Ophiodermatidae Ljungman, 1867Ophiopezidae O’Hara, Stöhr, Hugall, Thuy & Martynov, 2018, O'Hara, Stohr, Hugall, Thuy & Martynov, 2018Ophiomyxidae Ljungman, 1867

Goharimanesh, Mona, Stöhr, Sabine, Mirshamsi, Omid, Ghassemzadeh, Fereshteh & Adriaens, Dominique, 2021, Interactive identification key to all brittle star families (Echinodermata; Ophiuroidea) leads to revised morphological descriptions, European Journal of Taxonomy 766 (1), pp. 1-63: 34-36

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2021.766.1483

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:19110F18-6E35-4C50-B362-7BC742B0B5D5

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5527099

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/3B7687F6-4203-624A-D64E-FCA0FA9AFDD0

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Ophiodermatidae Ljungman, 1867 Ophiopezidae O’Hara, Stöhr, Hugall, Thuy & Martynov, 2018 Ophiomyxidae Ljungman, 1867
status

 

Family Ophiodermatidae Ljungman, 1867  

Type genus

Ophioderma Müller & Troschel, 1840   .

Other genera

Bathypectinura H.L. Clark, 1909   ; Cryptopelta H.L. Clark, 1909   ; Diopederma H.L. Clark, 1913   ; Ophiarachnella Ljungman, 1872   ; Ophiochasma Grube, 1868   ; Ophiocormus H.L. Clark, 1915   ; Ophiocryptus H.L. Clark, 1915   ; Ophiocypris Koehler, 1930   ; Ophiomidas Koehler, 1904   ; Ophiopsammus Lütken, 1869   .

Description

ARM. Arm shape unbranched; length 3–4× disc diameter; covering without granules/spines/tubercles. Arm combs absent. Dorsal arm plate present.Accessory dorsal arm plate absent. Ventral arm plate present. Accessory ventral arm plate absent. Girdle of tiny hooks on the arms absent. Spines all similar in shape. Arm spine cross section oval. The ratio of thickness of distal ⅓ of arm spine to maximum thickness (in a given cross-sectional plane) 0.6–0.9. Arm spines flat; mainly lateral; predominantly parallel to arm axis (adpressed). Longest arm spines shorter than half a segment. Tentacle scales present; pores visible along most of the arm; slightly longer than wide; shorter than the spine nearby; cross section oval. Position of lateral arm plate (LAP) arched (wrapped around the arm). Dorsal and/or ventral edge(s) of LAPs without constriction. Ventral position of LAP projecting ventro-proximalwards. Ventro-distal tip of LAP projecting ventralwards. Arm spine articulation with dorsal and ventral lobes; with a weakly developed sigmoidal fold; arranged over entire distal LAP edge; ventralwards increasing in size. Distance between spine articulations equal. Nerve and muscle openings separated by small ridge if at all. Nerve opening smaller than muscle opening.

DORSAL DISC. Disc pentagonal to circular; flat (about same level as arms). Integument obscuring plates. Dorsal disc with granules; with concealed primary plates; with scales; without spines. Dorsal disc scale/plate without tubercles. Radial shield present; with granules; length less than one third of the disc radius; isosceles (mirror-symmetric) triangular to pear-shaped.

VENTRAL DISC. Gonads restricted to the disc. Ventral interradii with granules. Scales on ventral interradii absent. Ventral teeth several (tooth papillae). Infradental papillae on oral plate present. Buccal scales on OP absent. Accessory oral papillae on OP absent. Lateral oral papillae on OP present; single row of lateral papillae; spiniform. Adoral shield spine present. Lyman’s ossicle present. Oral shield covering less than one third of interradius; much wider than long. Madreporite multiple; with one pore. Adoral shield meeting in front of the oral shield. Abradial genital plate not twisted. Number of genital slits two per bursa. Genital slit longer than half the length of an interradius. Genital papillae absent. Dental plate of equal width all over; fragmented. Dental sockets slit-shaped and circular; less than 50% of the width or equal to or more than 50% of the width. At least one socket on DP as depression or perforation without septum. Teeth block-like (with square tip). Teeth on DP arranged as a single row on ⅔ and a cluster of tooth papillae on ⅓ of dental plate.

