail Yu., Park, Sangwook, Lin, Ching-Shan, Gao, Lei & Hulcr, Jiri, 2020, East Asian Cryphalus Erichson (Curculionidae, Scolytinae): new species, new synonymy and redescriptions of species, ZooKeys 995, pp. 15-66: 15

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.995.55981

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8E2B2797-295F-49B1-B39C-726F5DE1986C

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/A52892B8-430C-4113-9D1C-FCF118A06149

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:A52892B8-430C-4113-9D1C-FCF118A06149

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Cryphalus itinerans Johnson
status

sp. nov.

Cryphalus itinerans Johnson  sp. nov. Figures 2EView Figure 2, 3EView Figure 3, 9A-IView Figure 9

Type material examined.

China • 1 ♀ Holotype; Hong Kong, Kadoorie Farm; 22.4294°N, 114.1146°E; Jun. 2017; James Skelton, P Carlson, You Li, and Jiri Hulcr leg.; IOZ(E)225673; ex vial 20306.; UFFE:33170; ( IOZ) • 1 ♂ Paratype; same collection data; ; dissected; DNA: 28S:MT431547, COI:MT431650; UFFE:33178; ( UFFE) • 1 ♂ Paratype; Hong Kong, Kadoorie Farm; 22.4294°N, 114.1146°E; Jun. 2017; James Skelton, P Carlson, You Li, and Jiri Hulcr leg.; UFFE:33174; ( UFFE). .• 8 ♀♀, 8 ♂♂ Paratypes; same collection data ; UFFE:33179; ( NHMUK, 1♀, 1♂; FSCA, 1♀, 1♂; MZB, 1♀, 1♂; NIAES, 1♀, 1♂;NMNS, 1♀, 1♂; IOZ, 1♂ IOZ(E)225674; RIFID, 1♀, 1♂; USNM, 1♀, 1♂; ZIN, 1♀).

Other material examined.

China • 7; Fujian, Quanzhou, Yongchun, Diyiyan; 25.3177°N, 118.2809°E; 22 Nov. 2015; You Li leg.; beetle walking on the bark of Broussonetia papyrifera  ; DNA: 28S:MG051123, COI:MG051178; UFFE:22092; ( UFFE) • 12; Guangdong, Shenzhen, Yantian; 22.5889°N, 114.2842°E; 06 Apr. 2017; Wei Lin leg.; UFFE:31618; ( UFFE) • 2; Guangdong, Zhuhai, Jialinshan; 22.185°N, 113.4784°E; 05 Sep. 2018; Wei Lin, and You Li leg.:34039; ( UFFE) • 2; Guangxi, Shangsi, Shiwandashan; 21.9278°N, 107.9282°E; 27 Mar. 2018; You Li, and Shengchang Lai leg.; near pine plantation; DAE; UFFE:34230; ( UFFE) • 1 ♂; Hainan, Danzhou, near Botanic Garden; 19.5174°N, 109.4994°E; 22 Oct. 2016; You Li leg.; mix spp; DAE; UFFE:34187; ( UFFE) • 1 ♂; Hainan, Qiongzhong, Wanling; 26 Oct. 2016; You Li leg.; Light trap; DNA: 28S:MG051124, COI:MG051179; UFFE:25935; ( UFFE).

Taiwan • 7; Nantou County, Sun Moon Lake; 22 Apr. 2013; Ching-Shan Lin leg.; DNA: 28S:MG051126, COI:MG051180; UFFE:10482; ( UFFE) • 1; Taichung City, Wufeng District, Jingtonlin; 24.0457°N, 120.788°E; 10 Jan. 2019; Ching-Shan Lin leg.; ex. Ficus  erecta  Thunb. var. beecheyana  ; UFFE:32769; ( UFFE).

United States • 1 ♂; Florida, Escambia County, Pensacola, Ellyson industrial park; 30.5198°N, - 87.2109°E; 20 Jul. 2012; J. Welch leg.; UFFE:15115; ( FSCA) • 1 ♂; same collection data; DNA: 28S:MG051125; UFFE:15116; ( UFFE) • 1 ♀; same collection data; UFFE:15117; ( FSCA) • 1 ♀; Florida, Escambia County, Pensacola, Navy Point park; 21 May 2013; J. Brooks leg.; UFFE:15114; ( FSCA).

Type locality.

China, Hong Kong, Kadoorie Centre (22.4294°N, 114.1146°E).

Diagnosis.

Cryphalus itinerans  can be distinguished from most of the East Asian Cryphalus  by the combination of the size (1.3-1.8 mm), by the pronotal summit, which is about a third of the length, viewed dorsally, and by abundant scales over all of the pronotal disc.

