Xenophyllum ciliolatum (A.Gray) V.A.Funk, Novon 7(3): 239. 1997.

Calvo, Joel & Moreira-Munoz, Andres, 2020, Taxonomic revision of the Andean genus Xenophyllum (Compositae, Senecioneae), PhytoKeys 158, pp. 1-106: 1

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Xenophyllum ciliolatum (A.Gray) V.A.Funk, Novon 7(3): 239. 1997.


9. Xenophyllum ciliolatum (A.Gray) V.A.Funk, Novon 7(3): 239. 1997.  

Werneria ciliolata   A.Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 5: 140. 1861. Type. Peru. Junín: Andes Peru, Casa Cancha, [without date], Capt. Wilkes Expedition s.n. (lectotype: US-00037299!, designated by Calvo et al. (2017: 229); isolectotype: GH-00967832 (fragment, digital image!)).

Werneria ciliata   Wedd. ex Sch.Bip., Linnaea 34: 530. 1866, nom. inval. pro syn. ( Turland et al. 2018, ICN Art. 36.1).


Suffruticose plant, forming clumps of erect or decumbent stems. Rhizomes 5-8 × 0.3-0.5 cm, horizontal to oblique, glabrous. Stems 4-7 cm tall, simple or branched, glabrous, with leaves usually clustered in the upper part. Leaves imbricate, erect (not adpressed to the stem), extending into a glabrous sheath-like base; leaf laminas 4.9-8.6 × 0.6-1.2 mm, linear, rather acute at the apex, denticulate, elliptical to slightly curved forwards in cross section, glabrous, 1-nerved above (barely visible), 1-nerved beneath (sometimes purple-colored), rather fleshy, matte. Capitula radiate, erect, sessile. Involucres 8.9-12.4 × 4-7.3 mm, narrowly cupuliform; involucral bracts ca. 8, 4.1-7.7 × 1.4-2.5 mm, acute at the apex, greenish to dark-purplish. Ray florets 8 to 11; corollas 6.2-7.3 × 0.8-1.2 mm, 3-veined, subentire to 2-toothed at the apex, not surpassing the involucre, yellow. Disc florets 11 to 28; corollas 5-7.3 mm long, yellow; style branches truncate with a crown of sweeping trichomes, yellowish. Achenes 2-3.3 × 1-1.2 mm, cylindrical, 7 to 8-ribbed, glabrous; pappus 6.2-7.4 mm long, barbellate, whitish. Chromosome number unknown.


Beltrán (2016: 358, fig. 2E, as photo).

Distribution and habitat.

Central Peru to central Bolivia. Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Potosí), Peru (Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cusco, Huancavelica, Junín, Lima, Moquegua, Pasco [expected], Puno). This species grows in rocky outcrops, scree slopes, cryoturbated soils, and exposed grasslands of the subhumid and humid puna ecoregions, between elevations of 3900-5350 m (Fig. 15 View Figure 15 ).


Flowering from February to November.


The adjective ciliolatus -a -um is the diminutive of ciliatus -a -um, which describes the denticulate leaf margin of this species.


Xenophyllum ciliolatum   is one of the species displaying yellow ray corollas not surpassing the involucre. It is characterized by having erect or decumbent stems 4-7 cm tall, linear leaves 4.9-8.6 mm long with denticulate margin, ca. 8 involucral bracts, and 8 to 11 ray florets. The leaves are erect (not adpressed to the stem) and tend to be clustered upwards.

The morphologically closest species is X. juniperinum   , known from southern Peru (Tacna), northern Chile, and western Bolivia (Oruro and Potosí). They differ in habit (erect or decumbent stems 4-7 cm long in X. ciliolatum   vs. erect stems 8-15 cm long in X. juniperinum   ), leaf disposition (clustered up the stem and erect in X. ciliolatum   vs. uniformly arranged along the stem and adpressed in X. juniperinum   ), leaf lamina shape (linear in X. ciliolatum   vs. linear-triangular in X. juniperinum   ), leaf margin (denticulate in X. ciliolatum   vs. minutely, irregularly denticulate in X. juniperinum   ), and involucral bract length (4.1-7.7 mm in X. ciliolatum   vs. 2.8-3.4 in X. juniperinum   ). Their distribution areas do not overlap. Xenophyllum ciliolatum   also shows morphological affinities with X. marcidum   (see comments under it) and X. weddellii   . From this latter species, X. ciliolatum   differs in having denticulate leaf margin (vs. entire in X. weddellii   ), yellow ray corollas not surpassing the involucre (vs. white and conspicuously surpassing the involucre in X. weddellii   ), and disc corollas 5-7.3 mm long (vs. 4.5-5.2 mm long in X. weddellii   ). These species co-occur in southern Peru (Arequipa, Moquegua, Puno).