VERTEBRAE. Vertebrae zygospondylous; beyond segment 5 with short keel; without oral bridge.

Family Ophiopezidae O’Hara, Stöhr, Hugall, Thuy & Martynov, 2018  

Type genus

Ophiopeza Peters, 1851   .

Other genera

Ophiochaeta Lütken, 1869   .

Description

ARM.Arm shape unbranched; length more than4×disc diameter;covering without granules/spines/tubercles. Arm combs absent. Dorsal arm plate present. Accessory dorsal arm plate absent. Ventral arm plate present. Accessory ventral arm plate absent. Girdle of tiny hooks on the arms absent. Spines all similar in shape. Arm spine cross section round. The ratio of thickness of distal ⅓ of arm spine to maximum thickness (in a given cross-sectional plane) 0.6–0.9. Arm spines pointed; mainly lateral; predominantly parallel to arm axis (adpressed). Longest arm spines shorter than half a segment. Tentacle scales present; pores visible along most of the arm; slightly longer than wide; shorter than the spine nearby. Dental plate ventral half widest; entire (single plate). Position of lateral arm plate (LAP) only lateral. Dorsal and/or ventral edge(s) of LAPs without constriction. Ventral position of LAP not projecting ventro-proximalwards. Ventro-distal tip of LAP not projecting ventralwards. Arm spine articulation with dorsal and thin ventral lobes and a fully developed sigmoidal fold; arranged over entire distal LAP edge; larger in middle of arm. Distance between spine articulations equal. Nerve and muscle openings separated by large, prominent ridge or regular stereom. Nerve opening smaller than muscle opening.

DORSAL DISC. Disc pentagonal; flat (about same level as arms). Integument obscuring plates. Dorsal disc with granules; with concealed primary plates; without scales; with spines. Dorsal disc scale/plate without tubercles. Radial shield present; covering, length and shape no data.

VENTRAL DISC. Gonads restricted to the disc. Ventral interradii with granules. Scales on ventral interradii absent. Ventral teeth several (tooth papillae). Infradental papillae on oral plate present. Buccal scales on OP absent.Accessory oral papillae on OP absent. Lateral oral papillae on OP present; single row of lateral papillae; spiniform. Adoral shield spine present. Lyman’s ossicle present. Oral shield covering less than one third of interradius; about as long as wide. Madreporite no data. Adoral shield separated. Abradial genital plate not twisted. Number of genital slits one per bursa. Genital slit longer than half the length of an interradius. Genital papillae absent. Dental sockets slit-shaped or circular; less than 50% of the width. At least one socket on DP as depression or perforation without septum. Teeth spine-shaped. Teeth on DP arranged as a single row on ⅔ and a cluster of tooth papillae on ⅓ of dental plate.

VERTEBRAE. Vertebrae zygospondylous; beyond segment 5 with short keel; without oral bridge.

Family Ophiomyxidae Ljungman, 1867  

Type genus

Ophiomyxa Müller & Troschel, 1842   .

Other genera

Neoplax Bell, 1884   ; Ophiarachna Müller & Troschel, 1842   ; Ophioconis Lütken, 1869   ; Ophiostiba Matsumoto, 1915   ; Ophiurochaeta Matsumoto, 1915   .

Description

ARM. Arm shape unbranched; length 3–4× disc diameter; covering without granules/spines/tubercles. Arm combs absent. Dorsal arm plate present.Accessory dorsal arm plate absent. Ventral arm plate present. Accessory ventral arm plate absent. Girdle of tiny hooks on the arms absent. Spines all similar in shape. Arm spine cross section round. The ratio of thickness of distal ⅓ of arm spine to maximum thickness (in a given cross-sectional plane) 0.6–0.9. Arm spines pointed; mainly lateral; predominantly erect, standing perpendicular to arm axis. Longest arm spines shorter than half a segment, or longer than two segments ( Ophiarachna   ). Tentacle scales present; pores visible along most of the arm; slightly longer than wide, or more than two times as long as wide; shorter than the spine nearby; cross section oval. Position of lateral arm plate (LAP) arched (wrapped around the arm). Dorsal and/or ventral edge(s) of LAPs without constriction. Ventral position of LAP projecting ventro-proximalwards. Ventro-distal tip of LAP projecting ventralwards. Arm spine articulation with dorsal and ventral lobes; without or with a weakly developed sigmoidal fold; arranged over entire distal LAP edge; ventralwards increasing in size. Distance between spine articulations equal. Nerve and muscle openings separated by small ridge if at all. Nerve opening approximately as large as muscle opening.

