Digitonthophagus catta (Fabricius, 1787)

Génier, François & Moretto, Philippe, 2017, Digitonthophagus Balthasar, 1959: taxonomy, systematics, and morphological phylogeny of the genus revealing an African species complex (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), Zootaxa 4248 (1), pp. 1-110: 24-28

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.439444

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:71F0AC03-C1FB-40AB-8532-99A638FC91E9

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5490070

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/3D5987B7-0768-FF8F-FF17-A1150307FCDE

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Digitonthophagus catta (Fabricius, 1787)
status

 

Digitonthophagus catta (Fabricius, 1787)  

( Figs. 10 View FIGURES 7 – 10 , 29–30 View FIGURES 23 – 30. 23, 25, 27, 29 , 58 View FIGURES 55 – 62 , 74 View FIGURES 71 – 78 , 93–94, 122, 144–146; Map 5)

Scarabaeus Catta Fabricius, 1787a: 12   (original description) Scarabaeus Catta   — Olivier 1789: 125 (redescription)

Scarabaeus Catta   — Gmelin 1790: 1534 (diagnosis)

Scarabaeus Catta   — Fabricius 1792: 44 (diagnosis)

Scarabaeus Catta   — Illiger 1800: 232 (monograph)

Copris Catta   — Fabricius 1801: 35 (diagnosis)

Copris Catta   — Illiger 1804: 149 (comment taxonomy)

Copris Catta   — Schönherr 1806: 49 (mentioned as synonym) Onthophagus Catta   — Dejean 1821: 53 (mentioned as synonym) Copris Catta   — LePeletier & Audinet-Serville 1828: 354 (comment taxonomy) Copris Catta   — Klug 1833: 163 (mentioned as synonym)

[ Onthophagus   ] Catta   — Dejean 1836: 157 (mentioned as synonym) Onthophagus Catta   — Hope 1837: 32 (catalog)

Ontophagus Catta   — Reiche 1840: 243 (comment taxonomy) [Ontophagus] Catta   — Laporte 1840: 85 (mentioned as synonym) Onthophagus Catta   — Sturm 1843: 107 (mentioned as synonym) Onthophagus catta   — Motschulsky 1860: 154 (comment taxonomy) Onthophagus catta   — Harold 1869: 1029 (mentioned as synonym) Onthophagus catta   — Gerstaecker 1871: 50 (distribution)

Onthophagus catta   — Gerstaecker 1873: 130 (monograph)

Onthophagus catta   — Quedenfeldt 1884: 272 (distribution)

Onthophagus catta   — Kolbe 1887: 246 (distribution)

Onthophagus catta   —Kolbe 1897: 150 (mentioned as synonym) Onthophagus catta   — Péringuey 1901: 181 (mentioned as synonym) Onthophagus catta   — Gillet & Boucomont 1927: 138 (mentioned as synonym) Onthophagus catta   — Arrow 1931: 230 (monograph)

Onthophagus catta   — Boucomont 1934: 26 (mentioned as valid species) Onthophagus catta   — Boucomont 1935: 284 (distribution)

Onthophagus catta   — Paulian 1937: 12 (distribution)

Onthophagus catta   — Paulian 1948: 151 (distribution)

Onthophagus catta   — Janssens 1953: 1549 (distribution)

Onthophagus catta   — Frey 1958: 73 (mentioned as synonym) [ Scarabaeus   ] catta   — Balthasar 1963: 365 (mentioned as synonym) Onthophagus catta   — Ferreira 1967: 1169 (mentioned as synonym) Onthophagus catta   — Ferreira 1968: 593 (mentioned as synonym)

Onthophagus catta   — Ferreira 1972: 780 (mentioned as synonym)

Onthophagus catta   — Paulian 1986: 107 (catalog)

Onthophagus gazella   — Veenakumari & Veeresh 1996: 252 (natural history) Onthophagus catta   — Gaikwad & Bhawane 2015: 1538 (natural history) Digitonthophagus catta   — Génier & Davis 2017: 497 (comment taxonomy, distribution)

Diagnosis. Species distributed from Pakistan eastward; left lateral apophysis of FLP sclerite moderately developed ( Fig. 144 View FIGURES 135 – 146 ).

