Ceroplastes longicauda Brain

Hodgson, Chris J. & Peronti, Ana L. B. G., 2012, 3372, Zootaxa 3372, pp. 1-265: 70-73

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Ceroplastes longicauda Brain


Ceroplastes longicauda Brain  

( Fig. 39; Map fig. 103)

Ceroplastes longicauda Brain, 1920b: 31   .

Gascardia longicauda (Brain)   ; De Lotto, 1965: 182, 202; 1967a: 111; Hodgson, 1969a: 32; Ben-Dov, 1993: 42.

Ceroplastes longicauda var. sapii Hall, 1931: 296   . Syn. nov.

Gascardia longicauda var. sapii (Hall)   ; De Lotto, 1965: 182; Hodgson, 1969a: 32; Ben-Dov, 1993: 42.

Material examined. Ceroplastes longicauda Brain   : Lectotype ♀ (here designated): South Africa, Left label: Natal Coast / July 1915 / C. Fuller / on stems of / native shrub / CKB 334 ( SANC): 1/1 (fair).  

Paralectotype ♀: labelled as for Lectotype ( SANC): 2/2 (fair-poor); also: Left label: Ceroplastes   / longicauda Brain   / on Native Shrub. / Natal Coast / C. Fuller Coll. / July, 1935 / Brain #334. ( USNM): 3/3 (1 slide marked type, 2 marked paratypes; see comment on “type” specimens in Materials and methods). Lectotype specimen chosen by I. Millar ( SANC).

Also as C. longicauda   : Zimbabwe [ Southern Rhodesia], per J.D.A. Cockerell, E.R.G. 50/24. No. 4 ( BMNH): 1/1 (good). Zambia, Livingston, 3.v.1963, unknown host, K.Wilson ( BMNH): 1/1 (divided into bits, fair). Kenya, Nairobi, 2.xi.1951, Jacaranda mimosifolia, G. De Lotto (BMNH)   : 2/2 (good); Mpala Research Centre, 22.vii.2001, Acacia drepanolobium   , outside of the nest of the ant Crematogaster sjostedti, M.L. Stanton (DCBU)   : 2/2 (fair).

Ceroplastes longicauda var. sapii Hall   : Lectotype ♀ (here designated): (scratched on glass): Zimbabwe: t op label: Ceroplastes   / longicauda / var. sapii Hall   / Sapium sp.   / Embiza / WJH 11/3/28; bottom label (stuck on): COTYPE / 15.iii.30 / (12) WJHall ( BMNH): 1/1 (mounted sideways; much of venter missing, poor).

Paralectotype ♀: as for lectotype ( BMNH): 3/3 (poor, all perhaps without venter)   .

Note. Data for C. longicauda var. sapii Hall   where available given in (..) brackets. If no data in brackets, characters believed to be similar or not detectable.

Unmounted material. "Adult female covered with a very thick layer of soft, white wax forming a test like a larger ceriferus   specimen, i.e., a little more elongated than egbarum   . Largest specimen seen measures 18 mm long, 11 mm wide and 12 mm high; marginal area prominent, forming a wide fold at the base of the central dome. The waxy appendages from the stigmatic clefts only project slightly from the main mass of the fold." "Adult female denuded of wax bright brown in colour, about 5 mm long without caudal process, which alone measures 3.5 mm. The body is ± star-shaped with 3 short lateral pointed spurs [tubercles] and 1 anterior. These are sharper and more prominent than on ceriferus   . The dorsum is very convex, rising with straight sides to an acute point. The caudal process is exceedingly long, two thirds the length of the body, piceous, slightly tapering and extends in an horizontal direction." ( Brain, 1920b: 31).

Mounted material. Body rather roundly oval and convex; with distinct, quite deep, stigmatic clefts; dorsum with distinct lateral tubercles on younger specimens. Caudal process exceptionally long, pointing posteriorly and narrowing slightly towards apex. Length (without caudal process) about 2.4–3.5 (7–10) mm, total width of mounted specimens 1.7–3.5 (??); width of venter 1.58–2.6 (??) mm; caudal process 1.6–3.0 (2.5–3.5) mm long, 0.6–1.3 (??) mm wide at base.

