Xylopia lamarckii Baill.

Johnson, David M. & Murray, Nancy A., 2020, A revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): the species of Madagascar and the Mascarene islands, Adansonia 42 (1), pp. 1-88: 28-30

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5252/adansonia2020v42a1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/417D87A4-FFE0-FFCC-FEEB-518F32B4FED1

treatment provided by

Tatiana

scientific name

Xylopia lamarckii Baill.
status

 

5. Xylopia lamarckii Baill.  

( Figs 1H-I View FIG ; 5 View FIG ; 6E View FIG ; 10 View FIG )

Adansonia; Recueil d’Observations botaniques 4: 142, 143 (1864). — An [n] ona grandiflora Lam., Encyclopédie méthodique, Botanique 2 (1): 126, 127 (1786).   Pseudanona   [“ Pseudannona ”] grandiflora (Lam.) Saff., Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 3: 18 (1913).   Xylopia grandiflora (Lam.) Ghesq. ex Cavaco & Keraudren, Flore de Madagascar et des Comores, Annonacées, vol. 78: 26 (1958)   , non A.St.-Hil. (1825). — Type: “ Isle de Bourbon ”, s. d. (fl.), Commerson s. n. (lecto-, P [ P0034246]!;   isolecto-, P[P0034247]!).  

ṙ An [n] ona grandiflora * madagascariensis Pers.   , Synopsis Plantarum seu Enchiridium Botanicum 2 (1): 95 (1806). — Type: Hab. in ins. Madagasc., herb. Juss[ieu] (not found).  

Annona pyriformis Bojer ex Baker, Flora   of Mauritius and the Seychelles 3 (1877). — Type: Mauritius. Without definite locality, Bojer s. n. (not found).  

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Mauritius. “Dans l’infonumene delaplace de Hollandois au Pon du P. E. habitation du Prahy” [ṙ], 29.IX.1754 (fl.), Aublet s. n. ( BM)   ; Moka ( Vuillemin ), 15.I.1924 (old fl.), Bijoux s. n. (P[P01987045])   ; native of mountain woods of Nouvelle Decouverte , s. d. (fl.) [presented 17.VII.1863], Blackburn herb. [ex Bojer?] (K)   ; in campis sylvestribus insula Mauritii , s. d. (st.), ex herb. Bojer [er], ( BM)   ; “isle de france”, without definite locality, s. d. (st.), Commerson s. n. (P[P030400]);   Grand Bassin , 31.I.1933 (st.), Duhamel 16139 ( MAU)   ; Crown Land Perrier , s. d. (bud), Duljeet 16140 ( MAU)   ; Ripailles , II.1862 (fl.), Dupont [coll. Ayres?] s. n. (K)   ; Ravine Cascade , 500 ft, V.1971 (st.), Friedmann 1202 (P[P01987041])   ; without definite locality, s. d. (fl., st.), Herb. Du Petit-Thouars s. n. (P[P01987042, P01987048]);   “ Ile de France ”, s. d. (fl.), Herb. E. Drake (ex Herbarium Richard) s. n. (P[P01987044])   ; without definite locality, s. d., Herb. R. Botanic Gardens Pamplemousse (st., collector unknown) 14, (st., Bouton) 15, (st., Bijoux) 16, (old fl., Bijoux) 17, (all MAU)   ; Pétrin Nature Reserve (S. W.), 2000 feet, 6.I.1973 (fl.), Lorence M 23 ( MO, WAG)   ; Pétrin Nature Reserve , 12.XII.1978 (fl.), Lorence 2124 (K n.v., MAU, MO, P[P01987040], US)   ; Perrier Nature Preserve near Mare aux Vacoas , 600 m, 28.XII.1978 (fl.), Lorence 2225 (K n.v., MAU, MO, P[P01987046])   ; Gaulettes Serrées , 400-450 m, 19.V.1979 (st.), Lorence et al. 2635 ( MAU)   ; Brise Fer, west edge of Central Plateau , 600 m, 1.VI.1979 (st.), Lorence s. n. ( MAU)   ; Petrín Nature Reserve , 24.II.1972 (fl.), Owadally 15115 ( MAU)   ; Perrier Nature Reserve , 17.II.1971 (fl.), Vaughan 15228 ( MAU)   ; La Villebague, s. d. (buds), Wallich s. n. ( BM)   ; Grand Port, s. d. (fl.), Wallich s. n. ( BM)   ; without definite locality, s. d. (fl.), collector unknown, ex herb. Lambert ( BM, 2 sheets)   .