Description. Alloreferent ♂ ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 7 – 10 ): Measurements. Length 11.5 mm, width 6.5 mm. Head ( Figs. 29–30 View FIGURES 23 – 30. 23, 25, 27, 29 ). Anterior clypeal edge straight on median fifth in dorsal view; clypeofrontal carina broadly arcuate and interrupted at gena; vertex lacking median tubercle, surface with punctures fine to small, separated by one to four diameters. Horns moderately long, arcuate in frontal view, parallel sided on basal four-fifths; distinctly tapering externally before apex and narrower on apical sixth; posterointernal edge unmodified basally; apicointernal surface lacking granules. Genal edge upturned and distinctly angulate on anterior third, forming a broad angle with clypeal edge. Pronotum ( Fig. 58 View FIGURES 55 – 62 ). Surface with granulate punctures restricted to anterior half medially, with smaller, irregularlyscattered, simple punctures on posterior half of disc; punctures lacking posterolaterally, with more-or-less distinct, minute punctures throughout. Anteromedian tubercle atrophied, simply round in lateral view; median longitudinal sulcus well defined; surface behind the eyes slightly concave, surface of anterior angles concave, anterior angles unmodified; anterior half of lateral edge arcuate in dorsal and slightly sinuous anteriorly in lateral view; posterior angles simply arcuate in dorsal view. Anterior hypomeral ridge broadly arcuate, anterior hypomeral depression surface slightly darker in color medially. Elytra ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 7 – 10 ). Interval 2 with few fine granules on apical declivity, interval 4 lacking granules from base to apex. Legs. Protibial apicointernal tooth enlarged, with dorsal ridge extending to apex. Aedeagus ( Fig. 122 View FIGURES 119 – 134 ). Parameres with dorsal and ventral edges slightly diverging toward apex in lateral view. Internal sac sclerites ( Figs. 144–146 View FIGURES 135 – 146 ). Axial sclerite moderately sclerotized, shorter than subaxial sclerite, almost straight. Subaxial sclerite, larger basally and gradually tapering, extending straight and interrupted at apex of frontolateral peripheral sclerite apical portion, with villi on apical sixth. Frontolateral peripheral sclerite basoventral apophysis moderately developed, angular in lateral view; with a single acute medioventral carinae; right lateral fold produced into a uneven bifurcate process, lateral edge with few indentations; left lateral apophysis present, moderately developed; left lateral lobe absent; subapicodorsal lobe well sclerotized, reaching anterior edge, partly fused to apical lobe, with villi similar to apical lobe, right edge round before apex; apical lobe round apically, longitudinally folded and partly fused to subapicodorsal lobe, apical villi regular in shape; subapicoventral lobe atrophied, oriented ventrally.

Variation. Measurements (107 ♂♂, 106 ♀♀). Length: male 7.0–13.0 mm (10.6 ± 1.0 mm), female 7.5–12.5 mm (10.2 ± 1.0 mm). Female specimen. Cephalic outline in dorsal view similar to Fig. 74 View FIGURES 71 – 78 ; vertex with a broadly arcuate transverse carina, dorsal edge broadly arcuate in frontal view, lateral portion gradually sloping down posteriorly; anterior pronotal tubercles well developed, external lateral edges approximately parallel in dorsal view (Fig. 93), anterolateral surface obliquely concave, anterosuperior edge slightly arcuate in dorsal view, lateral portion of anterosuperior edge slightly upturned (Fig. 94). Protibia short, with external teeth more robust.

Primary type data. Lectotype ♀ (ZMUK) present designation: [WORLD / SCARAB. / DATABASE / WSD00032221] barcode label; [LECTOTYPE ♀ / Scarabaeus   / catta   / Fabricius, 1787 / des. F. Génier, 2016] red card.

