Xylopia fananehanensis Cavaco & Keraudren, 1956

Johnson, David M. & Murray, Nancy A., 2020, A revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): the species of Madagascar and the Mascarene islands, Adansonia 42 (1), pp. 1-88 : 58-60

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https://doi.org/ 10.5252/adansonia2020v42a1

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Xylopia fananehanensis Cavaco & Keraudren


20. Xylopia fananehanensis Cavaco & Keraudren View in CoL ( Fig. 22A-F View FIG )

Bulletin de la Société botanique de France 103: 276 (1956). — Type: Madagascar. Prov. Toamasina [“ Domaine de l’Est ”], bassin

de la Fananehana, environs du village d’Aditavolo, vers 300 m d’alt., 30.I.1954 (fl.), Capuron 8960 (holo-, P[ P030386 ]!; iso-, P[P00364245, P030387], TEF[photo]!).

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Madagascar. Prov. Toamasina. Environs de la baie d’Antongil, forêt d’Antandrokolaka, entre Aditavolo (bassin de la Fananehana) et Morafuro (bassin de la Rantabe), vers 700 m alt., 16.II.1954 (fl., fr.), Capuron 9038 SF ( OWU, P[P00524378, P01986973, P02133039]); environs de la baie d’Antongil: bassin de la Manonga (affluent rive gauche de la Rantabe), aux environs de la Sahajinja, 5.III.1954 (fl.), Capuron 9103-SF (P[P01986972, P01986977, P02133040]) ; environs de Vohilava, bassin de la Vohilava, III.1954 (fl.), Capuron 9145 SF (P[P01986974, P01986975, P01986976, P01986978, P01986979]); Maroantsetra, Tampolo, Péninsule Masoala, 15°43’S, 49°57’E, 100-200 m, 4.XI.2001 (fr.), Poncy 1587 ( MO, P[P00373115]) GoogleMaps ; Tampolo (Masoala), Ambanizana, Ajahana, Maroantsetra, forêt de Tampolo, 15°43’45”S, 49°57’38”E, 10 m, 16.X.2001 (fr.), Randrianaivo 681 ( MO, OWU) GoogleMaps .

DISTRIBUTION, ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION STATUS. — Xylopia fananehanensis occurs in northeastern Madagascar, in small river drainages emptying into Antongil Bay, at elevations from 10 to 700 meters ( Fig. 28 View FIG ). The specimens with flowers were collected from January to March, and those with fruits in February, October, and November. With an EOO and AOO estimated as 1510 km 2 and 24 km 2, respectively, X. fananehanensis is given a preliminary conservation assessment of Endangered ( Table 2 View TABLE ).

LOCAL NAME. — Hazoambo (Capuron 9038 SF, Capuron 9103-SF).

DESCRIPTION Tree up to 30 m tall; d.b.h. up to 40 cm.

Twigs sparsely pubescent, the hairs 0.1-0.2 mm long, soon glabrate; nodes with one axillary branch.

Leaves with larger blades 6.4-10.5 cm long, 3.0- 3.5 cm wide, subcoriaceous, slightly discolorous, shiny brownish olive to brown adaxially, dull tan to brown abaxially, elliptic to elliptic-oblong, apex acuminate, the acumen 7-8 mm long, base cuneate, short-decurrent on petiole, margin flat or slightly recurved, glabrous or with a few hairs along the midrib on both surfaces; midrib brown or darkened toward base adaxially, secondary veins brochidodromous and somewhat arcuate, 10-15 per side, diverging at 50-70° from midrib, these and higher-order veins raised and forming a conspicuous reticulum on both surfaces; petiole 7-11 mm long, shallowly canaliculate, faintly wrinkled, sparsely pubescent.

Inflorescences axillary, 1-flowered, not pedunculate, rustypubescent to glabrate, lenticellate on basal half; pedicels 6-8.7 mm long, 0.9-1.3 mm thick; bracts 3, all attached near or just distal to pedicel midpoint, caducous or distal bract sometimes persistent, 2.2-2.4 mm long, broadly ovate; buds linear-lanceolate, apex acute, slightly falciform.