DISTRIBUTION, ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION STATUS. — Endemic to the island of Mauritius, Xylopia lamarckii   occurs in thickets and in the upland heath and dwarf forest of Philippia and Phylica over laterite, sometimes with emergent Sideroxylon and Calophyllum ( Kaiser 2006), at elevations of 150-700 meters ( Fig. 7 View FIG ). Specimens with flowers have been collected from December to February. Xylopia lamarckii   was given a status of Critically Endangered by Page (1998b), who estimated the population at that time as 250 individuals. Our EOO and AOO calculations of 270 km 2 and 32 km 2, respectively, support that status, as does the lack of effective pollinators described below.

LOCAL NAME. — Bois blanc (Aublet s. n.).

DESCRIPTION

Treelet or shrub up to 4 m tall, often sprawling or subscandent; d.b.h. up to 2 cm.

Twigs sparsely appressed-pubescent, the hairs c. 0.2 mm long, soon glabrate; nodes with a single axillary branch.

Leaves with larger blades 11.5-23.5 cm long, 6.2-8.4 cm wide, chartaceous, discolorous, olive-gray adaxially, dull orange-brown and occasionally somewhat glaucous abaxially, lanceolate to ovate, apex acute to acuminate, the acumen 8-26 mm long, base rounded to truncate, occasionally subcordate, not decurrent, margin flat, not revolute, glabrous adaxially, sparsely pubescent on the midrib but otherwise glabrous abaxially; midrib light brown toward the base adaxially, secondary veins weakly brochidodromous, 12-20 per side, diverging at 60-70° from midrib, these and higher-order veins slightly raised and forming a conspicuous reticulum on both surfaces; petiole 3-6 mm long, semi-terete, transversely wrinkled, sparsely pubescent to glabrate.

Inflorescences axillary, 1-flowered, not pedunculate, appressedpubescent; pedicels 8-13 mm long, 2-2.6 mm thick; bracts 2-3, one attached near the pedicel midpoint and the others near the pedicel base, caducous; buds oblong to obovoid, apex obtuse, occasionally slightly falciform.

Sepals spreading at anthesis, ¹⁄5-1/2-connate, 4.5-10 mm long, 6.5-12 mm wide, coriaceous, broadly triangular-ovate, apex acute to obtuse, appressed-pubescent abaxially.

Petals creamy white, sometimes flushed with rose, with a purple spot at the base adaxially in vivo; outer petals slightly spreading at anthesis, 32-55 mm long, 5-12.5 mm wide at base, 11-28 mm wide at midpoint, fleshy, lanceolate, oblong, or oblanceolate, flattened toward the base adaxially, apex obtuse, densely puberulent on apical half and along margins to the base adaxially, uniformly appressed-pubescent abaxially; inner petals slightly spreading at anthesis, 29-41 mm long, c. 4.7 mm wide at base, 3-10 mm wide at midpoint, fleshy, narrowly oblong, laterally compressed, keeled at apex adaxially, sharply keeled abaxially, apex acute, base deeply concave with undifferentiated margin, densely puberulent at apex but glabrous toward base adaxially, thinly appressed-pubescent at apex and along keel abaxially.

Stamens c. 300; fertile stamens 1.3-1.9 mm long, narrowly oblong, anther connective apex c. 0.2 mm long, capitate or shield-shaped, overhanging the anther thecae, papillate, anthers 10-12-locellate, filament 0.4-0.5 mm long; outer staminodes 1.3-1.6 mm long, clavate, apex truncate; inner staminodes c. 1.2 mm long, oblong, quadrate, or clavate, apex truncate; staminal cone 5-6 mm in diameter, 1.5-4 mm high, completely concealing the ovaries, rim even.