Material examined (188 ♂♂, 199 ♀♀, 855 sex no recorded), distribution (Map 5): AFGHANISTAN: KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, Hazara, Abbottabad (39°10'N, 73°13'E), vi.2002, [anonymous] GoogleMaps   —2 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂ (CEMT); BANGLADESH: RANGPUR, Dinajpur (25°45'N, 88°43'E), iv.1970, Barbe— 1 ♂ ( CMNC) GoogleMaps   ; INDIA: Coromandel Coast, [no date], Zschuck— 4 ♀♀ (lectotype, 3 paralectotypes) ( ZMUC)   ; ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS, [unspecified locality] (12°30'N, 92°45'E), [no date], Roepstorff— 1 ♂ ( ZMUC) GoogleMaps   ; GOA, Calangute (15°32'30''N, 73°45'45''E), 15.xii.1976, [anonymous]— 4 ♀♀, 3 ♂♂ ( OMOC) GoogleMaps   ; [unspecified locality] (15°22'N, 74°4'E), 22–23.x.1986, J.L. & A. Nicolas— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ (CMD) GoogleMaps   ; JHARKHAND, Ranchi (23°20'N, 85°19'E), 1970, Dr. Soběslavský— 1 ♀ ( CVM) GoogleMaps   ; Ranchi (23°20'N, 85°19'E), [no date], R.P. Bretaudeau— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; KARNATAKA, 15 km W Gadag , 670 m (15°25'48''N, 75°28'39''E), 13.viii.1984, B. Gill— 1 ♀ ( BDGC) GoogleMaps   ; 20 km SW Hubli , 650 m (15°12'3''N, 74°59'34''E), 11.vii.1984, B. Gill— 3 ♀♀, 1 ♂ ( BDGC) GoogleMaps   ; Bangalore , 970 m (12°58'N, 77°34'E), 17–19.vii.1984, B. Gill— 7 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂ ( BDGC) GoogleMaps   ; Chikkangalur , près de Bangalore [=Chickmagaluru] (13°18'53''N, 74°46'29''E), vii–ix.1899, R.P. Tabourel— 1 ♀ ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; Hampi (15°20'6''N, 76°27'36''E), 18.x.1986, J.L. Nicolas— 2 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂ (CMD); Harihar , 750 m (14°30'30''N, 75°48'30''E), 15.vii.1984, B. Gill— 2 ♀♀, 5 ♂♂ ( BDGC) GoogleMaps   ; Hubli , 670 m (15°21'42''N, 75°5'6''E), 7–14.vii.1984, B. Gill— 5 ♀♀, 8 ♂♂ ( BDGC) GoogleMaps   ; Sindhanur (15°46'N, 76°45'E), 21.xii.1989, C. Mahalingappa— 1 ♀, 2 ♂♂ ( OUMNH) GoogleMaps   ; Mysore District, Mysore (12°18'N, 76°39'E), [no date], [anonymous]— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; Shimoga District, Bhadravati (13°50'24''N, 75°42'7.2''E), 13.v.1935, [anonymous]— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ ( CMNC) GoogleMaps   ; Shimoga (13°55'N, 75°34'E), v.1897, [anonymous]— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; Shimoga (13°55'N, 75°34'E), vi.1897, [anonymous]— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; Shimoga (13°55'N, 75°34'E), iv.1936, [anonymous]— 1 ♂ ( PMOC) GoogleMaps   ; KERALA, Chembra Peak , 1067 m (11°33'12''N, 76°5'14''E), iv.1970, T.R.S. Nathan— 1 ♂ ( CMNC) GoogleMaps   ; Thenmala (8°58'N, 77°4'E), v.1988, T.R.S. Nathan— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ ( CMNC) GoogleMaps   ; Thiruvananthapuram District, Poonmudi Range , 914 m (8°45'27''N, 77°6'54''E), v.1989, T.R.S. Nathan— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ ( CMNC) GoogleMaps   ; KERALA / TAMIL NADU, Anaimalai Hills , 1067 m (10°22'N, 77°7.5'E), v.1963, P.S. Nathan— 1 ♀ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Anaimalai Hills , 1067 m (10°22'N, 77°7.5'E), v.1977, [anonymous]— 4 ♀♀, 4 ♂♂ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Anaimalai Hills , 1067 m (10°22'N, 77°7.5'E), iv.1963, P.S. Nathan— 2 ♂♂ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Anaimalai Hills , 1067 m (10°22'N, 77°7.5'E), x.1977, T.R.S. Nathan— 1 ♂ ( RMNH) GoogleMaps   ; Cinchona, Anaimalai Hills , 1067 m, iv.1964, P.S. Nathan— 1 ♂ ( CNC)   ; MADHYA PRADESH, Jabalpur (23°10'N, 79°56'E), x.1957, Nathan— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ ( CMNC) GoogleMaps   ; Maihar (24°16'10''N, 80°45'24''E), x.1972, [anonymous]— 1 ♀ ( ZMUC) GoogleMaps   ; Pachmarhi, Satputa Hills , 1067 m (22°28'.12''N, 78°25'59.88''E), x.1970, T. Nathan— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ ( CNC)   ; Ratlam (23°20'N, 75°2'E), [no date], [anonymous]— 1 ♂ ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; Satna (24°36'N, 80°50'E), [no