Aloe trinervis, Kumar & Purohit & Kulloli, 2020

Kumar, Suresh, Purohit, C. S. & Kulloli, Ravikiran N., 2020, Aloe trinervis sp. nov.: A new succulent species from Indian Desert (Asphodelaceae), Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 13 (2), pp. 325-330: 329-330

publication ID 10.1016/j.japb.2020.03.001


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Aloe trinervis


Aloe trinervis   sp.nov. C. S. Purohit, R. N. Kulloli et Suresh Kumar

( Figures 2-3 View Figure 2 View Figure 3 )

Similar to A. vera   but differs from it in having recurved teeth on the leaf margin, 3-nerved bracts, branched inflorescences (90-95 cm long), flowers 31-34 mm long, flower color pale green with brownish at the middle, and longer stamens (29-33 mm).

Type. INDIA, Rajasthan, Bikaner district, near Shivbari-Jorbhir, 27 59 50.5 N, 73 21 22.3 E), 12 Sept 2010, Kumar et al. CAZRI / DBG/21 View Materials (Holotype BSJO!) GoogleMaps   ; CAZRI / DBG/21 View Materials - A (Isotype BSJO!)   .

Diagnosis. Perennial, acaulescent, succulent, 30-60 cm tall; suckering from base of stem; stem unbranched, leaves rosulate, linear, 53-(60)-67 10-(12.5)- 15 cm, 1.5-(1.6)- 1.8 cm width at base, recurved, both dorsal and ventral surfaces glabrous with waxy coating, covered with yellowish elongated spots when leaves young, margins armed with brown extrorsely curved deltoid teeth, 2-3 mm long, 3-(3.5)- 4 mm at base, spaced 1.5-(2)- 2.5 cm apart, leaf apices with minute spines, tapering, exudate light yellow, dried leaves persistent, sheath obscure. Inflorescence raceme, erect, branched, 90-(92.5)- 95 cm long, 4 to 7 branched. Peduncle 30(35)- 40 cm long, brownish, racemes lax 20-(35)-50 flowered, 40-(45)- 50 cm long, buds erect, flowers pendent at anthesis, flower surface glabrous, cylindrical; floral bracts dull white, persistent, scarious, 3-nerved, 5-(5.5)- 6 mm broad at base. Pedicels 8-(9)- 10 mm long, brownish, glabrous, curved in flowers. Perianth free, 31-(32.5)- 34 mm long, two whorled with prominent nerves at middle running from base to apex, brown, cylindrical, broader at base, yellowish distally, perianth not narrowed above ovary. Stamens free, six in two whorls, upper half yellow, thin and lower part transparent, curved at base, base of inner whorl broader than outer, 29-(31)- 33 mm long; anther lobes dark brown, basifixed. Stigma capitate, exserted by 2-(3)- 4 mm, style 23-(25)- 27 mm long, greenish yellow. Ovary trilocular, syncarpous, glabrous, yellowish green, axile placentation, many ovules per locule. ( Figures 2-3 View Figure 2 View Figure 3 , Table 1). Fruits globose, smooth, and green.

Flowering. June-Aug

Fruiting. Sept-Oct

Etymology. The species epithet trinervis   refers to the three nerved floral bracts which are distinctive and unique to this new species.

Distribution. The type locality of the new taxon is the protected area of Shivbari-Jorbhir area, Bikaner, Rajasthan.

Diagnostic characters. Aloe trinervis   sp. nov. shows similarity with Aloe vera   ( L.) Burm.f. in having succulent, rosulate leaves, persistent floral bracts, free tepals and six stamens but differs in the recurved teeth on the leaf margins, 3-nerved floral bracts, branched inflorescence (90-95 cm long), flowers 31-34 mm long, flowers pale green with brownish at middle, and longer stamens (29-33 mm).

