Coniocarpon cuspidans (Nyl.) Moen, Frisch & Grube, 2020

Frisch, Andreas, Moen, Victoria Stornes, Grube, Martin & Bendiksby, Mika, 2020, Integrative taxonomy confirms three species of Coniocarpon (Arthoniaceae) in Norway, MycoKeys 62, pp. 27-51 : 27

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Coniocarpon cuspidans (Nyl.) Moen, Frisch & Grube

comb. nov.

Coniocarpon cuspidans (Nyl.) Moen, Frisch & Grube comb. nov. Figs 2 View Figure 2 , 3C View Figure 3 , 4C, D View Figure 4 , 5 View Figure 5 , 6B View Figure 6

Arthonia cinnabarina f. cuspidans Nyl., Flora 59: 310 (1876) [MB 372360]. Type: Ilicicola in Hibernia, n. 6, Dough[ruagh Mountain], 1875, Larbalestier (H-Nyl 5607! lectotype, here selected).


Thallus pale brown to pale fawn to off white, matt to weakly glossy, smooth, endophloeodal to partially epiphloeodal, continuous; prothallus line dark gray to brown to black, sometimes present when in contact with other lichens; photobiont trentepohlioid, the cells rounded to elliptical, 6-13 × 5-11 µm forming short chains. Ascomata weakly elongate to irregularly lirellate, with steep flanks, emergent from thallus, 0.2-0.6 × 0.1-0.2 mm, 60-105 µm tall, typically forming loose to dense aggregations of 3-15 ascomata, weakly elongated to irregularly lirellate to stellate, 0.4-1.8(-2.5) × (0.1)0.3-1.0(-2.0) mm; disc black to dark purple black, flat to weakly convex, weakly glossy to matt, epruinose, rarely with patches of a thin white pruina; margins level with the disc, epruinose, rarely with patches of a thin white pruina; proper exciple brown, 7-20 µm wide, composed of compressed and vertically oriented paraphysoidal hyphae, the hyphae 1-2 µm thick, branched and netted, sometimes forming short hairs up to 16 µm long at the outer margin; old bark cells sometimes attached to the exciple; epithecium brown, 8-20 µm tall, conglutinated only in the lower parts, composed of branched tips of the paraphysoidal hyphae extending horizontally above the asci; the tips slightly widened to 3(-4) µm, sometimes extending from the epithecium as sparsely branched anticlinal hairs up to 12 µm long; hymenium hyaline, strongly conglutinated, 41-73 µm tall, paraphysoids densely branched and netted, 1-2 µm thick; hypothecium hyaline, conglutinated, 15-30 µm tall, formed of irregular prosoplectenchymatic hyphae 1-2 µm diam.; crystals common in epithecium and proper exciple, of two types: hyaline, leafy crystals, 1-5 µm, and red or purple granular crystals, 1-3 µm; a weak amorphous, red to purple pigmentation present in exciple, epithecium and patchily distributed in the hymenium. ASCI of the Arthonia -type, long obpyriform to clavate, 45-70 × 19-28 µm (n = 31), 8-spored, the ascospores stacked; tholus 4-8 µm thick, lateral ascospore wall 1-2 µm thick. ASCOSPORES hyaline, (2-)3(-4) transversely septate, (15-)16-18(-20) × (6-)7-8(-9) µm (l: mean = 17.4, STD = 1.2; w: mean = 7.5, STD = 0.7; n = 100), obovate, with enlarged apical cell, getting pale brown with granular ornamentation in the epispore at late maturity; development macrocephalic.


Pigments A1, A2, A3 and A4 in variable amounts detected by HPTLC. Proper exciple Idil+ red, I+ red, KI+ blue; epithecium Idil+ red, I+ red, KI+ blue; hymenium Idil+ red, I+ red, KI+ blue; hypothecium Idil+ red, I+ red, KI+ blue. A hemiamyloid ring in the tholus of the asci not observed. Hyaline crystals dissolve in K. Purple crystals dissolve in K with hyaline solution. Red and purple crystals dissolve in K with purplish solution.

