Xylopia madagascariensis Cavaco & Keraudren, 1956

Johnson, David M. & Murray, Nancy A., 2020, A revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): the species of Madagascar and the Mascarene islands, Adansonia 42 (1), pp. 1-88 : 31

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https://doi.org/ 10.5252/adansonia2020v42a1

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Xylopia madagascariensis Cavaco & Keraudren


6. Xylopia madagascariensis Cavaco & Keraudren View in CoL ( Fig. 9A-F View FIG )

Bulletin de la Société botanique de France 103: 276 (1956). — Type: Madagascar. Prov. Toamasina [“Domaine de l’Est ”], Vohimarangitra, environs de Tamatave [= Betampona, 17°55’S, 49°13’E], 22.II.1950 (fl.), Réserves Naturelles de Madagascar 2440 (holo-, P[P030410]!; GoogleMaps iso-, K[K000199049]!, P[P030411, P030412]!).

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Madagascar. Prov. Antsiranana. Sava Region, Sambava, Anjangoveratra, forêt de Tsihomanaomby, 14°06’S, 50°02’E, 17.II.2013 (fl. buds, fr.), Martial et al. 34 ( MO, OWU).

Prov. Toamasina. Canton Ambodiriana,Tamatave District, 9.II.1962 (fr.), Momohizaza 11999 RN (P[P01987141]); R. N. I. Tamatave, 24.III.1951 (fr.), Rakotoniama 2861 RN (P[P01987142, P01987143]); Antsinanana, District Toamasina II, Commune Rurale Sahambala , Fokontany Sahavongo , village le plus proche Sahavongo , Iambeau de forêt d’Ambavadilagna , 18°01’16”S, 49°05’42”E, 529 m, 5.II.2017 (fl., fr.), Ralaijaona et al. 74 ( MO) GoogleMaps ; Masoala Peninsula, flat coastal sand forest just N of Tampolo , approximately 11 km S of Ambanizana, 15°43’S, 49°57-58’E, 0-5 m, 26.XII.1990 (fl., fr.), Schatz & Modeste 3095 (G, K n.v., MO, P[P01954052], WAG) ; Faranharoina-Maroantsetra , 8.III.1955 (fr.), Service Forestier 12977 ( BR, K n.v., P[P06901365]) .

DISTRIBUTION, ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION STATUS. — Xylopia madagascariensis occurs in eastern Madagascar, in humid forest near the coast, at elevations from 0-5 meters up to 529 m ( Fig. 29 View FIG ). The specimens with flowers were collected in February and December, and with fruits in February, March, and December. With an EOO and AOO estimated as 3780 km 2 and 24 km 2, respectively, the species is given a preliminary conservation assessment of Endangered.

LOCAL NAMES. — Hazoambo (Momohizaza 11999 RN, Ralaijaona et al. 74), hazoambolahy (Rakotoniama 2861 RN), moranga (Martial et al. 34).

DESCRIPTION Tree up to 16 m tall; d.b.h. up to 28 cm.

Twigs sparsely appressed-pubescent, the hairs 0.1-0.4 mm long, becoming glabrate; nodes with a single axillary branch.

Leaves with larger blades 5.2-6.6 cm long, 1.8-2.7 cm wide, subcoriaceous, slightly discolorous, dull gray to gray-green adaxially, tan to reddish brown abaxially, lanceolate to elliptic, apex blunt-acuminate, the acumen 4.5-11 mm long, base broadly cuneate, short-decurrent on petiole, margins flat or slightly revolute, glabrous adaxially, sparsely sericeous abaxially; midrib red toward the base adaxially, secondary veins brochidodromous, 11-13 per side, diverging at 60- 70° from midrib, these and higher-order veins raised and forming a conspicuous reticulum on both surfaces; petiole 3.3-6 mm long, semi-terete, transversely and longitudinally wrinkled, glabrous to sparsely pubescent.

Inflorescences axillary or from the axils of fallen leaves, 2-4-flowered, pedunculate, appressed-pubescent; peduncle 1.8-2.2 mm long; pedicels 2-4 per peduncle, 5.5-9 mm long, 0.8-1.0 mm thick; bracts 2-3, attached proximal to the pedicel midpoint, caducous, 0.5-0.7 mm long, semicircular; buds narrowly oblong, apex obtuse.