Dorsum. Derm membranous except for heavily sclerotised caudal process. Derm apparently with 7 clear areas, medio-dorsal area apparently small or absent; each without dorsal setae but with a few simple pores. Dorsal setae each sharply spinose and about 6–8 µm long; basal socket width about 5 µm; present sparsely throughout but absent in clear areas. Dorsal pores: (i) loculate microducts of complex type, each about 4–6 µm widest, with 1–4 satellite loculi; those with 2 and 3 satellite loculi most abundant and about equally frequent, although highly variable between and within specimens; apparently randomly distributed and frequent throughout but absent from all clear areas; wax-plate lines not detected; and (ii) simple microducts present in clear areas. Preopercular pores present in a transverse line; number unknown. Anal plates each 125–130 (125) µm long, width of single plate 40–50 (50) µm, each with 3 long flagellate dorsal setae along posterior margin, each 50–70 µm long, + 1 short apical seta about 16 µm long. Anal tube quite short, only a little longer than anal plates.

Margin. Marginal setae stoutly setose; each about 16–20 µm long, but sometimes difficult to separate from submarginal setae; with 8–11 anteriorly between eyespots, and (on each side) 5 or 6 between eyespots and anterior stigmatic area, 9–13 between stigmatic areas and 15–21 on either side of abdomen; each anal lobe with 1–3 longer setae, longest about 28–40 µm long. Stigmatic clefts quite deep, each with a group of blunt, roundly conical stigmatic setae, each about as wide as long, extending in a broad group onto dorsum; each group about as wide as long; anterior group with 35–50 (about 52–54) setae and posterior groups with 26–50 (about 54–58) setae; most setae 8–11 µm wide and 8–11 µm long but each group generally with 1 or more slightly larger setae usually located towards middle of group, each about 12–13 µm wide and 11–13 µm long. Eyespots each about 36–40 µm wide.

Venter. Derm entirely membranous. Pregenital disc-pores abundant around genital opening (segment VII) and across preceding segment, plus medially: segment II 0–4, III 2 or 3, IV 3–6, V 6–12, and submedially in each anogenital fold: II 0–4, III 2 or 3, IV 2–13, V 2 to many; absent on thorax and head. Spiracular disc-pores present in fairly broad bands of at least 150–200 pores but with few, if any, extending medially. Ventral microducts showing nothing distinctive. Ventral tubular ducts each with a short inner ductule and a glandular end; with few (probably less than 10) in a loose group just anterior to antennae, plus a few associated with anogenital fold, as follows (on each side): II 0, III 0–4, IV 1–3, V 3 or 4 laterally + 0–3 medially, and VI 4 laterally + several medially. Submarginal setae frequent, each 13–17 µm long.

Antennae each with 6 segments, segment III with a few pale pseudo-articulations; total length 275–330 (376) µm. Clypeolabral shield about 165–190 µm long. Spiracles: width of peritremes 55–80 (105) µm. Legs well developed, each with a distinct tibio-tarsal articulatory sclerosis; claw denticle obscure; claw digitules both broad and distinctly shorter than tarsal digitules; dimensions of metathoracic legs (µm): coxa 150–160 (165); trochanter + femur 155–185 (unknown), tibia 110–130 (135), tarsus 60–80 (85), and claw 20–25.

Discussion. Although the bodies of the 2 specimens of C. longicauda var. sapii   are nearly twice the size of the other specimens, the few other data that can be gleaned from them strongly suggest that sapii is a synonym of C. longicauda   , as suggested by De Lotto (1965).

C. longicauda   is very similar to C. bipartita   , differing mainly in having a much longer caudal process. Nonetheless, it is speculated above under C. bipartita   that these 2 species might prove to be synyonyms. C. longicauda   is known from Angola ( De Lotto, 1967a), Kenya, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe on 5 plant families: Bignoniaceae   , Euphorbiaceae   , Meliaceae   , Tiliaceae   and Verbenaceae   .


Agricultural Research Council-Plant Protection Research Institute


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Ceroplastes longicauda Brain

Hodgson, Chris J. & Peronti, Ana L. B. G. 2012

Gascardia longicauda (Brain)

Ben-Dov, Y. 1993: 42
Hodgson, C. J. 1969: 32
De Lotto, G. 1965: 182

Gascardia longicauda var. sapii (Hall)

Ben-Dov, Y. 1993: 42
Hodgson, C. J. 1969: 32
De Lotto, G. 1965: 182

Ceroplastes longicauda var. sapii

Hall, W. J. 1931: 296

Ceroplastes longicauda

Brain, C. K. 1920: 31