DORSAL DISC. Disc pentagonal; flat (about same level as arms). Integument not obscuring plates. Dorsal disc with granules ( Ophiarachna   ) or without granules; with concealed primary plates; with scales; without spines. Dorsal disc scale/plate without tubercles. Radial shield present; without granules/spines; length less than one third of the disc radius; isosceles (mirror-symmetric) triangular to pear-shaped.

VENTRAL DISC. Gonads restricted to the disc. Ventral interradii without granules/spines, or with granules ( Ophiarachna   ). Scales on ventral interradii absent. Ventral teeth single or with several tooth papillae ( Ophiarachna   ). Infradental papillae on oral plate present. Buccal scales on OP absent. Accessory oral papillae on OP absent. Lateral oral papillae on OP present; single row of lateral papillae; paddle-shaped. Adoral shield spine present. Lyman’s ossicle present. Oral shield covering less than one third of interradius; about as long as wide. Madreporite one; with one pore. Adoral shield separated.Abradial genital plate not twisted. Number of genital slits one per bursa. Genital slit longer than half the length of an interradius. Genital papillae absent. Dental plate ventral half widest; fragmented. Dental sockets slit-shaped and circular; less than 50% of the width or equal to or more than 50% of the width. At least one socket on DP as perforation with septum. Teeth block-like (with square tip). Teeth on DP arranged as single row.

VERTEBRAE. Vertebrae zygospondylous; beyond segment 5 with short keel; without oral bridge.

Family Ophiopezidae O’Hara, Stöhr, Hugall, Thuy & Martynov, 2018  

Type genus

Ophiopeza Peters, 1851   .

Other genera

Ophiochaeta Lütken, 1869   .

Description

ARM.Arm shape unbranched; length more than4×disc diameter;covering without granules/spines/tubercles. Arm combs absent. Dorsal arm plate present. Accessory dorsal arm plate absent. Ventral arm plate present. Accessory ventral arm plate absent. Girdle of tiny hooks on the arms absent. Spines all similar in shape. Arm spine cross section round. The ratio of thickness of distal ⅓ of arm spine to maximum thickness (in a given cross-sectional plane) 0.6–0.9. Arm spines pointed; mainly lateral; predominantly parallel to arm axis (adpressed). Longest arm spines shorter than half a segment. Tentacle scales present; pores visible along most of the arm; slightly longer than wide; shorter than the spine nearby. Dental plate ventral half widest; entire (single plate). Position of lateral arm plate (LAP) only lateral. Dorsal and/or ventral edge(s) of LAPs without constriction. Ventral position of LAP not projecting ventro-proximalwards. Ventro-distal tip of LAP not projecting ventralwards. Arm spine articulation with dorsal and thin ventral lobes and a fully developed sigmoidal fold; arranged over entire distal LAP edge; larger in middle of arm. Distance between spine articulations equal. Nerve and muscle openings separated by large, prominent ridge or regular stereom. Nerve opening smaller than muscle opening.

DORSAL DISC. Disc pentagonal; flat (about same level as arms). Integument obscuring plates. Dorsal disc with granules; with concealed primary plates; without scales; with spines. Dorsal disc scale/plate without tubercles. Radial shield present; covering, length and shape no data.

VENTRAL DISC. Gonads restricted to the disc. Ventral interradii with granules. Scales on ventral interradii absent. Ventral teeth several (tooth papillae). Infradental papillae on oral plate present. Buccal scales on OP absent.Accessory oral papillae on OP absent. Lateral oral papillae on OP present; single row of lateral papillae; spiniform. Adoral shield spine present. Lyman’s ossicle present. Oral shield covering less than one third of interradius; about as long as wide. Madreporite no data. Adoral shield separated. Abradial genital plate not twisted. Number of genital slits one per bursa. Genital slit longer than half the length of an interradius. Genital papillae absent. Dental sockets slit-shaped or circular; less than 50% of the width. At least one socket on DP as depression or perforation without septum. Teeth spine-shaped. Teeth on DP arranged as a single row on ⅔ and a cluster of tooth papillae on ⅓ of dental plate.