Sepals slightly spreading at anthesis, 1/2-connate, 2.3-2.5 mm long, 4.0- 4.3 mm wide, coriaceous, semicircular, apex broadly acute to rounded, appressed-pubescent abaxially.

Petals dull yellow to orange, with the outer petals whitish at the base and the inner petals red-tinted at the base in vivo; outer petals spreading at anthesis, 16-18 mm long, 3.5-3.9 mm wide at base, 2.3-2.8 mm wide at midpoint, coriaceous to slightly fleshy, narrowly oblong, flat, apex obtuse, appressed-pubescent except for the glabrous base adaxially, velutinous abaxially; inner petals possibly erect and somewhat connivent at anthesis, 14-20 mm long, 2.9-3.0 mm wide at base, 0.8-1.1 mm wide at midpoint, fleshy, linear, laterally compressed, weakly keeled on upper ¾ adaxially, strongly keeled abaxially, apex obtuse to acute, base concave with undifferentiated margin, densely puberulent except for glabrous base on both surfaces.

Stamens c. 140; fertile stamens 1.2-1.6 mm long, narrowly oblong, anther connective apex 0.1-0.2 mm long, shield-shaped, overhanging anther thecae, papillate, anthers 9-14-locellate, filament 0.5-0.6 mm long; outer staminodes c. 1.5 mm long, clavate, apex rounded; inner staminodes c. 1 mm long, clavate, apex truncate; staminal cone 2.0- 2.6 mm in diameter, 1.0- 1.4 mm high, completely concealing the ovaries, rim even.

Carpels c. 15; ovaries c. 1 mm long, narrowly oblong, sericeous, stigmas connivent, 2.2-2.9 mm long, filiform, smooth, glabrous.

Fruit of up to 10 monocarps, borne on a pedicel 8-14 mm long, 2.0- 3.5 mm thick, glabrate; torus 4.7-8.0 mm in diameter, 3.5-5.5 mm high, depressed-globose to globose; monocarps with red exterior and red endocarp in vivo, 2-3.7 cm long, 0.8-1.1 cm wide, 0.7-0.8 cm thick, oblong to narrowly cylindrical, not torulose, apex rounded or obtuse, base sessile or contracted into a stipe 2-3 mm long, c. 3 mm thick, verrucose, smooth or faintly wrinkled, glabrate or bearing a few sparse hairs; pericarp c. 1.5 mm thick.

Seeds up to 3 per monocarp, in a single row, oblique or perpendicular to long axis, 6-8.6 mm long, 4.2-4.6 mm wide, c. 3.8 mm thick, oblong, broadly elliptic in cross-section, black, smooth, shiny, perichalazal ring slightly raised; sarcotesta absent; aril white in vivo, whitish orange to dull orange when dried, bilobed, lobes c. 2.2 mm long, 3-3.4 mm wide, papery, smooth to somewhat wrinkled.


Xylopia madagascariensis is very similar to X. humblotiana , but differs consistently in the proportionally narrower leaves that are acuminate rather than obtuse to rounded. In addition, its leaves are sparsely appressed-pubescent abaxially rather than glabrous. In the limited sample available, the inner petals are wider at the base and narrower at the midpoint than in X. humblotiana . The monocarps average smaller with fewer seeds, which are oblique to perpendicular to the long axis of the monocarp rather than parallel. Although little habitat information is given on the labels for any of the specimens of X. madagascariensis , it seems to frequent a wider range of forest habitats and elevations than the littoral forests on sand where X. humblotiana occurs. The specimen Randriatafika 16 (MO), from Fianarantsoa Province (forêt dense humide de l’Est d’Andranobetokana, Ampasimadinika, Marofototra, Mananjary, 20°49’51”S, 48°05’00”E, 16-21.I.1999 [fl.]) resembles X. madagascariensis , but the bracts and pedicels are less pubescent and the petals shorter (but only large buds on the specimen). It was collected to the south of the main range of X. madagascariensis , and additional collections from the area would be helpful in determining its status.


Missouri Botanical Garden


Jason Swallen Herbarium


Wageningen University


Embrapa Agrobiology Diazothrophic Microbial Culture Collection














Xylopia madagascariensis Cavaco & Keraudren

Johnson, David M. & Murray, Nancy A. 2020

Xylopia madagascariensis

Xylopia madagascariensis Cavaco & Keraudren
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