Waxiella senegalensis (Marchal),

Hodgson, Chris J. & Peronti, Ana L. B. G., 2012, 3372, Zootaxa 3372, pp. 1-265: 218-222

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Waxiella senegalensis (Marchal)


Waxiella senegalensis (Marchal)  , 1909, stat. nov.

( Figs 92, 98, 99; Map fig. 105)

Ceroplastes africanus senegalensis Marchal, 1909a: 68  .

Ceroplastes africanus senegalensis Marchal, 1909b: 168 

Waxiella africanus senegalensis (Marchal)  ; Ben-Dov, 1986: 166; Ben-Dov, 1993: 341.

Material examined: Lectotype ♀ (here designated): Senegal, left label “Cochenille / récolté sur / Acacia arabica  ”, right label: “ Ceroplastes  / africanus  / senegalensis  / Marchal, 1909. // Remounted by Y. Ben-Dov, 1979. Syntype ” ( MNHN; 5306-4): 1/1 fair) [Original description states: Acacia arabica, Willdenow  , récoltés à Matam (Sénégal), Novembre 1907, coll. by M. Vuillet]  . Paralectotype ♀: a remounted specimen in fair to poor condition, originally mounted on a wooden slide, labelled “ Acacia Tortilis  , [then with another name crossed out, perhaps

Acacia arabica  ], Podor, Sénégal, remounted by C.J. Hodgson; right label: Ceroplastes  / africanus / senegalensis / 5306a / Syntype. ( MNHN) [Original description states: Acacia tortilis, Podor  ( Sénégal), novembre et decembre 1907, coll. by M. Vuillet].

Also: Algeria, Hoggar, Oued Aprelil, on Acacia tortilis  , 15.iii.1928, Maire ( MNHN #4871): 5/5 (poor); Amaai, Acacia seyal  , -. iv.1949, A.S. Balachowsky ( MNHN #55): 4/4 (fair); Hoggar, Oued Tamoudant, on Tamarix geyrii  (as gayeri), 8.iv.1928, P. de Peyerhimhoff ( MNHN #7643): 3/3 (fair); Rhat Feggan, on Tamarix articulata  , -. iv.1949, A.S. Balachowsky ( MNHN #67): 4/4 (old, poor). Central African Republic / Sudan, Tilembeya, Acacia sp.  , G. Remaudière ( MNHN #87): 4/4 (fair). Egypt, Kharga Oasis, 5.xi.1924, on “Sunt”, W.J. Hall ( BMNH): 2/2 (good; identified as C. africana  ); Nubia, Wadi Halfa, Feb. 1962, on Acacia seyal, M. Beier (BMNH)  : 1/1 young (fair; identified as C. africana  ). Eritrea, Ailet, 27.vii.1954, Acacia orfota, A. Trolehairent  (?) ( BMNH): 2/2 (fairgood; identified as Ceroplastes sp.  ); Debaroa, 5.i.1949, on Acacia albida  and A. seyal, G. De Lotto (BMNH)  : 2/8 (good; identified as C. africana  ); no site, 15.viii.1947, on Tamarindus indica, G. De Lotto (BMNH)  : 1/2 (poor). Ghana, Tamale, on Pithecellobium saman  , 31.i.1916, C. Saunders ( BMNH): 1/1 (fair; split into dorsum & venter; identified as C. egbarum  ). Kenya, Ngong Hills, 5.x.1989, on Acacia nilotica subalata, J. Marohasy (BMNH)  : 1/1 (poor; identified as C. mimosae  ). Liberia, Cafra, -. iii.1959, on Tamarix sp.  , H. Martin ( BMNH): 1/2 (good; identified as C. africana  ); Suakoko, no host, 5.ix.1952, C.C. Blicenstaff ( USNM): 2/3. Mali, Koulikoro, on Parkia africana  , 1913, Vuillet ( MNHN #7649): 3/3 (fair-good); [as Soudan Français], Tilembeya, on Acacia sp.  , 1949, G. Remaudière ( MNHN #87): 4/4 (old, poor). Niger, Magaria, 17.iv.1972, Acacia albida, F. Brunck (BMNH)  : 1/1 (fair; identified as C. mimosae  ); Maradi, Acacia sp.  , 22.xi.1949, G. Remaudière ( MNHN #7646): 4/4 (fair). Nigeria, 11 miles from Kano, 2.iii.1962, Acacia sp.  , W.J. Hall ( BMNH): 2/5 (fair-good; identified as C. africana  ); Bauchi, -. iv.1960, on Acacia sp.  , J. Deeming ( BMNH): 2/2 (fair-good; identified as Waxiella sp.  , collected at same time as a specimen of W. egbara  ). Senegal, Bambey [M’Bambey], no date, on Acacia verek, Resbec (BMNH)  : 1/2 (poor; identified as C. africana  ); Podor, on Acacia raddiana  , 20.viii.1979, B. Sigwalt ( MNHN #7866): 1/1 (fair). Sudan, Khartoum, 19.xi.1933, on Acacia arabica  , H.W. Bedford ( BMNH): 1/1 (fair; identified as C. africana  ).