The lectotype designation of the name Werneria ciliolata   A.Gray by Calvo et al. (2017) should be rather attributed to Funk (1997a) although she used the term “holotype”. It is here corrected to lectotype because it cannot be established that the author only used this element and that the gathering is represented by a single specimen ( McNeill 2014).

Additional specimens examined.

Bolivia. Cochabamba: cordillera del Tunari, laderas de la cumbre del Tunari, 17°17'S, 66°23'W, 25 Mar 1990, G. Navarro 596 (BOLV); cordillera del Tunari, laderas altas de la cumbre del Tunari, 17°17'S, 66°23'W, 25 Mar 1990, G. Navarro 628 (BOLV); cordillera del Tunari, cumbres del pico Tunari, 17°17'S, 66°23'W, 18 Feb 1990, G. Navarro 637 (BOLV); Quillacollo, cordillera alta del Tunari, cima de la Falso Tunari, 17°28'S, 66°38'W, 22 Aug 2010, M. Zárate 3770 (BOLV); La Paz: Los Andes, subiendo cerca de Peñas, por las lagunas de Hichucota, hacia la cumbre al lado del glacial Ankokota, 16°3'S, 68°18'W, 22 May 1999, S.G. Beck 24639 (LPB); Los Andes, above cumbre (pass) on rd. through Hichu-Kkota valley on rd. to mina La Fabulosa, 21 km from base of lag. Khara Kkota, 16°10'S, 68°20'W, 29 Apr 1995, V.A. Funk 11403 (LPB, US); Franz Tamayo, Ulla Ulla, cordillera Apolobamba cerca al pueblo de Pelechuco 17 km NE, 14°55'S, 69°10'W, 22 Aug 1986, P. Holt 14A (LPB); Franz Tamayo, Ulla-Ulla, nev. Manuel Llipani, 20 Jul 1982, X. Menhofer 10 (LPB); Franz Tamayo, paso de Pelechuco, 14°47'S, 69°10'W, 22 Jul 1982, X. Menhofer 23 (LPB); Omasuyos, Hichu Cota, subiendo a la cumbre, 16°7'S, 68°21'W, 28 Apr 1985, M. Moraes 153 (LPB); Loayza, Pata Mina-Viloco, 17 Aug 1982, O. Murgia 390 (LPB); Los Andes, valle de Hichu Kkota, 17 Nov 1983, C. Ostria 54 (LPB); Loayza, bajando de Viloco hacia Choquetanga, 16°52'S, 67°26'W, 15 Aug 1994, N. Salinas et al. 3294 (LPB); Franz Tamayo, Pelechuco, al N en línea recta a 3.8 km del campamento Chocollo, 14°43'S, 69°13'W, 25 Nov 2017, F. Zenteno, D. Villalba & L. Mamani 21275 (LPB); Oruro: Eduardo Abaroa, Challapata, desde Challapata subiendo hasta el final del camino hacia Azanaque, luego subiendo hasta las cumbres del Azanaque, 18°57'S, 66°42'W, 29 May 2016, I. Jiménez 8406 (LPB); Potosí: Colquechaca, 18°22'S, 65°32'W, 1 Feb 2010, F.S. Zenteno 16389 (USM); Azanaque, 18°34'S, 66°25'W, 3 May 2016, F.S. Zenteno 17034 (USM). Peru. Arequipa: pr. Chivay, nevado Huarancante, 15°44'S, 71°34'W, 3 Apr 2005, C. Aedo & A. Galán 11103 (MA); Castilla, Orcopampa, minas de Poracota, quebrada Sora, 15°13'S, 72°30'W, 20 Apr 2011, H. Beltrán 7100 (USM); Castilla, Orcopampa, minas de Poracota, cerca a quebrada Faculla, 15°14'S, 72°33'W, 20 Apr 2011, H. Beltrán 7111 (USM [mixed with X. digitatum   ]); La Unión, Huaynacotas, Sarajorepampa, 15°1'S, 72°47'W, 18 Mar 2011, D. Montesinos 2950 (HSP, MOL, USM); Castilla, Tapay, cerro Blanco, Apacheta, 14 Sep 2011, N. Vega 1744 (USM); Ayacucho: Páucar del Sara Sara, Oyolo, a 15 km al NO de Pampamarca, camino