Conservation status. The new species is rare at the locality. Collected only from four different sites, the extent of occurrence is estimated to be less than 500 km 2. So far, only a limited area of occurrence of this species has been found. Based on its area of occupancy and extent of occurrence of A. trinervis   is assigned as “Endangered” ( EN; criteria B 1ab (i, ii) + B 2ab (i, ii) at country level i.e. India). Detailed investigations are therefore needed to confirm its conservation status.

Ecology. It occurred on sandy gravelly plain and rocky terraces associated with other plant species such as Acacia senegal   , Acacia nilotica, Euphorbia   tirucalli, Opuntia dillenii, Prosopis cineraria, Prosopis juli fl ora, and Commiphora wightii  

Comparison of A. trinervis   with other Aloes of the world. Comparison of A. trinervis   with two other species of aloe in terms of 19 morphological characters is set in Table 1. Leaf color is specific to A. trinervis   which does not match with the leaf color of any of the two species. Number of teeth’ s per leaf on both margins in A. trinervis   are more (71-(73)-75) than that in A. vera   (48-(52)56) and A. rivae   (55-(57.5)-60). The teeth shape being recurved is unique to A. trinervis   as it is deltoid in all other species. Teeth color is by and large same in all species. Inflorescence length in A. vera   and A. rivae   is up to 90 cm, whereas in A. trinervis   , it is 90-(92.5) 95 cm ( Table 1). Peduncle length being 30-(35)- 40 cm in A. trinervis   is much more than that A. vera   , but in other species, it is 60 cm and above ( Table 1). Floral bract length is 5-6 mm in A. trinervis   which is more than that of A. rivae   (2-4 mm) but less than that in A. vera   (8-10 mm). Number of nerves on floral bract are less in A. trinervis   (3) than that in all other species (> 5). Flower color is also unique in A. trinervis   compared with all other species ( Table 1). Flowering and fruiting period of A. trinervis   is also distinct (Jun-Aug; Sept-Oct) than all other species ( Table 1).

Field Note. Local people collect young buds for making pickle and tender leaves for vegetable making. Mature leaves are used medicinally for skin treatments.

Table 1. Comparative diagnostic morphological characters of Aloe trinervis with other closely allied Aloe species.

SN Characters # Aloe trinervis   ## A. vera   ### A. rivae  
1 Basal width of leaf (cm) 10-15 5-6 6-8
2 Leaf length (cm) 53-67 43-47 Up to 60
3 Leaf thickness (cm) 1.5- 1.8 2.0-2.5 1.8-2.0
4 Leaf color Light green with yellowish spots Light green with reddish spots Brownish green
5 Number of teeth per leaf of both margins 71-75 48-56 55-60
6 Teeth shape Recurved Deltoid Deltoid horny
7 Teeth color Brown White Reddish Brown
8 Inflorescence length (cm) 90-95 85-90 60-70
9 Inflorescence pattern Branched 4-7 Unbranched, rarely branched into two Branched, about 12 branches
10 Peduncle length (cm) 30-40 18-19 15-20
11 Pedicel length (cm) 0.8-1.0 0.4-0.5 0.6-0.8
12 Floral bract length (mm) 5- 6 8-10 2-4
13 No of nerves on floral bract 3 5 5
14 Flower color Pale green with light brownish at middle Orange-yellow Crimson Red
15 Flower length (mm) 31-34 29-30 Up to 33
16 Perianth length (mm) 31-32 30-31 Up to 33
17 Stamen length (mm) 29-33 24-26 Up to 30
18 Flowering period Jun-Aug Nov-Dec Sept-Jan
19 Fruiting period Sep-Oct Jan-Feb Jan-Feb

Data source: #Character measured from own specimen; ## Live specimens conserve at CAZRI, botanical garden, Jodhpur ### Flora of East Africa ( Reynolds, 1966).


University of Copenhagen


Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Nanjing University


Botanical Survey of India, Arid Zone Circle


Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum


Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch


Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universitaet