Oenanthe incrassans Bory & Chaubert, Exp. Sci. Moree , Bot.:87. 1832.

Guener, Ebru Dogan, 2016, Oenanthe incrassans: An enigmatic species from Turkey and its comparison with Oenanthe pimpinelloides (Apiaceae), PhytoKeys 62, pp. 101-111: 103-107

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Oenanthe incrassans Bory & Chaubert, Exp. Sci. Moree , Bot.:87. 1832.


Oenanthe incrassans Bory & Chaubert, Exp. Sci. Moree, Bot.:87. 1832.   Figs 1 View Figure 1 , 2 View Figure 2 , 3 View Figure 3 , 4 View Figure 4 , 5 View Figure 5 , 6 View Figure 6 , 7 View Figure 7 , 8 View Figure 8 , Table 1, 2

≡ Oenanthe incrassata   Bory & Chaub. in Chaub. & Bory, Nouv. Fl. Pelop.: 19. 1838


Bory & Chaub., Exp. Sci. Moreé, Bot.: tab. 8. 1835. (designated by Foley 2007!)

Specimens examined.

GREECE. Crete: Listr. Malevyzi, in paludosis fluviorum Gazanos et Almyros prope Gazi, 25 June 1942, KH. Rechinger fil. 14050 (W!); Sphakia: Sumpfiger Badem bei Frankokasteli, 13 April 1904, I. Dörfler, ( WU!); Corfu: Ipsos to Ag. Markos, 16 July 1972, sides of moist fields, Davis 54531 (E); in einem Sumphe unterhalb des königlichen Schlosse Monrepos, 9 May– 4 June 1996, Baenitz s.n. (E!); Ex regione collina Insula Corcyra, June 1877, Ball s.n. (E!); Ep. Milopotamas: b. Murdzana am N–Fuss der Kulukunas–Berge, 18 April 1962, W. Greuter 4170 (W!); Cephalonia (Argostolion): Chelmata–Kompothekrata region, 15 April 1967, E. Stamatiadou 207 (W!); Kissamos: lieux humides, 2 May– 2 July 1884, Reverchon 247 (as Oenanthe   callosa) (E!); Thasos: Limenas, 19 May 1891, Sintenis & Bornmüeller 451 (W!);

TURKEY. Istanbul: c. 35 km NW von Istanbul, bei Durusu, am Ufer des Durusu–Sees, 20 m s.m., 41°17'43"E / 28°35'40"N, 16 May 2000, E. Vitek 2000-28 (W!); Terkos to Karaburun, 20-50 m, marshy lakeside, 30 May 2014, ED. Güner 2009 ( GAZI); ibid. 15 June 2015, ED. Güner 2098 ( GAZI).

Perennial, 50-70 cm tall, herb, glabrous, with ovoid or oblong tubers far from stem base. Stem erect, sparsely branched above, hollow, deeply striate (furrowed). Basal and lower stem leaves 2-pinnate, ovate to lanceolate in outline, up to 15 cm with petiole; ultimate segments with pinnatifid lobes, ovate, 9-15 × 8-14 mm; petiole shorter than leaf lamina, broader at leaf base. Upper stem leaves 2-pinnate, ovate-triangular in outline; ultimate segments 2-2.5 cm long and 2-5 mm broad, elliptic. Umbels with 7-12 rays of subequal length (1.5-2 cm), rays becoming hardly thickened and elongating in fruit; involucral bracts 0-1, linear, up to 6 × 1 mm. Umbellets almost flat, with unequal, thickened pedicels in fruit, many flowered, about 1.5 cm diam., pedicel of surrounding flowers longer than inner ones. Bracteoles 10-12, linear, ca. 3 × 1 mm. Petals radiating, creamy white, the outer flowers are female, petals cordate, deeply emerginate in tip, inner petal surface papillate. Styles shorter than fruit, fruit oblong, 3.5-4 × 2-2.5 mm.

Distribution, habitat and ecology.

Oenanthe incrassans   is distributed in Greece and Turkey (Figs 2 View Figure 2 - 3 View Figure 3 ). The species is distributed around Istanbul ( Arnavutköy, Durusu–Terkos region), Turkey. The flowering time is April, fruiting time is June. It grows on lake sides at 20-50 m altitude.


