Actinostella flosculifera ( Le Sueur, 1817 )

Gonzalez-Muñoz, Ricardo, Simões, Nuno, Sanchez-Rodriguez, Judith, Rodriguez, Estefania & Segura-Puertas, Lourdes, 2012, First Inventory of Sea Anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) of the Mexican Caribbean, Zootaxa 3556, pp. 1-38 : 11-16

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.203987

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8B77DBA6-C74C-49DF-BC5F-1907FB374B90

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6180907

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/35648787-DB01-FFAB-88E5-FCD4FD2AFC04

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Actinostella flosculifera ( Le Sueur, 1817 )
status

 

Actinostella flosculifera ( Le Sueur, 1817)  

( Figure 3 View FIGURE 3 , Table 2 View TABLE 2 )

Actinia flosculifera Le Sueur, 1817: 174   .

Metridium praetextum Couthouy   in Dana, 1846: 150 –152.

Actinostella formosa Duchassaing, 1850: 10   .

Oulactis flosculifera Milne-Edwards, 1857: 292   .

Oulactis conquilega Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860   , pl. VII, fig. 7.

Oulactis Flosculifera   [sic] Duchassaing, 1870: 20.

Evactis flosculifera Andres, 1883: 244   .

Oulactis foliosa Andres, 1883: 297   .

Oulactis fasciculata McMurrich, 1889 b: 108   –110.

Asteractis   n. sp.: Duerden, 1897: 455.

Asteractis expansa Duerden   in McMurrich, 1898: 232 –234.

Cradactis fasciculata Haddon, 1898: 436   .

Asteractis flosculifera Verrill, 1899 a: 45   –46.

Actinactis flosculifera Verrill, 1900: 572   .

Actinostella flosculifera McMurrich, 1905: 7   .

Actinostella conchilega McMurrich, 1905: 4   –8.

Phyllactis flosculifera Stephenson, 1922: 283   .

Material examined.— Puerto Morelos (20 ° 54 ’ 26.38 ” N, 86 ° 50 ’ 43.14 ” W; 5 specimens); GoogleMaps   Isla Contoy (21 ° 29 ’ 0.10 ” N, 86 ° 47 ’ 39.10 ” W; 5 specimens); GoogleMaps   Akumal (20 ° 23 ’ 37.03 ” N, 87 ° 18 ’ 44.51 ” W; 1 specimen). GoogleMaps  

Diagnosis.—Fully expanded tentacles and marginal ruff to 120 mm in diameter. Oral disc 15–45 mm in diameter, with white spots ( Figure 3 View FIGURE 3 B). Tentacles about 48, hexamerously arranged in four cycles, smooth, conical, tapering distally, moderately long, inner ones longer than outer ones, contractile, white, semi-transparent with scattered small circular white spots ( Figure 3 View FIGURE 3 B). Column more or less elongated, 20–65 mm in height and 15–30 mm in diameter, smooth but with small rows of verrucae distally ( Figure 3 View FIGURE 3 C, F). Above verrucae lies a marginal ruff (or collar) formed by 48 rows of small frond-like fused papillae, light brown or olive-green ( Figure 3 View FIGURE 3 A, B). Pedal disc well developed, 11–29 mm in diameter ( Figure 3 View FIGURE 3 D). Pedal disc and column beige, semi-transparent. Mesenteries hexamerously arranged in three cycles (24 pairs in specimens examined): first cycle (including directives) and some pairs of second cycle perfect and fertile, others imperfect and sterile; gonochoric (?), only oocytes in examined specimens ( Figure 3 View FIGURE 3 E); same number of mesenteries distally and proximally. Two pairs of directives each attached to a well developed siphonoglyph. Retractor muscles strong and restricted; parietobasilar muscles well developed with a free mesogleal pennon ( Figure 3 View FIGURE 3 E). Basilar muscles well developed. Marginal sphincter muscle not developed ( Figure 3 View FIGURE 3 F). Zooxanthellae present. Cnidom: basitrichs, microbasic pmastigophores and spirocysts ( Figure 3 View FIGURE 3 G–N; see Table 2 View TABLE 2 ).

Natural history.— Actinostella flosculifera   inhabits fields of the seagrasses Thalassia testudinum   and Syringodium filiforme   , often between 0.5–5 m depth, in areas of the lagoon-reef zone with low wave energy. It is usually found with the column burrowed, but the pedal disc is actually adhered to buried rocks, shells or rhizomes of seagrasses. During the day, the tentacles remain contracted and the marginal ruff fully expanded, allowing zooxanthellae (particularly abundant in this area) to capture sunlight; during night the situation is the opposite, allowing tentacles to capture food ( Häussermann 2003). The marginal ruff is similar in color to dead leaves of seagrass, probably camouflaging this species.