date], Stloukal— 1 ♂ ( CMNC) GoogleMaps   ; MAHARASHTRA, Pune (18°31'N, 73°51'E), viii.1984, S. Pokorný— 2 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂ ( CVM) GoogleMaps   ; ODISHA, Brahmapur (19°19'N, 84°47'E), xi.1972, [anonymous]— 1 ♂ ( ZMUC) GoogleMaps   ; ORISSA, Berhampur (19°18'30''N, 84°47'26''E), [no date], Atkinson— 1 ♂ ( OUMNH) GoogleMaps   ; Balasore District, Balasore (21°30'N, 86°56'E), [no date], R.P. Gengler— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ ( MNHN); PONDICHERRY GoogleMaps   , Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), viii.1991, T.R.S. Nathan— 1 ♀ ( CMNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), x.1991, T.R.S. Nathan— 1 ♂ ( CMNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), iv.1962, P.S. Nathan— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), x.1963, P.S. Nathan— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), ix.1952, P.S. Nathan— 2 ♀♀ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), vi.1962, P.S. Nathan— 1 ♂ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), vii.1963, P.S. Nathan— 1 ♂ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), i.1962, P.S. Nathan— 11 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), ii.1962, P.S. Nathan— 36 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), iii.1962, P.S. Nathan— 34 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), vii.1962, P.S. Nathan— 40 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), viii.1962, P.S. Nathan— 74 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), ix.1962, P.S. Nathan— 146 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), x.1962, P.S. Nathan— 83 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), xi.1962, P.S. Nathan— 39 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), xii.1962, P.S. Nathan— 9 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), i.1963, P.S. Nathan— 16 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), ii.1963, P.S. Nathan— 12 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), iii.1963, P.S. Nathan— 34 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), iv.1963, P.S. Nathan— 12 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), vi.1963, P.S. Nathan— 4 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), x.1966, P.S. Nathan— 13 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), viii.1963, T.R.S. Nathan— 2 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂ ( MMUE) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), i–ii.1964, T.R.S. Nathan— 4 ♀♀, 4 ♂♂ ( MMUE) GoogleMaps   ; Karaikal District, Karaikal (10°56'N, 79°50'E), vii.1970, P. Susai Nathan— 1 ♂ ( RMNH) GoogleMaps   ; Nedungadu (10°58'N, 79°46'E), [no date], [anonymous]— 1 ♂ ( NMPC) GoogleMaps   ; RAJASTHAN, Barmer (25°45'N, 71°23'E), ix.1973, T.R.S. Nathan— 1 ♀ ( RMNH) GoogleMaps   ; Kota , 250 m (25°10'28''N, 75°50'14''E), x.1981, T.R.S. Nathan— 2 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂ ( OUMNH) GoogleMaps   ; Thar desert around Jaisalmer (26°55'N, 70°56'E), 2.viii.2007, I. Nádai— 4 ♀♀, 7 ♂♂ ( PMOC) GoogleMaps   ; TAMIL NADU, 20 km SE Sagar , 600 m (14°6.37'N, 75°8.93'E), 12.v.2005, M. Halada— 1 ♀ ( OUMNH) GoogleMaps   ; 20 km SW Karamadai , 450 m (11°12.6'N, 76°44.9'E), 27.iv.2005, M. Halada— 1 ♂ ( OUMNH) GoogleMaps   ; Cap Comorin [=Kanyakumari] (8°5'N, 77°32'E), 1888, R.P. Castets— 16 specimens ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), xi.1969, P.S. Nathan— 1 ♀, 3 ♂♂ ( CMNC, CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), iv.1959, P.S. Nathan— 1 ♀ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), iv.1962, P.S. Nathan— 25 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), v.1962, P.S. Nathan— 19 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), vii.1962, P.S. Nathan— 18 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), ix.1962, P.S. Nathan— 14 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), x.1962, P.S. Nathan— 3 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), xi.1962, P.S. GoogleMaps  