Oenanthe incrassans   is close to Oenanthe pimpinelloides   , but it clearly differs in leaves, inflorescens and features of fruit. Their differences are given in Table 1.


Stem anatomy: The shape of stem cross section is triangular or ovoid in outline in Oenanthe incrassans   ; whereas it is circular in Oenanthe pimpinelloides   . Parenchymatic cells of cortex 4 –5– seriate in Oenanthe incrassans   ; but it is 2 –4– seriate in Oenanthe pimpinelloides   . Sclerenchyma tissue cells are 4 –5– seriate between two peripheral vascular bundles in Oenanthe incrassans   ; while they are 10 –12– seriate in Oenanthe pimpinelloides   . 1-2 small central bundles are placed below peripheral bundles in Oenanthe incrassans   ; but 1-3 central bundles are placed below peripheral bundles in Oenanthe pimpinelloides   (Fig. 4 a–b View Figure 4 ).

Ray anatomy.

Rays are hardly thickened and the shape of cross section is 8 –10– ridged and circular in outline in Oenanthe incrassans   ; but they are slightly thickened and 7-ridged ovoid or oblong in outline in Oenanthe pimpinelloides   . There are 8 –9– seriate collenchyma cells in Oenanthe incrassans   ; but 5-6 seriate in Oenanthe pimpinelloides   . Pith cells are 3 –4– seriate and disappear towards the center in Oenanthe incrassans   ; but they are present at the center in Oenanthe pimpinelloides   (Fig. 5 a–b View Figure 5 ).

Fruit anatomy.

Size and shapes of mericarps show morphological differences between the two species. The cross section shape of mericarps is semi-circular in outline and 4-ridged at the dorsal surface in Oenanthe incrassans   . However, it is triangular in outline and only faintly 4-ridged in Oenanthe pimpinelloides   . Mesocarp tissue consists of two types of cells; parenchymatic-slightly thickened cells and lignified sclerenchyma cells around vascular bundles. There are 9 –10– seriate parenchymatic cells in Oenanthe incrassans   , but there are 4 –5– seriate parenchymatic cells in Oenanthe pimpinelloides   (Fig. 6 a–b View Figure 6 ).

Mericarp micromorphology.

Oenanthe incrassans   and Oenanthe pimpinelloides   show fruit characteristics of the genus Oenanthe   . The fruit micromorphology of Oenanthe incrassans   differs from Oenanthe pimpinelloides   by 3.5-4 × 2-2.5 mm sized mericarps (not 2.5-3 × 1-1.5 mm); sepals 0.4-0.9 mm in fruit (not 0.2-0.4 mm); styles shorter than fruit body (not ± equal fruit body); pedicel width ± equal fruit body width (not narrower). While lateral ridges of mericarp are 0.7-0.9 mm width in Oenanthe incrassans   , it is 0.5-0.6 mm width in Oenanthe pimpinelloides   . Stylopodium is conical and embedded along calyx line in both species (Fig. 7 View Figure 7 ).

Pollen morphology.

The pollen grains characters of Oenanthe incrassans   and Oenanthe pimpinelloides   are given in the Table 2 for the first time. Umbelliferae  is a stenopalynous family ( Erdtman 1952). Cerceau- Larrival (1962) divided the pollen of Umbelliferae  into 5 types based on P/E ratio: subrhomboidal (type 1, P/E: 1-1.5), subcircular (type 2, P/E: 1-1.5), oval (type 3, P/E: 1.5-2), subrectangular (type 4, P/E: 2), and equatorially constricted (type 5, P/E: over 2). In the present study, pollen of Oenanthe incrassans   is equatorially constricted (type 5, P/E: over 2) and Oenanthe pimpinelloides   is oval (type 3, P/E: 1.5-2). According to Erdtman (1943), Oenanthe incrassans   pollen grains are perprolate (P/E > 2), Oenanthe pimpinelloides   pollen grains are prolate (P/E: 1.33-2.00). Table 2 shows that pollen size of two species are significantly different. Mature pollen grains of Oenanthe incrassans   are longer than Oenanthe pimpinelloides   (Table 1) (Fig. 8 View Figure 8 ).