Carpels c. 20; ovaries c. 1.5 mm long, narrowly oblong, tomentose, stigmas basally connivent with the tips free, 9.5- 11 mm long, filiform, glabrous or with a few scattered hairs.

Fruit (ex Keraudren-Aymonin 1980) “Fruit mal connu, à monocarpes d’environ 3.5 × 0.8 cm, glabres.

Seeds (Keraudren-Aymonin 1980) “Graines arillées, longues de 11-12 mm ”.

NOTES

The large broad fleshy petals of Xylopia lamarckii   sets it apart from all other Xylopia   species of the Madagascar and Mascarene region with the exception of the Mauritian species X. amplexicaulis   , from which it is distinguished by the distinctly petiolate leaves that are rounded to truncate at the base. The distinctive floral structure led to the initial description of both species in the genus Annona   by Lamarck (1786), and was the basis for segregating them in a new section Pseudanona   when Baillon (1864) transferred them from Annona   to Xylopia   . Additional floral characters that place both species securely in Xylopia   include axillary inflorescences, septate anthers, and a well-developed staminal cone surrounding the ovaries. The phylogenetic analysis of Stull et al. (2017) showed X. lamarckii   nested well within the Xylopia   clade on the basis of molecular data.

Apart from the nature of the leaf base, X. lamarckii   and X. amplexicaulis   are similar, and in fact some specimens of X. lamarckii   have a relatively short petiole and a subcordate base of the leaf blade. Both species have been reported from Nouvelle Découverte ( Bojer 1837), the Perrier Nature Preserve near Mare aux Vacoas, Grand Port, and Gaulettes Serrées. As indicated by the report of Aublet (1775), X. lamarckii   was also once common in the vicinity of Port Louis and Moka.

As part of a larger study of pollinator webs in Black River Gorges National Park in Mauritius, Kaiser (2006, Kaiser-Bunbury et al. 2009) examined floral phenology and floral visitors for Xylopia lamarckii   . He documented the narrow flowering period from December to January, and noted that fruit set was not observed. Floral visitors includ- ed only one species of ant and one species of Chrysomelid beetle, both introduced and both found on flowers of a wide range of species at the study site. The flowers have a fruity-spicy odor (Lorence 2225). The habitat in the pollinator study site was dwarf forest dominated by Erica and Phylica spp., with emergent Sideroxylon and Calophyllum spp., an endangered habitat on the island.

The provenance of the type material of Annona grandiflora Lamarck   is uncertain. Lamarck (1786) cited the Commerson collections he examined as having come from Madagascar and La Réunion (“isle de Bourbon”). Specimens at P collected by Commerson are labeled as coming from La Réunion and Mauritius (“isle de france”). Because X. lamarckii   has never been collected again from either La Réunion or Madagascar, those attributions are set aside as labeling errors, as has been concluded previously ( Cavaco & Keraudren 1958, Keraudren-Aymonin 1980).

Lamarck (1786) described the fruit and seeds: “Le fruit est médiocre, ovoïde, à écorce glabre, légérement ponctuée ou chagrinée. Il contient des semences oblongues, pointues, tranchantes du côte intérieur, avec deux faces applaties, convexes & plus épaisses sur leur dos; ces semences sont disposées en petit nombre dans la longueur du fruit, & enveloppées d’une pulpe médiocre”. Dunal (1817; Fig. 10[26, 27]) illustrated a single sessile ovoid monocarp, with the calyx persistent around its base, and a longitudinal section of the fruit showing five depressions in which the seeds sat. The seed illustrated (Fig. 10[31]) is narrowly obovoid, smooth, truncate at one end and pointed at the other. He did not, however, identify the source material for the drawings. It is possible that the dimensions given by Keraudren-Aymonin (1980) for the fruit, “d’environ 3.5 × 0.8 cm ”, and for the seed, “longues de 11-12 mm ”, were estimated from this drawing. Fruits and seeds are not attached to any of the specimens we examined.

