Bunodosoma granuliferum ( Le Sueur, 1817 )

Gonzalez-Muñoz, Ricardo, Simões, Nuno, Sanchez-Rodriguez, Judith, Rodriguez, Estefania & Segura-Puertas, Lourdes, 2012, First Inventory of Sea Anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) of the Mexican Caribbean, Zootaxa 3556, pp. 1-38 : 16-18

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.203987

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8B77DBA6-C74C-49DF-BC5F-1907FB374B90

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6180909

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/35648787-DB04-FFB5-88E5-FB88FDBCFCF1

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Bunodosoma granuliferum ( Le Sueur, 1817 )
status

 

Bunodosoma granuliferum ( Le Sueur, 1817)  

( Figure 4 View FIGURE 4 , Table 2 View TABLE 2 )

Actinia granulifera Le Sueur, 1817: 173   .

Urticina Lessoni   [sic] Duchassaing, 1850: 9.

Oulactis granulifera Milne-Edwards, 1857: 293   .

Urticina granulifera Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860: 42   .

Cereus Lessoni   [sic] Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860: 42, pl. VI, fig. 13, 14.

Anthopleura granulifera Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864: 32   , Pl. III, fig. 8.

Anthopleura Granulifera   [sic] Duchassaing, 1870: 20.

Aulactinia granulifera Andres, 1883: 230   .

Bunodes taeniathus McMurrich, 1889 a: 23   –27.

Bunodes taeniatus Carlgren, 1895: 285   .

Bunodes granulifera Duerden, 1897: 454   .

Bunodosoma granulifera Verrill, 1899 a: 44   –45.

Bunodosoma granuliferum Pax, 1910: 162   , 164, 165, 184– 189.

Phymactis granulifera Stephenson, 1922: 285   .

Material examined.— Puerto Morelos (20 ° 55 ’ 39.13 ” N, 86 ° 49 ’ 58.93 ” W; 7 specimens); GoogleMaps   Isla Contoy (21 ° 28 ’ 16.98 ” N, 86 ° 47 ’ 27.87 ” W; 2 specimens). GoogleMaps  

Diagnosis.—Fully expanded tentacles and oral disc to 100 mm in diameter. Oral disc 10–70 mm in diameter, smooth, flat, olive-green or reddish-brown ( Figure 4 View FIGURE 4 B). Tentacles 48–96, hexamerously arranged in four or five cycles, simple, conical, moderately long, 10–30 mm in length, smooth, tapering distally, inner ones longer than outer ones, contractile, olive-green to green-greyish, often with white spots and flashes of pink or purple ( Figure 4 View FIGURE 4 B–D). Deep fossa ( Figure 4 View FIGURE 4 F). Margin with acrorhagi ( Figure 4 View FIGURE 4 D). Column cylindrical, 6–55 mm in height and 6–38 mm in diameter, densely covered with rounded non-adhesive vesicles arranged in 24 alternating dark and light bands ( Figure 4 View FIGURE 4 A, D); dark bands with about five rows of vesicles, light ones with about three. Pedal disc well developed, 8–42 mm in diameter, olive-green to orange ( Figure 4 View FIGURE 4 C). Mesenteries hexamerously arranged in four cycles (48 pairs in specimens examined): first, second and some mesenteries of third cycle perfect, others imperfect. No gametogenic tissue observed in specimens examined. Two pairs of directives each attached to a well developed siphonoglyph ( Figure 4 View FIGURE 4 E). Retractor muscles more or less restricted and strong; parietobasilar muscles well developed with free mesogleal pennon ( Figure 4 View FIGURE 4 E). Basilar muscles well developed. Marginal sphincter muscle endodermal, circumscribed and strong ( Figure 4 View FIGURE 4 F). Zooxanthellae present. Cnidom: basitrichs, microbasic p- mastigophores, holotrichs and spirocysts ( Figure 4 View FIGURE 4 G–Q; see Table 2 View TABLE 2 ).

Natural history.— Bunodosoma granuliferum   lives in shallow waters on sandy and rocky areas, and seagrass fields, often between 0.5–2 m depth, but can be found down to 6 m in the lagoon and back-reef zones. One specimen was collected adhered to a leaf of Thalassia testudinum   , as epiphytic species do. It is reported to be associated with the crustaceans Periclimenes rathbunae Schmitt, 1924   , Thor amboinensis ( De Man, 1888)   , and some reef fishes ( Manjarrés 1977). Toxicological studies considered this species as a potential source of biological active compounds ( Garateix et al. 2003; Nuñez et al. 2006).

Distribution.—Although this is the first record of Bunodosoma granuliferum   for the Mexican Caribbean (Puerto Morelos and Isla Contoy reefs), it is found along the entire Caribbean Sea, from Bermuda to Barbados (see Table 1).

Remarks.—Four valid species of Bunodosoma   are reported in the Caribbean Sea: B. granuliferum   , B. cavernatum ( Bosc, 1802)   , B. kuekenthali Pax, 1910   , and B. sphaerulatum Duerden, 1902 b   ; one, B. cangicum Belém & Preslercravo, 1973   in the northern coast of Brazil ( Fautin 2011, Table 1). Bunodosoma granuliferum   is distinguished mainly by the chromatic pattern of alternating pale and dark longitudinal bands in the column ( Duerden 1902 b; Pax 1910; Corrêa 1964; Cairns et al. 1986). The distinction between B. granuliferum   and B. cavernatum   has been widely discussed (see Carlgren 1952; Carlgren & Hedgpeth 1952; Corrêa 1964). Using allozymes, McCommas & Lester (1980) found that the species are genetically different and considered them as separate valid species. Bunodosoma biscayensis ( Fischer, 1874)   also has a chromatic pattern of alternating dark and light longitudinal bands in the column; however, it differs from B. granuliferum   in the cnidae and geographic distribution (found in the northeast Atlantic Ocean) (den Hartog 1987). Although we did not observe fertile specimens of B. granuliferum   , it has been described to have all mesenteries (except the directives) fertile ( McMurrich 1889 a, Duerden 1902 b).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Cnidaria

Class

Anthozoa

Order

Actiniaria

Family

Actiniidae

Genus

Bunodosoma

Loc

Bunodosoma granuliferum ( Le Sueur, 1817 )

Gonzalez-Muñoz, Ricardo, Simões, Nuno, Sanchez-Rodriguez, Judith, Rodriguez, Estefania & Segura-Puertas, Lourdes 2012
2012
Loc

Bunodosoma granuliferum

Stephenson 1922: 285
Pax 1910: 162
1910
Loc

Bunodosoma granulifera

Verrill 1899: 44
1899
Loc

Bunodes granulifera

Duerden 1897: 454
1897
Loc

Bunodes taeniatus

Carlgren 1895: 285
1895
Loc

Bunodes taeniathus

McMurrich 1889: 23
1889
Loc

Urticina granulifera

Andres 1883: 230
Duchassaing 1870: 20
Duchassaing 1864: 32
Duchassaing 1860: 42
Duchassaing 1860: 42
1860
Loc

Oulactis granulifera

Milne-Edwards 1857: 293
1857
Loc

Urticina

Duchassaing 1850: 9
1850
Loc

Actinia granulifera

Le 1817: 173
1817