VERTEBRAE. Vertebrae zygospondylous; beyond segment 5 with short keel; without oral bridge.

Family Ophiomyxidae Ljungman, 1867  

Type genus

Ophiomyxa Müller & Troschel, 1842   .

Other genera

Neoplax Bell, 1884   ; Ophiarachna Müller & Troschel, 1842   ; Ophioconis Lütken, 1869   ; Ophiostiba Matsumoto, 1915   ; Ophiurochaeta Matsumoto, 1915   .

Description

ARM. Arm shape unbranched; length 3–4× disc diameter; covering without granules/spines/tubercles. Arm combs absent. Dorsal arm plate present.Accessory dorsal arm plate absent. Ventral arm plate present. Accessory ventral arm plate absent. Girdle of tiny hooks on the arms absent. Spines all similar in shape. Arm spine cross section round. The ratio of thickness of distal ⅓ of arm spine to maximum thickness (in a given cross-sectional plane) 0.6–0.9. Arm spines pointed; mainly lateral; predominantly erect, standing perpendicular to arm axis. Longest arm spines shorter than half a segment, or longer than two segments ( Ophiarachna   ). Tentacle scales present; pores visible along most of the arm; slightly longer than wide, or more than two times as long as wide; shorter than the spine nearby; cross section oval. Position of lateral arm plate (LAP) arched (wrapped around the arm). Dorsal and/or ventral edge(s) of LAPs without constriction. Ventral position of LAP projecting ventro-proximalwards. Ventro-distal tip of LAP projecting ventralwards. Arm spine articulation with dorsal and ventral lobes; without or with a weakly developed sigmoidal fold; arranged over entire distal LAP edge; ventralwards increasing in size. Distance between spine articulations equal. Nerve and muscle openings separated by small ridge if at all. Nerve opening approximately as large as muscle opening.

DORSAL DISC. Disc pentagonal; flat (about same level as arms). Integument not obscuring plates. Dorsal disc with granules ( Ophiarachna   ) or without granules; with concealed primary plates; with scales; without spines. Dorsal disc scale/plate without tubercles. Radial shield present; without granules/spines; length less than one third of the disc radius; isosceles (mirror-symmetric) triangular to pear-shaped.

VENTRAL DISC. Gonads restricted to the disc. Ventral interradii without granules/spines, or with granules ( Ophiarachna   ). Scales on ventral interradii absent. Ventral teeth single or with several tooth papillae ( Ophiarachna   ). Infradental papillae on oral plate present. Buccal scales on OP absent. Accessory oral papillae on OP absent. Lateral oral papillae on OP present; single row of lateral papillae; paddle-shaped. Adoral shield spine present. Lyman’s ossicle present. Oral shield covering less than one third of interradius; about as long as wide. Madreporite one; with one pore. Adoral shield separated.Abradial genital plate not twisted. Number of genital slits one per bursa. Genital slit longer than half the length of an interradius. Genital papillae absent. Dental plate ventral half widest; fragmented. Dental sockets slit-shaped and circular; less than 50% of the width or equal to or more than 50% of the width. At least one socket on DP as perforation with septum. Teeth block-like (with square tip). Teeth on DP arranged as single row.

VERTEBRAE. Vertebrae zygospondylous; beyond segment 5 with short keel; without oral bridge.

Family Ophiomyxidae Ljungman, 1867  

Type genus

Ophiomyxa Müller & Troschel, 1842   .

Other genera

Neoplax Bell, 1884   ; Ophiarachna Müller & Troschel, 1842   ; Ophioconis Lütken, 1869   ; Ophiostiba Matsumoto, 1915   ; Ophiurochaeta Matsumoto, 1915   .