Sepals slightly spreading at anthesis, c. 1/3-connate, 2.7-3.3 mm long, 3.0- 3.2 mm wide, coriaceous, broadly triangular, apex acute to obtuse, rusty-pubescent abaxially.

Petals with color in vivo unknown; outer petals possibly slightly spreading at anthesis, 18.1-22.7 mm long, 3.1-3.3 mm wide at base, 1.8-2.1 mm wide at midpoint, slightly fleshy, linearlanceolate, flat but becoming weakly keeled toward apex adaxially, weakly keeled abaxially, apex acute, densely yellowish gray puberulent except for the glabrous base adaxially, densely golden brown-pubescent abaxially; inner petals with position at anthesis unknown, 9.7-13 mm long, 2-2.6 mm wide at base, 0.5-0.7 mm wide at midpoint, slightly fleshy, acicular, slightly keeled except at the base on both surfaces, apex acute, base shallowly concave with undifferentiated margin, densely puberulent except for glabrous base on both surfaces.

Stamens 90-120; fertile stamens 1.4-1.7 mm long, narrowly oblong, anther connective apex 0.3-0.4 mm long, capitate, overhanging anther thecae, long-papillate to pubescent, anthers 11-13-locellate, filament 0.3-0.6 mm long; outer staminodes 1.5-1.9 mm long, clavate to narrowly oblong, apex rounded; inner staminodes 1.4-1.5 mm long, narrowly oblong, apex obliquely truncate; staminal cone c. 1.7 mm in diameter, c. 1.0 mm high, concealing all but the apices of the ovaries, rim irregularly laciniate.

Carpels 4-6; ovaries c. 1.2 mm long, narrowly oblong, pubescent, stigmas loosely connivent, 1.4-1.7 mm long, clubshaped, with a few hairs at the apex.

Fruit of up to 6 monocarps borne on a pedicel 11-14 mm long, 5-6 mm thick, sparsely appressed-pubescent to glabrate; torus 11-13 mm in diameter, 7-10 mm high, irregularly globose to pyramidal; monocarps with red exterior in vivo, 2.5-3.9 cm long, 2.0- 2.5 cm wide, 2.0- 2.3 cm thick, obovoid or ellipsoid, not torulose, apex rounded to truncate, base sessile, slightly verrucose and wrinkled, dull, brown-pubescent; pericarp 2.8-4 mm thick.

Seeds up to 6 per monocarp, in two rows, perpendicular to long axis, 10.5-12.3 mm long, 6.5-8.4 mm wide, 5.5-6.8 mm thick, ellipsoid, broadly elliptic to wedge-shaped in cross-section, brown, smooth, dull, perichalazal ring not or only slightly evident; presence of sarcotesta undeterminable; aril absent.


Xylopia fananehanensis is easily distinguished from other Madagascar species of Xylopia by the combination of the conspicuous raised vein reticulum on the adaxial leaf surface, long pedicels ringed by multiple bract scars, narrow petals with the two whorls dissimilar in length, and relatively long and slender petioles. It reaches a greater height than most Madagascar Xylopia species, up to 30 meters.

Of the four accessions identified as “ Xylopia sp. aff. fananehanensis ” in the phylogenetic analysis of Stull et al. (2017), only one, Randrianaivo 681, has proved to actually be this species. All four accessions clustered together in the molecular analysis, however, suggesting a phylogenetic relationship among the species represented, i.e. X. danguyella , X. fananehanensis , X. galokothamna , sp. nov., and X. lokobensis , sp. nov. They have in common medium-sized subcoriaceous to coriaceous leaves and relatively thick sessile to sub-sessile monocarps.

One sheet of Poncy 1565 at P[P00373086] is identifiable as X. fananehanensis , but it is not the same species as in the other P duplicate [P00373087] of this collection or the sheet of this collection at MO, both of which resemble X. lemurica . The label identification of the collection as X. buxifolia Baill. , which the MO sheet resembles, suggests that the P00373086 sheet is a possible duplicate of Poncy 1587 that received the wrong label.


Jason Swallen Herbarium


Missouri Botanical Garden














Xylopia fananehanensis Cavaco & Keraudren

Johnson, David M. & Murray, Nancy A. 2020

Xylopia fananehanensis

Xylopia fananehanensis Cavaco & Keraudren
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