Distribution.—From Bermuda to Brazil, along the entire Caribbean Sea (see Table 1). Also reported in Canary Islands (Ocaña & den Hartog 2002) and the Gulf of Guinea ( Wirtz 2003). This species is reported for the Mexican Caribbean in Punta Cancún, Punta Nizuc, and Isla Mujeres reefs (INE 1998 a), but this is the first time recorded for Puerto Morelos, Akumal, and Isla Contoy reefs.

Remarks.—Three of the 10 valid species of Actinostella   have been recorded in the Caribbean Sea: A. flosculifera   , A. radiata ( Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860)   , and A. variabilis ( Hargitt, 1911) ( Fautin 2011)   . According to McMurrich (1905), A. radiata   resembles A. conchilega   (= A. flosculifera   ) in its general appearance but differs perhaps in the number of tubercles on the fronds and the verrucae in each longitudinal row, and in the circumscribed endodermal sphincter; however, the distinction between A. radiata   and A. flosculifera   remains unclear and needs further revision. The specimens of A. variabilis   (= Cradactis variabilis   ) showen in Hargitt’s (1911) description are actually specimens of Lebrunia coralligens ( Wilson, 1890)   and perhaps some young individuals of L. danae   . The diagnosis of Actinostella   mentions a strong to very weak circumscribed marginal sphincter muscle ( Carlgren 1949; Häussermann 2003); however, like McMurrich (1905), we did not observe a distinct marginal sphincter muscle in the specimens examined. Further revision is needed to clarify the presence or absence of marginal sphincter in A. flosculifera   .

TABLE 2. — Size and distribution of cnidae from preserved specimens examined. “ ml ” and “ mw ” are the means (length and width respectively), “ dl ” and “ dw ” are the standard deviations (length and width respectively), all in µm. “ 1 ” and “ 2 ” is the number of capsules measured per each specimen examined, “ p ” is the proportion of animals examined with respective type of cnida present.

Species Tissue Cnida Capsule length (µm) ml dl Capsulewidth(µm) m w dw # 1 # 2 p
Tentacle Microbasic p -amastigophore Microbasic p -amastigophore Spirocyst Actinopharynx Basitrich Bunodeopsis antilliensis Microbasic   p -amastigophore Column Basitrich Microbasic p -amastigophore Microbasic p -amastigophore Filament Microbasic p -amastigophore 7.61–21.8 20.66–40 11–30 8–18.66 16.56–36 6–12.24 13–37.95 26–45.93 22.21–37 15.37 2.98 31.35 3.61 21.22 4.01 11.73 2.88 22.64 4.72 9.95 1.30 23.20 5.07 38.13 3.73 28.10 3.21 1.92–4.11 3.29–8.01 2.27–7 1.67–3 2.57–6 2–3 2.37–5.87 5.32–9 3.29–5 2.78 4.84 4.19 2.46 3.96 2.05 3.28 7.44 4.41 0.38 1.23 1.12 0.47 1.15 0.21 0.52 0.98 0.48 50 62 50 23 29 50 25 50 20 23 70 63 22 20 20 56 20 26 2/2 2/2 2/2 2/2 2/2 2/2 2/2 2/2 2/2
Tentacle Basitrich 16.99–26.18 21.73 2.37 1.74–3 2.24 0.36 50 36 2/2
Spirocyst 11–30.28 19.76 4.08 2–4 2.76 0.43 50 26 2/2
Actinopharynx Basitrich 8–15.07 10.72 1.54 1.55–2.25 1.96 0.12 50 25 2/2
Basitrich Actinostella flosculifera Microbasic   p -mastigophore 20.46–28.62 17–31.27 24.30 1.82 21.84 3.35 2.14–4 3–8.41 3.24 5.37 0.60 0.83 50 36 27 24 2/2 2/2
Column Basitrich 12.71–18 15.6 1.11 1.79–3.21 2.10 0.26 50 30 2/2
Filament Basitrich 11.81–39.59 32.05 6.48 1.61–4.15 2.86 0.68 50 33 2/2
Microbasic p -mastigophore 12–28.86 20.40 4.28 3.55–7 5.31 0.83 50 25 2/2
Tentacle Basitrich Spirocyst Actinopharynx Basitrich 21–34.36 12–39.13 11–21.64 27.24 2.56 26.99 5.92 13.77 2.08 2.22–3.11 2–7 1–2.86 2.86 3.76 2.03 0.28 1.29 0.36 50 30 50 29 23 24 2/2 2/2 2/2
Basitrich Microbasic p -mastigophore Bunodosoma granuliferum Column Basitrich Basitrich Acrorhagi Basitrich Holotrich Filament Basitrich Microbasic   p -mastigophore 17–32.39 14.33–24.15 13–19.22 17.25–30.34 13–26.88 26–46.04 15.14–38 18.11–36.06 26.86 2.91 21 1.98 16.69 1.22 25.91 2.11 16.86 2.63 37.86 3.53 26.97 6.76 22.73 2.82 2–3.66 3.93–6 1.75–3 2.25–4 1.5–3 2.84–5.18 1.92–8 4.21–7.36 3.03 4.80 2.19 3.23 2.15 3.48 4.59 5.18 0.29 0.47 0.38 0.42 0.36 0.40 2.07 0.66 50 17 50 50 55 18 24 10 22 31 22 22 20 20 24 33 2/2 2/2 2/2 2/2 2/2 2/2 2/2 2/2
Tentacle Basitrich 18.54–42 32.48 6.42 3.05–5 4.05 0.59 50 19 2/2
Spirocyst 17–42 29.28 6.98 3–5 3.58 0.55 50 20 2/2
Actinopharynx Basitrich 12.41–18.69 15.28 1.46 2–3.32 2.38 0.37 20 20 2/2
Basitrich 18.24–26 23.59 1.54 2.72–4 3.10 0.25 20 20 2/2
Condylactis gigantea Column Basitrich   14.15–21 17.7 1.92 1.67–3 2.07 0.30 50 20 2/2
Basitrich 14.39–38 25.57 4.19 1.84–5 3.31 0.67 50 20 2/2
Filament Basitrich 14.03–24.59 19.48 2.82 2–4 3.16 0.52 50 26 2/2
Basitrich 12.88–39 25.72 7.94 1.82–5 3.37 0.95 50 20 2/2
Microbasic p -mastigophore 19.59–27.13 24.46 1.87 3.16–5.07 4.23 0.48 20 10 2/2