a Sayla, 15°5'S, 73°2'W, 14 Sep 2013, C. Tejada 226 (HSP); Cusco: Espinar, hacienda K’achachi (Uchupata), 15°0'S, 71°22'W, 22 Jun 1956, C. Vargas 11223 (US); Canas, alturas de Layo, 14°29'S, 71°9'W, 12 Aug 1957, C. Vargas 11871 (US); Canas, Langui, alturas, 14°25'S, 71°16'W, 14 Sep 1961, C. Vargas 13620 (LPB, US); Huancavelica: Huamanga, Licapa, 13°18'S, 74°45'W, 29 Oct 2009, A. Cano et al. 19436 (USM); Huaytará, Pilpichaca (abra Apacheta), 13°18'S, 74°46'W, 4 Jul 2010, A. Cano, W. Mendoza & A. Delgado 19658 (USM); Huaytará, Pilpichaca (abra Apacheta), 13°21'S, 74°45'W, 4 Jul 2010, A. Cano, W. Mendoza & A. Delgado 19721 (USM); Huaytará, Pillpichaca (Llillinta-Ingahuasi), 13°18'S, 74°45'W, 26 Jun 2010, A. Cano et al. 19849 (USM); Huachocolpa, alrededores de la unidad minera Caudalosa, 13°4'S, 75°0'W, 23 Mar 2015, P. Gonzáles 3545 (USM); Huaytará, 7 km lineales al NE del abra Apacheta, en el límite entre Huancavelica y Ayacucho, distr. Pilpichaca, 13°18'S, 74°46'W, 11 Apr 2005, J. Roque 4799 (USM); Huaytamayoc-Tansiri, 12°42'S, 75°10'W, May 1956, O. Tovar 2560 (USM); Junín: Anticona, abajo entre Casapalca y Oroya, 11°35'S, 76°11'W, 26 Jun 1954, O. Tovar & L. Constance 9194 (USM-29378 [mixed with X. decorum   and X. digitatum   ]); Yauli, Ticlio, 11°35'S, 76°11'W, 28 Jun 1999, G. Yarupaitán 1688 (US); Lima: Yauyos, Laraos, camino Jalcacha a Palca, 12°20'S, 75°43'W, 25 May 1995, H. Beltrán 1702 (USM); Huaral, Pacaros, abra de Antajirca, límite entre Lima y Pasco, 11°2'S, 76°32'W, 20 Jun 2015, H. Beltrán & W. Aparco 7842 (USM); Yauyos, Laraos, Carhuanisho, 12°22'S, 75°38'W, 4 Jun 2017, H. Beltrán 8086 (USM); Huarochirí, arriba de la laguna de Chumpicocha, 11°57'S, 76°9'W, 27 May 1953, E. Cerrate 2006 (USM); Huarochirí, San Damián, Chanape, Soyracocha, 11°54'S, 76°1'W, 10 Jul 2013, P. Gonzáles & B. Brito 2658 (USM); Huarochirí, San Damián, abra entre Chanape y la comunidad Checca, 11°55'S, 76°15'W, 14 Jul 2013, P. Gonzáles & B. Brito 2665 (USM); Moquegua: General Sánchez Cerro, Yunga, Perusa, 16°11'S, 70°37'W, 3 Mar 2018, D. Montesinos & J. Calvo 5956 (HSP); Mariscal Nieto, Calacoa, faldas Ticsani, SE, 16°44'S, 70°35'W, 4 Mar 2018, D. Montesinos & J. Calvo 6006 (HSP); Puno: Ananea ad pagum Rinconada et circa lacum alpestrim Comuni, 14°37'S, 69°26'W, 21 Oct 1976, L. Bernardi, A. Charpin & F. Jacquemoud 16772 (US); unpaved track across pampa to the N and W of the road between abra Pampilla and Ananea, 14°40'S, 69°41'W, 16 Mar 2014, V.A. Funk, M. Diazgranados & E. Cochachin 13180 (USM); Carabaya, Corani, Minaspata, 14°1'S, 70°41'W, 15 Oct 2017, P. Gonzáles 3837 (USM); San Antonio de Esquilache, 16°6'S, 70°17'W, 13 May 1937, D. Stafford 730 (BM, K); Crestón, San Antonio [de Esquilache], 1 Jul 1937, T.G. Tutin 1203 (BM).














Xenophyllum ciliolatum (A.Gray) V.A.Funk, Novon 7(3): 239. 1997.

Calvo, Joel & Moreira-Munoz, Andres 2020

Werneria ciliata

Wedd. ex Sch Bip 1866

Werneria ciliolata

A. Gray 1861