Notes. Both type specimens are split into dorsum and venter. It is clear that they were large but their exact size and shape are difficult to determine. The specimen on A. arabica  was significantly larger in most measurements than that on A. tortilis  . Nonetheless, it is considered that both are the same species and were old individuals. Not all characters could be seen on both specimens and so the main description below is taken from both. In addition, data from the “other material” are given in [..] brackets.

Unmounted material. Test creamy-yellow, rather variable in shape, very rounded and dome-shaped but with 2 depressions at the base corresponding to the spiracular furrows (stigmatic wax bands). Generally with a small nipplelike dome on dorsum. Devoid of wax, derm brown, with a well-developed cephalic arch. It differs from Ceroplastes africanus Green  in the Cape of Good Hope in having a less prominent caudal process, and stigmatic clefts with longer, sharper and more numerous stigmatic setae. (Rather free translation of Marchal, 1909b: 168).

Dorsum. Specimen on A. arabica  perhaps 9 mm long [2.5–7.0 mm] and 9 mm wide [2.0–6.0 mm]. Derm lightly sclerotised except for: (i) caudal process, which is heavily sclerotised, and (ii) each stigmatic cleft with a large oval, heavily sclerotised area, usually about twice as broad as group of stigmatic setae, extending onto dorsum; margins between dorsum and venter sclerotised in places [margins only becoming sclerotised on very oldest individuals]. Caudal process on A. arabica  1.63 mm long and 1.8 mm wide, on A. tortilis  1.38 mm long and 1.45 mm wide [0.65–1.7 mm long; 0.7–1.55 mm wide]. Derm probably with eight clear areas, that medially on dorsum not very clear [dorsal clear area small and narrow]; no simple microducts or dorsal setae present in clear areas. Dorsal setae each strongly spinose, mainly straight, some with a very sharp point, others slightly less so; not apparently narrowing towards base; each 10–20 [10–20] µm long; basal socket slightly wider than base of seta, each about 5.5–6.5 [5.0–6.0] µm wide, sockets without setae fairly frequent on both specimens; frequent throughout except in clear areas. Dorsal pores of perhaps 1 type: (i) loculate microducts of complex type, each with 2–4 satellite loculi [mainly 2 or 3 satellite loculi]; outer borders of pores broadly sclerotised; each pore about 4.0–4.5 µm wide on A. arabica  and about 5 µm wide on A. tortilis  [4.5–5.5]; frequency of each type uncertain but those with 4 satellite loculi common [infrequent]; long inner filament not detected [present but thin, about 35 µm long; no signs of wax-plate lines]; (ii) simple microducts not detected. Preopercular pores small, but each in a cavity about 5–6 µm wide; with 15–20 [16–35] present in a transverse band 2 or 3 [1–3] pores wide. Anal plates each with 3 large basal sockets of dorsal setae but setae all missing [all missing], most anterior socket placed rather close to inner margin; length of each plate 145–155 [140–166] µm, width of both plates about 145 [140–166] µm. Anal ring setae each about 140 [130–162] µm long.

