Coccus caviramicolus Morrison

Gullan, Penny J., Kondo, Takumasa, Fiala, Brigitte & Quek, Swee-Peck, 2018, Taxonomy of coccids (Hemiptera: Coccidae: Coccus L.) associated with Crematogaster ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the stems of Macaranga plants (Euphorbiaceae) in Southeast Asia, Zootaxa 4521 (1), pp. 1-51: 13-14

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Coccus caviramicolus Morrison


Coccus caviramicolus Morrison

( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 )

Coccus caviramicolus Morrison, 1921: 659   .

Type material examined. Holotype: adult female, SINGAPORE: in hollow stems of Macaranga   sp., date not given, coll. I.H. Burkill, 1(1) ( USNM). Paratypes: PENINSULAR MALAYSIA: Malacca, Kendong, in hollow stems of Macaranga triloba   [now correctly named M. bancana   ], date not given, coll. I.H. Burkill, 2(2) ( USNM; only 1 of these paratypes seen); north of Malacca, foot of Tampin Hill, in hollow stems of M. triloba   [now correctly named M. bancana   ], date not given, coll. I.H. Burkill, 3(1 adult female, 1 third-instar female, 1 first-instar nymph) ( USNM).

Examined non-type material from original collections. PENINSULAR MALAYSIA: Malacca, Kendong, in hollow stems of M. triloba   [now correctly named M. bancana   ], date not given, coll. I.H. Burkill, 1440, 1(5 adult females + 1 third-instar female; also 1 adult female of C. secretus   under same coverglass) ( BMNH). SINGAPORE: Botanic Garden, in hollow stems of Macaranga   , date not given, coll. I.H. Burkill, No. X-2, 1(4) ( BMNH). These two collections have the same data as two of the type collections listed above, but are not type material as explained in the Materials and Methods. Morrison (1921) acknowledges E.E. Green (of the BMNH) for sending him the material upon which he based the description of C. caviramicolus   .

Other material examined. INDONESIA: Riau Islands, Bintan Island, lowland, ex M. griffithiana   , 26 Aug. 1999, coll. S.-P. Quek, SPQ.012, DNA voucher 1(1). PENINSULAR MALAYSIA: Johor, Mawai camp, ~ 1.871° N, ~ 103.954° E, <100 m, ex M. bancana   , M. hypoleuca   & M. griffithiana   , 5 & 7 Sept. 1999, coll. S.-P. Quek, SPQ.020, SPQ.021, SPQ.034 & SPQ.036, DNA vouchers 4(4); Johor, 119 km to Johor Baru from Mersing, <100 m, ex M. griffithiana   , 16 Sept. 1999, coll. S.-P. Quek, SPQ.069, DNA voucher 1(1); Johor, Sedili, <100 m, ex M. hullettii   & M. griffithiana   , 5 Dec. 1999, coll. S.-P. Quek, SPQ.175 & SPQ.178, DNA vouchers 2(3); Negeri Sembilan, Felda Pasoh, <100 m, ex M. griffithiana   & M. hypoleuca   , 18 Sept. 1999, coll. S.-P. Quek, SPQ.072: DNA voucher 1(1) & SPQ.075a: DNA vouchers 3(2 adult females & 2 first-instar nymphs); Pahang, near Kuantan, Teluk Chempedak, lowland, ex M. hypoleuca   , 14 Sept. 1999, coll. S.-P. Quek, SPQ.052-1 & SPQ.052-2, DNA vouchers 2(2); Pahang, near Kuantan, road to Prancing Falls, <100 m, ex M. griffithiana   , 15 Sept. 1999, coll. S.-P. Quek, SPQ.053 & SPQ.056, DNA vouchers 2(2); 6 km Rawang, ex M. griffithiana, Feb. 1993   , coll. H.-P. Heckroth, #206 1(1); 8 km Rawang, ex M. griffithiana, Feb. 1993   and Mar. 1993, coll. H.-P. Heckroth, #184: 3(3), #185: 4(3 adult females + 4 first-instar nymphs) & #190: 3(3); Terengganu, Bauk Hill, <100–200 m, ex M. griffithiana   , 12 Sept. 1999, coll. S.-P. Quek, SPQ.044 & SPQ.045, DNA vouchers 2(2). SINGAPORE: Upper Peirce Reservoir, <100 m, ex M. griffithiana   , 4 Oct. 1999, coll. S.-P. Quek, SPQ.092, DNA voucher 1(1); Old Upper Thompson Road, <100 m, ex M. griffithiana   , 10 Oct. 1999, coll. S.-P. Quek, SPQ.095, DNA voucher 1(1).

Adult female. Unmounted material. “Flat, broad oval, approaching circular, dull brown, central area darker, dull or faintly shining, without or with a very slight secretionary coating; ..” ( Morrison 1921: 659).