Nathan—20 specimens (CNC); Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), xii.1962, P.S. Nathan— 5 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), i.1963, P.S. Nathan— 6 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), iv.1963, P.S. Nathan— 50 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), xi.1966, P.S. Nathan— 20 specimens, 2 ♂♂ ( CNC, PMOC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), viii.1963, T.R.S. Nathan— 6 ♀♀, 6 ♂♂ ( MMUE) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), ix.1964, T.R.S. Nathan— 1 ♀, 5 ♂♂ ( MMUE) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), x–xi.1964, T.R.S. Nathan— 4 ♂♂ ( MMUE) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), xi.1967, P.S. Nathan— 1 ♀ ( PMOC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), ix.1972, T.R.S. Nathan— 2 ♀♀, 1 ♂ ( PMOC, RMNH) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), x.1972, T.R.S. Nathan— 2 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂ ( PMOC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore , 427 m (11°0'N, 76°57'E), xii.1976, T.R.S. Nathan— 1 ♂ ( RMNH) GoogleMaps   ; Gingee (12°15'N, 79°25'E), [no date], M. André— 1 ♂ ( PMOC) GoogleMaps   ; Madurai (9°55'N, 78°7'E), x.1975, M. Coe— 1 ♀, 4 ♂♂ ( OUMNH) GoogleMaps   ; Maravakkadu (10°38'N, 79°27'E), v.1962, T.R.S. Nathan— 2 ♀♀ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; NE of Madurai , 200 m (10°8.7'N, 77°46.5'E), 6.v.2005, M. Halada— 1 ♀ ( OUMNH) GoogleMaps   ; Palni Hills (10°12'N, 77°30'E), 1898, R.P. Castets— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; Point Calimere (10°17'35''N, 79°52'6''E), 1972, T.R.S. Nathan— 1 ♀ ( RMNH) GoogleMaps   ; Pudukkottai (10°23'N, 78°49'E), x.1984, T.R.S. Nathan— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ ( CMNC) GoogleMaps   ; Singara, Nilgiri Hills (11°22'N, 76°46'E), v.1963, T.R.S. Nathan— 2 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂ ( MMUE) GoogleMaps   ; Thambikkottai (10°23'N, 79°27'E), vi.1962, P.S. Nathan— 3 ♀♀ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Tirunelveli (8°44'N, 77°42'E), x.1986, [anonymous]— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ ( OMOC) GoogleMaps   ; Tranquebar [= Tharangambadi] (11°2'N, 79°5'E), [no date], [anonymous]— 1 ♂ ( ZMUC) GoogleMaps   ; Vellore (12°55'N, 79°8'E), [no date], Löventhal— 2 ♂♂ ( ZMUC) GoogleMaps   ; Chennai District, Madras Airport [= Chennai Airport ] (12°59'38''N, 80°9'28''E), v.1962, P.S. Nathan— 64 ♀♀, 42 ♂♂ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Chennai District, Madras Airport [= Chennai Airport ] (12°59'38''N, 80°9'28''E), viii.1962, P.S. Nathan— 19 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Chennai District, Madras Airport [= Chennai Airport ] (12°59'38''N, 80°9'28''E), ix.1962, P.S. Nathan— 9 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Chennai District, Madras Airport [= Chennai Airport ] (12°59'38''N, 80°9'28''E), x.1962, P.S. Nathan— 14 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore District, Coimbatore (11°0'N, 76°57'E), x.1958, P.S. Nathan— 1 ♀ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore District, Coimbatore (11°0'N, 76°57'E), vi.1962, P.S. Nathan— 1 ♀ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore District, Coimbatore (11°0'N, 76°57'E), x.1976, [anonymous]— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore District, Coimbatore (11°0'N, 76°57'E), xi.1976, [anonymous]— 1 ♂ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore District, Coimbatore (11°0'N, 76°57'E), iv.1976, [anonymous]— 1 ♂ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore District, Coimbatore (11°0'N, 76°57'E), xi.1957, P.S. Nathan— 3 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore District, Coimbatore (11°0'N, 76°57'E), xi.1962, P.S. Nathan— 12 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Coimbatore District, Coimbatore (11°0'N, 76°57'E), xi.1965, P.S. Nathan— 10 specimens ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Marudamalai Hills (11°2'46''N, 