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TABLE 2. (Continued)

Species Tissue Tentacle Cnida Microbasic p -amastigophore Capsule length (µm) 32–99 ml 63.49 dl 17.08 Capsulewidth(µm) 6–10 m w 7.26 dw 0.87 # 1 20 # 2 20 p 2 / 2 # 2 20 p 2 / 2
    Spirocyst 26–51.03 37.99 5.26 4–5.94 4.95 0.55 20 20 2 / 2
  Actinopharynx Microbasic p -amastigophore 19–46 38.41 5.02 4.36–7 5.55 0.69 20 20 2 / 2
Lebrunia danae   Column Basitrico Microbasic p -amastigophore 7.05–13.09 13–24 9.36 18.61 1.79 1.98 1.81–3.47 3.65–7 2.26 4.37 0.51 0.61 0 20 21 20 1 / 2 2 / 2 21 20 1 / 2 2 / 2
  Filament Microbasic p -amastigophore 30–81.02 47.19 8.1 5–8 6.37 0.7 20 21 2 / 2
  Pseudotentacles Basitrich 11.29–17.3 13.77 1.68 2–4 2.87 0.53 7 4 2 / 2
    Microbasic p -amastigophore Macrobasic p -amastigophore 13.56–29.65 53–69.25 20.10 65.52 3.33 3.93 3.16–6 13.89–18.06 4.34 16.49 0.61 1.17 20 20 20 20 2 / 2 2 / 2 20 20 2 / 2 2 / 2
  Tentacle Basitrich 11–21.04 16.48 1.90 2–3 2.7 0.4 50 20 2 / 2
    Spirocyst 13.94–24.34 18.89 2.72 2.37–3.57 2.94 0.27 4 20 2 / 2
  Actinopharynx Basitrich 11–24 21.18 1.93 2–4.29 2.98 0.25 50 20 2 / 2
Phymanthus crucifer     Microbasic p -mastigophore 22–25 23.7 0.86 3–6 4.35 0.67 20 0 1 / 2
  Column Basitrich 14.78–22 18.38 1.62 1.88–3.04 2.48 0.49 50 20 2 / 2
  Filament Basitrich 10–26.31 17.01 4.95 1.98–3.11 2.29 0.34 17 20 2 / 2
    Microbasic p -mastigophore 16.15–29 21.04 1.96 2–6.57 3.4 0.83 50 22 2 / 2
  Tentacle Basitrich 25–36 30.58 2.20 2–3 2.79 0.31 50 20 2 / 2
    Spirocyst 14–34.29 23.51 4.82 2–3.41 2.81 0.35 50 20 2 / 2
  Actinopharynx Basitrich 13–32 23.75 4.9 2–4 3.23 0.66 50 20 2 / 2
Stichodactyla helianthus   Column Basitrich 13–29.68 18.43 2.19 2–4 2.94 0.28 50 22 2 / 2
  Filament Basitrich 11.88–17 14.1 1.08 1.7–3 1.98 0.17 50 20 2 / 2
    Basitrich 23–33 29.11 2.46 2–4 2.74 0.51 50 20 2 / 2
    Microbasic p -mastigophore 23.96–28.35 26.29 0.95 4.62–5.64 5.28 0.27 0 20 1 / 2
  Tentacle Basitrich 8–16.92 11.47 1.83 1.6–3.2 2.30 0.42 50 20 2 / 2
    Microbasic p -amastigophore 13.6–40.12 27.08 3.87 3.2–5.71 4.14 0.45 50 20 2 / 2