Specimens examined.

Norway - Vest-Agder • Flekkefjord, Hidra, Høgåsen; 58°13.585'N, 06°33.370'E; on S. aucuparia ; 35 m a.s.l.; 15. Jul. 2017; J. Klepsland leg.; TRH-L-29017 • ibid.; Nonfjell; 58°13.445'N, 06°33.550'E; 5-25 m a.s.l.; 15. Jul. 2017; A. Frisch TRH-L-29022. - Rogaland • Tysvær, Svinali W; 59°25.098'N, 05°34.104'E; on C. avellana ; 19. Oct. 2017; G. Gaarder leg.; TRH-L-18034. - Hordaland • Austevoll, Huftaøy, Bjelland farm NE; 60°05.000'N, 05°16.000'E; on C. avellana ; 0-40 m a.s.l.; 6. Jun. 1996; T. Tønsberg leg.; BG-L-32077, BG-L-34115. • Bømlo, Børøy, Masterhaugane nord; 59°42.840'N, 05°15.5040'E; on S. aucuparia ; 30. Apr. 2018; G. Gaarder leg.; TRH-L-18038, TRH-L-18078 • ibid.; 59°42.6420'N, 05°15.3540'E; on C. avellana ; 30. Apr. 2018; G. Gaarder leg.; TRH-L-18040 • ibid.; Kuhillerdalen; 59°45.36'N, 05°16.82'E; on C. avellana ; 70 m a.s.l.; 11. May 2015; J. B. Jordal, H. H. Blom leg.; TRH-L-16794 • ibid.; Lykling, Lyklingfjorden N; 59°42.321'N, 05°10.569'E; on C. avellana ; 10-20 m a.s.l.; 13. May 1996; T. Tønsberg leg.; BG-L-31539 • ibid.; 59°42.300'N, 05°10.600'E; on C. avellana ; 40-60 m a.s.l.; 1. Jun. 1997; S. Ekman leg.; BG-L-38200 • ibid.; Skogafjellet; 59°38.833'N, 05°12.153'E; on C. avellana ; 50 m a.s.l; 19. Jul. 2017; A. Frisch TRH-L-29015 • ibid.; 59°38.812'N, 05°12.098'E; on C. avellana ; 35 m a.s.l.; 19. Jul. 2017; A. Frisch leg.; TRH-L-29013, TRH-L-29014 • ibid.; 59°38.818'N, 05°12.082'E; on C. avellana ; 10 m a.s.l.; 19. Jul. 2017; A. Frisch leg.; TRH-L-29023 • ibid.; on S. Aucuparia ; 10 m a.s.l.; 19. Jul. 2017; A. Frisch leg.; TRH-L-29024 • ibid.; 59°38.972'N, 05°12.432'E; on C. avellana ; 12 m a.s.l.; 19. Jul. 2017; A. Frisch leg.; TRH-L-29025, TRH-L-29026 • ibid.; S of Totlandstjørna; 59°41.172'N, 05°20.940'E; on C. avellana ; 28. Jun. 2017; G. Gaarder leg.; TRH-L-18035 • ibid.; Totsida; 59°40.8180'N, 05°19.5540'E; on I. aquifolium ; 27. Jun. 2017; G. Gaarder, M. Lorentzen leg.; TRH-L-18037 • ibid.; Våge; 59°43.6260'N, 05°13.5060'E; on C. avellana ; 30. Apr. 2018; G. Gaarder leg.; TRH-L-18031. • Fusa, Holmefjord, Eikhaugen; 60°17.952'N, 05°39.867'E; on Q. robur ; 30 m a.s.l.; 8. May 2018; A. Frisch leg.; TRH-L-29021. • Kvam, Nes N; 60°10.085'N, 05°55.535'E; on F. excelsior ; 4. Jun. 2018; G. Gaarder leg.; TRH-L-18608. • Stord, Åsen SW of Sagvåg; 59°46.043'N, 05°24.593'E; on C. avellana ; 50 m a.s.l.; 28. Apr. 2018; A. Frisch leg.; TRH-L-29019 • ibid.; 59°46.088'N, 05°24.757'E; on C. avellana ; 33 m a.s.l.; 28. Apr. 2018; A. Frisch leg.; TRH-L-29020. • Sund, Steinsland; 60°12.199'N, 05°04.929'E; on C. avellana ; 20-40 m a.s.l.; 9. Mar. 1997; T. Tønsberg leg.; BG-L-34117. • Tysnes, Beltestad, Beltestadknappen; 59°59.883'N, 05°27.543'E; on C. avellana ; 13 m a.s.l.; 9. May 2018; A. Frisch leg.; TRH-L-29018.