76°51'7''E), xi.1969, P.S. Nathan— 29 specimens, 1 ♀, 1 ♂ ( CMNC, CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Marudamalai Hills (11°2'46''N, 76°51'7''E), x.1969, P.S. Nathan— 2 ♀♀ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Kancheepuram District, Manapakkam (13°0'N, 80°10'E), 20.ix.2002, S. Saluk— 1 ♂ ( PMOC) GoogleMaps   ; UTTAR PRADESH, Babina , 300 m (25°15'N, 78°28'E), viii.1984, T.R.S. Nathan— 1 ♀, 2 ♂♂ ( CMNC) GoogleMaps   ; Babina , 300 m (25°15'N, 78°28'E), viii.1987, T.R.S. Nathan— 3 ♀♀, 3 ♂♂ ( CMNC, FETC) GoogleMaps   ; UTTARAKHAND, Rishikesh (30°5'N, 78°16'E), 7.x.1981, F. Tagliaferri— 1 ♀ ( FETC) GoogleMaps   ; WEST BENGAL, Burasanti, Singur (22°49'N, 88°13'E), 14.vi.1971, Oppenheimer— 1 ♂ ( CMNC) GoogleMaps   ; Burasanti, Singur (22°49'N, 88°13'E), 27.vi.1971, Oppenheimer— 2 ♀♀ ( CMNC) GoogleMaps   ; Kalkata District, Calcutta [= Kolkata ] (22°34'N, 88°22'E), [no date], [anonymous]— 1 ♀ ( NMPC) GoogleMaps   ; NEPAL: CENTRAL, Adhabar, near Simra , 183 m (27°13'49''N, 84°59'14''E), 23.viii.1967, Canadian Nepal Expedition— 1 ♂ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Adhabar, near Simra , 183 m (27°13'49''N, 84°59'14''E), 25.viii.1967, Canadian Nepal Expedition— 1 ♀ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Adhabar, near Simra , 183 m (27°13'49''N, 84°59'14''E), 27.viii.1967, Canadian Nepal Expedition— 1 ♀ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Adhabar, near Simra , 183 m (27°13'49''N, 84°59'14''E), 28.viii.1967, Canadian Nepal Expedition— 1 ♂ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Chitwan District, Sauraha, Chitwan National Park , 300 m (27°34'29''N, 84°29'37''E), 1–4.vi.1999, M. Pejcha— 1 ♀ ( FETC) GoogleMaps   ; EASTERN, Dharan (26°49'N, 87°16'E), 4.iv.1959, K. Becker Larsen— 1 ♀ ( ZMUC) GoogleMaps   ; Dharan (26°49'N, 87°16'E), 8.vii.1959, K. Becker Larsen— 1 ♀ ( ZMUC) GoogleMaps   ; PAKISTAN: Thar , 18.ix.2007, Zubair & Atique— 2 ♂♂ ( BDGC)   ; KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, Changla Gali, Murree, Islamabad area , 1981 m (33°59'42''N, 73°23'2''E), 5.vii.2006, Z. Ahmed— 1 ♀ ( BDGC) GoogleMaps   ; PENJAB, Chakwal (32°33'N, 72°30'36''E), 19.v.1990, Naeem— 1 ♀ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Kallar Kahar (32°47'32''N, 72°43'34''E), 26.vi.2008, A. Zubair— 2 ♂♂ ( PMOC) GoogleMaps   ; Murree, Islamabad area , 1981 m (33°54'27''N, 73°23'29''E), vii.2006, Z. Ahmed— 2 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂ ( BDGC) GoogleMaps   ; SINDH, Karachi (24°57'N, 67°5'E), viii– ix, Maindron— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; Karachi (24°57'N, 67°5'E), 26.i.2007, Hareem & Atige— 2 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂ ( CEMT) GoogleMaps   ; SRI LANKA: Wilpattu National Park (8°25'N, 80°1'E), 18.vii.1979, G. de Rougemont— 1 ♀ ( OUMNH) GoogleMaps   ; EASTERN, Pottuvil (6°52'N, 81°50'E), 1–12.vii.1983, O. Mehl— 1 ♀ ( ZMUC) GoogleMaps   ; NORTH CENTRAL, Anuradhapura (8°19'N, 80°24'E), 9.vii.1977, O. Mehl— 1 ♀ ( ZMUC) GoogleMaps   ; Girithale (8°0'N, 80°56'E), 16.viii.1979, G. de Rougemont— 1 ♀ ( OUMNH) GoogleMaps   ; NORTH WESTERN, Kalpitiya (8°14'N, 79°45.8'E), 12.xi.2009, Kuduvidanage et al.— 2 ♂♂ ( OUMNH) GoogleMaps   ; SOUTHERN, Galle (6°2'N, 80°13'E), 30.vii.1982, P. Moretto— 2 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂ ( PMOC) GoogleMaps   ; Hambantota District, Hambantota (6°7'2''N, 81°5'9''E), 10.xii.1979, V. Mahler— 1 ♀ ( ZMUC) GoogleMaps   ; Tissamaharama (6°17'N, 81°17'E), 12.xii.1979, [anonymous]— 1 ♂ ( ZMUC) GoogleMaps   ; Tissamaharama (6°17'N, 81°17'E), 1.viii.1982, P. Moretto— 2 ♀♀, 1 ♂ ( PMOC) GoogleMaps   ; W of Tissamaharama (6°16'N, 81°14'E), 20.ii.1986, R.W. Lekkerkerk— 1 ♂ ( RMNH) GoogleMaps   ; WESTERN, Negombo (7°13'N, 79°50'E), 17–20.vi.1985, O. Mehl— 1 ♀ ( ZMUC) GoogleMaps   ; Negombo (7°13'N, 79°50'E), 21.viii.1986, C. Lestrade— 1 ♀ ( PMOC) GoogleMaps   ; Negombo (7°13'N, 79°50'E), 23.viii.1986, C. Lestrade— 2 ♂♂ ( PMOC) GoogleMaps   ; Wadduwa (6°40'N, 79°56'E), [no date], v. de Poll— 1 ♂ ( PMOC) GoogleMaps   .