Description

ARM. Arm shape unbranched; length 3–4× disc diameter; covering without granules/spines/tubercles. Arm combs absent. Dorsal arm plate present.Accessory dorsal arm plate absent. Ventral arm plate present. Accessory ventral arm plate absent. Girdle of tiny hooks on the arms absent. Spines all similar in shape. Arm spine cross section round. The ratio of thickness of distal ⅓ of arm spine to maximum thickness (in a given cross-sectional plane) 0.6–0.9. Arm spines pointed; mainly lateral; predominantly erect, standing perpendicular to arm axis. Longest arm spines shorter than half a segment, or longer than two segments ( Ophiarachna   ). Tentacle scales present; pores visible along most of the arm; slightly longer than wide, or more than two times as long as wide; shorter than the spine nearby; cross section oval. Position of lateral arm plate (LAP) arched (wrapped around the arm). Dorsal and/or ventral edge(s) of LAPs without constriction. Ventral position of LAP projecting ventro-proximalwards. Ventro-distal tip of LAP projecting ventralwards. Arm spine articulation with dorsal and ventral lobes; without or with a weakly developed sigmoidal fold; arranged over entire distal LAP edge; ventralwards increasing in size. Distance between spine articulations equal. Nerve and muscle openings separated by small ridge if at all. Nerve opening approximately as large as muscle opening.

DORSAL DISC. Disc pentagonal; flat (about same level as arms). Integument not obscuring plates. Dorsal disc with granules ( Ophiarachna   ) or without granules; with concealed primary plates; with scales; without spines. Dorsal disc scale/plate without tubercles. Radial shield present; without granules/spines; length less than one third of the disc radius; isosceles (mirror-symmetric) triangular to pear-shaped.

VENTRAL DISC. Gonads restricted to the disc. Ventral interradii without granules/spines, or with granules ( Ophiarachna   ). Scales on ventral interradii absent. Ventral teeth single or with several tooth papillae ( Ophiarachna   ). Infradental papillae on oral plate present. Buccal scales on OP absent. Accessory oral papillae on OP absent. Lateral oral papillae on OP present; single row of lateral papillae; paddle-shaped. Adoral shield spine present. Lyman’s ossicle present. Oral shield covering less than one third of interradius; about as long as wide. Madreporite one; with one pore. Adoral shield separated.Abradial genital plate not twisted. Number of genital slits one per bursa. Genital slit longer than half the length of an interradius. Genital papillae absent. Dental plate ventral half widest; fragmented. Dental sockets slit-shaped and circular; less than 50% of the width or equal to or more than 50% of the width. At least one socket on DP as perforation with septum. Teeth block-like (with square tip). Teeth on DP arranged as single row.

VERTEBRAE. Vertebrae zygospondylous; beyond segment 5 with short keel; without oral bridge.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Echinodermata

Class

Ophiuroidea

Order

Ophiacanthida

Family

Ophiodermatidae

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Echinodermata

Class

Ophiuroidea

Order

Ophiacanthida

Family

Ophiopezidae

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Echinodermata

Class

Ophiuroidea

Order

Ophiacanthida

Family

Ophiomyxidae

Loc

Ophiodermatidae Ljungman, 1867 Ophiopezidae O’Hara, Stöhr, Hugall, Thuy & Martynov, 2018 Ophiomyxidae Ljungman, 1867

Goharimanesh, Mona, Stöhr, Sabine, Mirshamsi, Omid, Ghassemzadeh, Fereshteh & Adriaens, Dominique 2021
2021
Loc

Ophiocypris

Koehler 1930
1930
Loc

Ophiocormus H.L. Clark, 1915

H. L. Clark 1915
1915
Loc

Ophiocryptus H.L. Clark, 1915

H. L. Clark 1915
1915
Loc

Ophiostiba

Matsumoto 1915
1915
Loc

Ophiurochaeta

Matsumoto 1915
1915
Loc

Diopederma H.L. Clark, 1913

H. L. Clark 1913
1913
Loc

Bathypectinura H.L. Clark, 1909

H. L. Clark 1909
1909
Loc

Cryptopelta H.L. Clark, 1909

H. L. Clark 1909
1909
Loc

Ophiomidas

Koehler 1904
1904
Loc

Neoplax

Bell 1884
1884
Loc

Ophiarachnella

Ljungman 1872
1872
Loc

Ophiopsammus Lütken, 1869

Lutken 1869
1869
Loc

Ophiochaeta Lütken, 1869

Lutken 1869
1869
Loc

Ophioconis Lütken, 1869

Lutken 1869
1869
Loc

Ophiochasma

Grube 1868
1868
Loc

Ophiarachna Müller & Troschel, 1842

Muller & Troschel 1842
1842