Additional examined specimens.

Great Britain - Scotland • Argyll, Appin, Glen Stockdale; 56°34.383'N, 05°21.583'W; on C. avellana ; 65-90 m a.s.l.; 5. Jun. 2018; A. Acton, J. Malíček, Z. Palice leg. 25146; PRA • ibid.; Westerness Locli Surnart, Reripole Ravine; on Corylus sp.; 10. Mar. 1983; B. J. Coppins leg.; BG-L-58163 • ibid.; Benderloch, Lochnell House; 17/88.38; on Corylus ; 15-45 m a.s.l.; 4. Aug. 1980; B. J. Coppins leg. 8056; E • Mid Perth (VC 88), S side of Loch Earn, west of Ardvorlich cottage; 27/ 61.22(-3); 105-130 m a.s.l.; 8. Aug. 1980; B. J. Coppins & P. W. James leg.; E • Clyde Islands, Arran (VC 100), Glenashdale; 26/03.25; on Corylus ; 4. Apr. 1984; B. J. Coppins leg. 10169; E • Westerness (VC 97), S side of Loch Sunart, Laudale Woods ravine 0.5 km W of Liddesdale; 17/77.59; 0-75 m a.s.l.; 9. Mar. 1983; B. J. Coppins & P. M. Jørgensen leg.; E • Devon, SW of Bridge Reeve; 21/65.13; on Quercus petraea ; 1. Aug. 1972; P. Harrold leg.; E.


Coniocarpon cuspidans is characterized by lirellate ascomata lacking orange-red pruina, while red and purple pigment crystals and a weak amorphous red to purple pigmentation is present in proper exciple and epithecium. The quinoid pigment A3 is absent or occurs in possible trace amounts only. A3 may correspond to orange pigment crystals observed in microscopical preparations of C. cinnabarinum and C. fallax but not in C. cuspidans . These crystals are located in the pruina of the ascomatal margin and disc. The ascospores in C. cuspidans are the smallest observed for the genus in Norway, (15-)16-18(-20) × (6-)7-8(-9) µm and (2-)3(-4) transversely septate. A hemiamyloid ring in the tholus of the asci, which is present in C. cinnabarinum and C. fallax , could not be observed in the investigated material. Further differences to C. cinnabarinum and C. fallax are discussed under those species.

The protologue of Arthonia cinnabarina f. cuspidans ( Nylander 1876) cites specimens from Ireland and Cuba as original material: "Ilicicola in Hibernia (Larbalestier)" and "Exotica eadem datur in C. Wright. Cub. no. 123 a et b". Nylander obviously considered the material from Ireland as the factual type collection. We have selected a specimen from the Nylander herbarium in Helsinki as the lectotype, which is the only specimen from Ireland that undoubtedly has been seen by Nylander. A possible syntype exists in BM: "Derryclare, Connemara, ilicicola, 1876 [BM000974345]". Another specimen [BM000974347] from Larbalestier’s herbarium has a printed later label that only states "On young trees. Doughruagh Mountain and other places in Connemara". The type status of this specimen is unclear. Both specimens have been seen by us as high-resolution pictures obtained from the data portal of BM.