    Spirocyst 10.4–26.84 17.74 3.21 1.6–6.4 3.79 0.91 50 20 2 / 2
  Actinopharynx Basitrich 9.6–27.2 17.62 3.16 1.6–3.88 2.55 0.52 50 9 2 / 2
    Microbasic p -amastigophore 13.6–33.08 25.81 4.5 2.4–5.28 4.29 0.67 50 20 2 / 2
  Column Basitrich 8–16 11.66 1.80 1.6–4 2.49 0.5 50 0 1 / 2
Aiptasia pallida     Basitrich 11.2–16 13.63 0.99 4–4.8 4.06 0.21 50 0 1 / 2
    Microbasic p -amastigophore 16–20 17.91 0.96 2.4–5 4.22 0.49 27 23 2 / 2
  Filament Basitrich 12.71–19.48 16.2 2.84 2.28–3.62 3.01 3.62 0 4 1 / 2
    Microbasic p -amastigophore 8–14.4 11.74 0.98 1.93–4.14 3.22 0.35 50 20 2 / 2
    Microbasic p -amastigophore 20.58–35.98 29.24 2.74 4–9.96 5.21 0.85 50 21 2 / 2
  Acontia Basitrich 22.02–28.8 25.83 1.39 2.11–3.2 2.86 0.37 50 20 2 / 2
    Microbasic p -amastigophore 60.8–71.28 65.96 2.3 7.2–10.81 8.92 0.6 50 20 2 / 2
Bartholomea annulata   Tentacle Basitrich Microbasic p -amastigophore 10.89–24 35.2–47.2 19.36 40.87 2.87 2.76 1.86–3.29 5.34–8 2.91 6.58 0.36 0.73 50 50 20 20 2 / 2 2 / 2 20 20 2 / 2 2 / 2
    Spirocyst 12–30.75 19.89 4.89 1.6–4.8 3.05 0.83 50 20 2 / 2

…… continued on the next page

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Cnidaria

Class

Anthozoa

Order

Actiniaria

Family

Actiniidae

Genus

Actinostella

Loc

Actinostella flosculifera ( Le Sueur, 1817 )

Gonzalez-Muñoz, Ricardo, Simões, Nuno, Sanchez-Rodriguez, Judith, Rodriguez, Estefania & Segura-Puertas, Lourdes 2012
2012
Loc

Actinostella flosculifera

McMurrich 1905: 7
1905
Loc

Actinostella conchilega

Stephenson 1922: 283
McMurrich 1905: 4
1905
Loc

Actinactis flosculifera

Verrill 1900: 572
1900
Loc

Asteractis flosculifera

Verrill 1899: 45
1899
Loc

Asteractis expansa

McMurrich 1898: 232
Haddon 1898: 436
1898
Loc

Oulactis fasciculata

Duerden 1897: 455
McMurrich 1889: 108
1889
Loc

Oulactis foliosa

Andres 1883: 297
1883
Loc

Oulactis flosculifera

Andres 1883: 244
Duchassaing 1870: 20
Milne-Edwards 1857: 292
1857
Loc

Metridium praetextum

Duchassaing 1850: 10
Dana 1846: 150
1846
Loc

Actinia flosculifera

Le 1817: 174
1817