Margin. Marginal setae similar to dorsal setae but some marginal setae in stigmatic clefts 16–20 µm long and rather flagellate; frequency unknown; number of setae on each anal lobe unknown [1, each 28–33 µm long]. Stigmatic clefts distinct and proportionately rather narrow, particularly across cleft; each stigmatic area heavily sclerotised in all but very youngest specimens, each sclerotisation significantly wider than group of conical setae; margins between clefts rarely sclerotised except in the oldest individuals. Each group of setae clearly elongate oval and significantly longer than wide; with 2 types of stigmatic setae: (a) sharply-spinose setae, each 15–20 µm long (but up to 25 µm on A. arabica  ) [16–30] µm; number uncertain [20–30] but in at least 4 rows, with a few straying into area of disc-pores [many clearly in among disc-pores]; and (b) roundly conical setae, present in a large sclerotised oval area on dorsum (on A. arabica  , each group of setae 275–440 µm wide and 330–440 µm long; on A. tortilis  , each group about 270 µm wide and 290–310 µm long), each cleft probably with 200+ conical setae, most about 8–10 µm long and about 6–7 µm wide at base, but with a few nearer base of each group up to 15 µm long and 12–14 µm broad at base, and generally with a single larger seta near centre or slightly towards base of each group; [non-type specimens with about 5–10 conical setae across base of each group; about 33–45 conical setae around dorsal margin of group, and with 14–24 setae across widest part of group]. Eyespots not detected [30–40 µm wide].

Venter. Derm membranous apart from a heavily sclerotised crescent-shaped area along anterior margin of head [absent on younger specimens]. Pregenital disc-pores abundant around genital opening (segment VII) and frequent across preceding 2 segments, plus a few medially on IV; not detected more anteriorly [IV 2–11; III 0–2; II 0–2]. Spiracular disc-pores present in bands of about 150 pores; each band narrower than peritreme throughout most of length but broader at margin; with a few disc-pores also extending medially past peritremes. Ventral microducts small, each about 2 µm wide, distribution and frequency uncertain [sparse]; sparse across abdominal segments. Ventral tubular ducts apparently without an inner ductule, present sparsely in a group in cephalic area [abundant], and very few posteriorly, with only 1 present medially on abdominal segment V on specimen on A. arabica  and not detected on specimen on A. tortilis  [a few (0–3) present on segment VI and occasionally 1 on V]. Submarginal setae frequent [each 14–18 µm long].

Antennae 7 or 8 segmented but only 1 complete and that 7 segmented [6–8, but many malformed], each segment distinct; total length 320 [385–500] µm. Clypeolabral shield about 185 µm long (but distorted and displaced) [215–265 µm long]. Spiracles: width of peritremes 105–115 µm ( A. arabica  ), 95 µm ( A. tortilis  ) [87–120 µm]. Legs well developed, each with a well-developed tibio-tarsal articulatory sclerosis; claw denticles obscure or absent; claw digitules both very broad and slightly shorter than tarsal digitules; dimensions of metathoracic legs (µm): A. arabica  : coxa 200, trochanter + femur 260, tibia 185, and tarsus 95; A. tortilis  : coxa 185; trochanter + femur 215, tibia 165, and tarsus 90; claws 30–33 µm long [coxa 170–197; trochanter + femur 178–267; tibia 145–190; tarsus 85–112, and claw 33–39; setal distribution: coxa 6; trochanter 1 long and 2 short; femur 3, tibia 6 and tarsus 4].

Discussion. Because the shape of the conical group of stigmatic setae and associated sclerotisation appears to be distinctive, the subspecies Ceroplastes africanus senegalensis  is here raised to specific rank in the genus Waxiella  .

Adult female W. senegalensis  show close similarities to those of W. africana  but differ in having: (i) each group of stigmatic setae larger and generally with margins of cleft more heavily sclerotised, and with more abundant conical and sharply-spinose stigmatic setae (see Fig. 92), and (ii) perhaps in having very few (or sometimes no) ventral tubular ducts on the abdomen. In addition, W. senegalensis  appears to be restricted to areas around the Sahara whereas W. africana  is restricted to southern Africa.

Based on the above records, Waxiella senegalensis  has been collected mainly on Fabaceae  (generally Acacia sp.  ) but also once on Tamarix  ( Tamaricaceae  ). It appears to be restricted to countries around the Sahara ( Algeria, Egypt, Eritrea, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal and Sudan).


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Waxiella senegalensis (Marchal)

Hodgson, Chris J. & Peronti, Ana L. B. G. 2012

Waxiella africanus senegalensis (Marchal)

Ben-Dov, Y. 1993: 341
Ben-Dov, Y. 1986: 166

Ceroplastes africanus senegalensis

Marchal, P. 1909: 68

Ceroplastes africanus senegalensis

Marchal, P. 1909: 168