The name An [n] ona grandiflora * madagascariensis of Persoon was based on a specimen in the Jussieu Herbarium that we have not located. The name is listed as a synonym of X. lamarckii   because past authors ( Dunal 1817, Keraudren-Aymonin 1980) have attributed it that way, but we were not able to confirm the identification. The short diagnosis, “fol. ovatis coriaceis integerrimis lucidis”, does not provide adequate details for confirmation.

Baker (1877) gave a brief, but validating, description of Annona pyriformis   , a nomen nudum listed by Bojer (1837). With the exception of the statement that the inner and outer petals are subequal, the description conforms to that of X. lamarckii   , and Keraudren-Aymonin (1980) placed the name in synonymy. Type material has not been found, although a specimen at BM, BM000510673, is stated on the label as having come from the Bojer herbarium. The only plant name given on the label, however, is “ Anona grandiflora DC. Prod.” This specimen does not seem supportable as a lectotype of A. pyriformis   without additional information.

The specimens from the Lambert Herbarium now at BM have no indication of the collector, but according to Miller (1970) there were specimens in the Lambert Herbarium collected in Mauritius by Colebrooke, Hardwicke, Hilsenberg (part of Sieber collection), and A. Michaux. Both specimens have the name “ Michelia rufinervis Decand. Syst.” Written in faint pencil at the bottom; this name was based on a specimen collected from a cultivated plant in Mauritius by Commerson ( Candolle 1817).

BM

Bristol Museum

MAU

The Mauritius Herbarium

MO

Missouri Botanical Garden

WAG

Wageningen University

US

University of Stellenbosch

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Magnoliales

Family

Annonaceae

Genus

Xylopia

Loc

Xylopia lamarckii Baill.

Johnson, David M. & Murray, Nancy A. 2020
2020
Loc

Xylopia lamarckii

Xylopia lamarckii Baill. ( Figs 1H-I ; 5 ; 6E ; 10 ) Adansonia; Recueil d’Observations botaniques 4: 142, 143 (1864). — An [n] ona grandiflora Lam., Encyclopédie méthodique, Botanique 2 (1): 126, 127 (1786). — Pseudanona [“ Pseudannona ”] grandiflora (Lam.) Saff., Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 3: 18 (1913). — Xylopia grandiflora (Lam.) Ghesq. ex Cavaco & Keraudren, Flore de Madagascar et des Comores , Annonacées, vol. 78: 26 (1958) , non A.St.-Hil. (1825). — Type: “ Isle de Bourbon ”, s. d. (fl.), Commerson s. n. (lecto-, P [ P0034246 ]!; isolecto-, P[P0034247]!). ṙ An [n] ona grandiflora * madagascariensis Pers. , Synopsis Plantarum seu Enchiridium Botanicum 2 (1): 95 (1806). — Type: Hab. in ins. Madagasc., herb. Juss[ieu] (not found). Annona pyriformis Bojer ex Baker, Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles 3 (1877). — Type: Mauritius . Without definite locality, Bojer s. n. (not found).
An [n] ona grandiflora Lam., Encyclopédie méthodique, Botanique 2 (1): 126, 127 (1786).
Pseudanona [“ Pseudannona ”] grandiflora (Lam.) Saff., Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 3: 18 (1913).
Xylopia grandiflora (Lam.) Ghesq. ex Cavaco & Keraudren, Flore de Madagascar et des Comores , Annonacées, vol. 78: 26 (1958)
Loc

grandiflora Lam., Encyclopédie méthodique, Botanique 2 (1): 126, 127 (1786).

An [n] ona grandiflora Lam., Encyclopédie méthodique, Botanique 2 (1): 126, 127 (1786).
Loc

Pseudanona

Pseudanona [“ Pseudannona ”] grandiflora (Lam.) Saff., Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 3: 18 (1913).
Loc

Xylopia grandiflora (Lam.) Ghesq. ex Cavaco & Keraudren, Flore de Madagascar et des Comores , Annonacées, vol. 78: 26 (1958)

Xylopia grandiflora (Lam.) Ghesq. ex Cavaco & Keraudren, Flore de Madagascar et des Comores , Annonacées, vol. 78: 26 (1958)