This species is very similar to Cryphalus artocarpus  but differs by the size ( C. itinerans  : 1.3-1.8 mm, versus C. artocarpus  : 1.05-1.30 mm), by the setae on the male protibiae ( C. itinerans  : scythe-shaped, versus C. artocarpus  : hair-like, barely larger than on female), and by the proventriculus apical teeth ( C. itinerans  : more than two thirds segment width, versus C. artocarpus  : less than two thirds segment width).

This species is also very similar to C. dilutus  and can be diagnosed by the setae on the male protibiae ( C. itinerans  : scythe-shaped, versus C. dilutus  : spatula-shaped); by the mesofemora of the males ( C. itinerans  : unarmed, versus C. dilutus  : armed with a large spine).

Female. Length 1.40-1.80 mm (holotype 1.70 mm). Proportions 2.0 × as long as wide. Frons with minute aciculations, barely visible. Antennal club with three procurved sutures marked by coarse and long setae. Antennal funiculus with four or five funicular segments (holotype has four). Pronotal colour dark brown on slope, light brown on disc. Pronotal profile broadly rounded, slightly wider in line with summit. Pronotal margin armed with five to eight serrations (holotype has six), separated by approximately their width, and sometimes flanked by one or two pairs of smaller serrations. Pronotal declivity with more than 50 asperities (holotype has 65). Pronotal disc approximately one third the length of the pronotum, gently sloped, weakly tuberculate surface texture (obscured by scale-like setae). Pronotal vestiture hair-like on anterior and lateral sloped, and a mixture of scale-like and hair-like on disc and postero-lateral regions, with the scale-like setae 2-3 × as long as wide with a tridentate tip. Suture between pronotum and elytra weakly sinuate. Scutellum very small, barely visible. Elytra 1.5 × as long as pronotum, translucent yellow-brown, broadly rounded with no clear transition to the declivity. Striae barely visible as rows of punctures and hair-like setae. Interstrial bristles erect, weakly flattened with rounded tips, some uniform in length and some wider near tip. Interstrial ground vestiture tridentate, approximately 1-2 × as long as wide, translucent brown with a weak iridescence, sometimes light brown near the base of the elytra. Apex of elytra barely obtuse. Gular surface with evenly spaced hair-like setae. Protibiae and protarsi with only straight, hair-like setae. Protibiae and protarsi with only simple hair-like setae. Mesocoxae moderately separated, more than distance between metacoxae. Proventriculus not examined.

Male. Similar to female except: Length 1.30-1.70 mm. Frons weakly aciculate with a glossy carina above the level of the eyes. Gular surface shining around suture, surrounded by sparse setae. Pronotal profile widest in line with summit. Anterior to the summit, the profile is triangular. Pronotal margin with four to six marginal asperities, spaced approximately by twice their width. Pronotal declivity with almost straight slope, with more than 45 asperities, asperities smaller than the females. Pronotal disc with strongly tuberculate surface obscured by scale-like setae. Protibiae and protarsi with long scythe-shaped setae. Last abdominal ventrite clearly emarginated. Proventriculus sutural teeth rounded, in two overlapping rows. Apical teeth extending the width of a segment. Closing teeth very long, extending beyond masticatory brush, tapered, few branches. Masticatory brush short, less than length or apical plate. Aedeagus long, weakly sclerotised. Penis apodemes approximately two thirds as long as penis body. Tegmen with two ventral apodemes, which are longer than distance between them.

Etymology.

The name is derived from the Latin itinerāns meaning traveller, referring to the apparent ability to establish in new areas. It is invariable.

Distribution.

China (Hainan, Fujian, Guangdong, Yunnan, Hong Kong); Taiwan; United States (Florida).

Recorded plant hosts.

Moraceae  : Ficus carica  L., F. erecta Thunb. var. beecheyana  , Broussonetia papyrifera  (L.) Vent.

Suggested vernacular name.

Chinese: 华南梢小蠹 [South China twig beetle].

Remarks.

This species is weakly attracted to ethanol-quercivorol traps. It was observed making cave-like galleries in material 2-5 cm diameter.

This species was referred to as Hypocryphalus  “sp.1422” in Johnson et al. (2017) where some of the distribution records and diagnostic characters were described. This species is abundant and widespread across Southern China and neighbouring regions. It is surprising that this species is not already described; it is perhaps because much of the work on Cryphalus  in China has focused on species in the North or on coniferous hosts, as well as building upon work by researchers in the Russian Far East, not in tropical or sub-tropical regions. Several species from the Philippines such as Cryphalus obesus  Hopkins, 1915 are similar but have a much shorter pronotal disc. Cryphalus discretus  Eichhoff, 1878, from India and Myanmar, likely present in China, is also very similar, and differs by having a short elytral disc.

Using the key of Tsai and Li (1963), this species would be reach and match 23, Cryphalus mandschuricus  , though the proportions and overall appearance differ greatly.