MAP 5. Distribution of Digitonthophagus catta   .

Natural history. Grassy plot in West Bengal (India) and arid scrub forest in Sri Lanka. A few specimens collected in buffalo, cow, goat, northern plains gray langur ( Semnopithecus entellus   ), and human dung. The nesting behavior and some aspects of larval natural history are described by Veenakumari & Veeresh (1996) and Gaikwad & Bhawane (2015).

Nomenclature and taxonomy. Scarabaeus catta Fabricius   was described in the first volume of Mantissa Insectorum. This   work, which contained the Coleoptera   , was published in June 1787 ( Evenhuis 1997; Bousquet 2016). There is a misspelling of the type locality (Ceromandel) in the original description, but there is no doubt that it pertains to Coromandel Coast, which historically was covering the coastal area of the current states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. These specimens are most likely from the area of Tranquebar, a former Danish colony from 1620–1845. However, there is no biographical information on Zschuck the stated collector of the specimens (see Zimsen 1964). The four specimens forming the type series are unlabeled females from Kiel collection. Based on the pins used, these four specimens are unquestionably from Fabricius time. The three different types of pins used also suggest that these specimens are from more than a single collecting event. In order to stabilize nomenclature, we designate here the clean and unabraded specimen as the lectotype (present designation). A lectotype is designated in order to choose a single specimen as name bearing type in the event that the other specimens of the syntype series could belong to a different cryptic species in this genus. The lectotype has a steel pin similar to those used to pin the syntypes of D. bonasus   , which were collected from the same area in India. This female specimen, with the distinctly concave ventral surface of the median pronotal tubercle combined with the distinctly arcuate anterior hypomeral carina, matches the taxon present in India. One of the female syntypes is pinned with a Crataegus   thorn and appears to have the same origin as the four male specimens from Kiel collection which have been prepared in the same way. This pinning method suggests that this fourth female specimen was from the same collecting event as the four males S. gazella   from the Kiel collection. All of these specimens do also lack the typical small green label used to identify Fabrician types. This gives support to the hypothesis that Fabricius considered females as S. catta   and males as S. gazella   .

