Gerson, U., 2014, PEST CONTROL BY MITES (ACARI): PRESENT AND FUTURE Uri G, Acarologia 54 (4), pp. 371-394: 377

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http://doi.org/ 10.1051/acarologia/20142144

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ABAs   that increase the extent of control

At times ABAs   alone cannot reduce pest numbers to below their economic injury levels and other natural enemies help to attain that goal. Control of the stored food beetle pest Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus   ( Silvanidae   ), by Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank)   ( Cheyletidae   ) was improved when the hymenopterous parasitoid Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead)   ( Bethylidae   ) was introduced into the food bin ( Ždarkova et al. 2003). Another group of natural enemies are nematodes. The release of Gaeolaelaps aculeifer (Canestrini)   ( Laelapidae   ) (then known as Hypoaspis aculeifer   ) along with nematodes, significantly reduced the numbers of the WFT infesting green beans ( Premachandra et al. 2003), as well as sciarids and phorids ( Diptera   ), pests of mushrooms in compost and casing substrates ( Jess and Bingham 2004). The predatory cecidomyiid Therodiplosis persicae (Kieffer)   ( Diptera   ) "supported" the control of T. urticae   by P. persimilis   on tomatoes in a greenhouse ( Fiedler 2005), and the generalist ant Pristomyrmex punctatus Mayr   "enhanced" the control of the spider mite Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida   by Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha ( Otsuki and Yano 2014)   . The greatest damage to the leaf surface area of water hyacinth occurred when the Hemipteran Eccritotarsus catarinens (Carvalho)   ( Miridae   ) was used along with O. terebrantis ( Marlin et al. 2013b)   .

Such results are generally consistent with the opinions of Stiling and Cornelissen (2005), who calculated that the addition of two or more biocontrol agents, especially if generalists, increased pest mortality by 13 %, decreasing pest abundance by 27.2 %, as compared to single releases or when BC agents were specialists. This may be explained by the ability of generalists to survive on the crop when the numbers of the target-pest are much reduced, and will thus be in place if the pest resurges (e.g. Palevsky et al. 2013).