Slide-mounted adult female (n=13, including holotype and 2 adult female paratypes; Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ). Body oval to elongate oval, 1.8–3.4 mm long, 1.4–2.8 mm wide.

Dorsum. Derm (dd) with distinct round-to-oval areolations, with clear area of each areolation usually 10–25 µm in widest dimension and areolations largest towards margin, but rarely with any obvious sclerotised submarginal lines radiating inwards at right angles to margin. Dorsal setae (dset) very short, each about 2 µm long with rounded apex, scattered on dorsum. Simple pores (sp) each 2–3 µm wide, scattered evenly on dorsum. Preopercular pores (pop) each typically 4–6 µm wide, scarce, present in a small group of 4–8 anterior to anal plates. Dorsal microducts (dmic) in areolations each 2.0– 2.5 µm wide, appearing bilocular under high magnification. Anal plates (anplt) each triangular with anterolateral margin usually much longer than posterolateral margin, width of each plate about half length, inner lobes well developed, with a tessellated texture, each plate 190–225 µm long, 75–110 µm wide, anterolateral margin 130–200 µm long, posterolateral margin 85–120 µm long; each plate with 16–26 dorsal setae (anpltset), each seta usually short, straight and robust, 5–15 (mostly <12) µm long, and setae usually confined to posterior half of each plate. Anal ring (ar) bearing 10 setae, each seta 60–100 µm long.

Margin. Eyespots situated slightly removed from dorsal margin, mostly not detected. Marginal setae (mset) in 1 row, most setae fimbriate at apices, each 10–43 (mostly about 25) µm long; with 15–28 (rarely <20) setae between anterior and posterior stigmatic areas on each side of body. Stigmatic setae (stgset) well developed, spinose and tapering to pointed or rounded apices, numbering 3 (rarely 4) per cleft, median setae usually longest, typically 17–33 µm long, lateral setae each 10–29 µm long.

Venter. Derm membranous. Ventral setae (vset) slender, longest on posterior abdominal segments, each 17–90 µm long, elsewhere shorter, each 7–22 µm long. Interantennal setae in 2 pairs. Ventral tubular ducts (vtd) present in a broad submarginal band; each duct with outer ductule 15–20 µm long, inner ductule 15–23 µm long, and duct opening about 2 µm wide. Ventral microducts (vmic) each about 2 µm wide, scattered fairly evenly on venter. Pregenital disc-pores (pgp) each with 6–8 (mostly 6–7) loculi, each pore 6–7 µm wide. Antennae (ant) mostly 7 segmented (rarely 5 or 8 segmented), each 235–290 µm long; fleshy setae present on last 3 segments when 7 segmented, and on last 2 segments when 6 segmented. Clypeolabral shield 218–268 µm long, 183–238 µm wide; labium 85–108 µm long, 115–153 µm wide. Legs with hind trochanter + femur 160–190 µm long; hind tibia + tarsus 165–193 µm long; all tarsal digitules each 35–43 µm long; claw digitules each 22–28 µm long, claws each 22–26 µm long. Spiracles normal: anterior peritremes each 48–68 µm wide; posterior peritremes each 50–75 µm wide. Spiracular pores (spp) each 4–6 µm wide, with 3–7 (mostly 5) loculi.

Comments. Adult females of C. caviramicolus   can be distinguished from all other species of Coccus   known from Macaranga   by having the combination of (i) extremely short dorsal setae (appearing absent); (ii) marginal setae ≤ 40 µm long and each with a fimbriate apex; (iii) anal plates together pyriform in shape; and (iv) the numerous (≥15), very short (5–8 µm) setae on each plate. They are most similar to the adult females of C. pseudotumuliferus   , C. secretus   and C. tumuliferus   in having very short dorsal setae of length mostly less than two times width of setal socket, but differ in that their marginal setae are apically fimbriate (mostly tapering to a point in the other three species) and their anal plates together are pyriform (anal plates together are quadrate to subcircular in other three species).

Coccus caviramicolus   has been recorded only from Singapore, Peninsular Malaysia and herein also from the Riau Islands of Indonesia. Our records for C. caviramicolus   are mostly from M. griffithiana   . Heckroth et al. (1998) recorded this species almost exclusively from secondary forest in Peninsular Malaysia and from five species of Macaranga   , although most commonly on M. griffithiana   (identified then as M. motleyana   subspecies griffithiana   ). The host plants of C. caviramicolus   are from both section Pachystemon   and section Pruinosae.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Coccus caviramicolus Morrison

Gullan, Penny J., Kondo, Takumasa, Fiala, Brigitte & Quek, Swee-Peck 2018

Coccus caviramicolus

Morrison, H. 1921: 659