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen

CVM

City Museum

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

RMNH

National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis

MMUE

Museum of Manchester University

NMPC

National Museum Prague

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Scarabaeidae

Genus

Digitonthophagus

Loc

Digitonthophagus catta (Fabricius, 1787)

Génier, François & Moretto, Philippe 2017
2017
Loc

Onthophagus gazella

Genier 2017: 497
Gaikwad 2015: 1538
Veenakumari 1996: 252
1996
Loc

Onthophagus catta

Paulian 1986: 107
1986
Loc

Onthophagus catta

Ferreira 1972: 780
1972
Loc

Onthophagus catta

Ferreira 1968: 593
Ferreira 1967: 1169
Balthasar 1963: 365
Frey 1958: 73
1958
Loc

Onthophagus catta

Janssens 1953: 1549
1953
Loc

Onthophagus catta

Paulian 1948: 151
1948
Loc

Onthophagus catta

Paulian 1937: 12
1937
Loc

Onthophagus catta

Boucomont 1935: 284
Boucomont 1934: 26
1934
Loc

Onthophagus catta

Arrow 1931: 230
Gillet 1927: 138
Peringuey 1901: 181
1901
Loc

Onthophagus catta

Kolbe 1887: 246
1887
Loc

Onthophagus catta

Quedenfeldt 1884: 272
1884
Loc

Onthophagus catta

Gerstaecker 1873: 130
1873
Loc

Gerstaecker 1871: 50
Harold 1869: 1029
Motschulsky 1860: 154
Sturm 1843: 107
Reiche 1840: 243
Laporte 1840: 85
1840
Loc

Onthophagus

Hope 1837: 32
Dejean 1836: 157
1836
Loc

Copris

Klug 1833: 163
LePeletier 1828: 354
Dejean 1821: 53
Schonherr 1806: 49
1806
Loc

Copris

Illiger 1804: 149
1804
Loc

Copris

Fabricius 1801: 35
1801
Loc

Scarabaeus

Illiger 1800: 232
1800
Loc

Scarabaeus

Fabricius 1792: 44
1792
Loc

Scarabaeus

Gmelin 1790: 1534
1790
Loc

Scarabaeus Catta Fabricius, 1787a : 12

Olivier 1789: 125
Fabricius 1787: 12
1787