Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R. Br.

Klackenberg, Jens, 2001, Revision of the genus Cryptostegia R. Br. (Apocynaceae, Periplocoideae), Adansonia (3) 23 (2), pp. 205-218: 212-218

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5180147

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/4348ED03-F917-5353-FF53-4F27FE5D8BF9

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R. Br.
status

 

1. Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R. Br.  

Bot. Reg.5: t. 435 (1819).—Type: Bot. Reg. 5: t. 435 (1819) (lectotype, fide MAROHASY & FORSTER 1991).

Nerium grandiflorum Roxb., Fl. Ind.   , ed. 2, 2: 10 (1832). — Type: not designated. I LLUSTRATIONS: Figs. 2A View Fig (map), 3. —

SCHUMANN 1895, fig. 63: Q-S; JUMELLE 1908, fig. 1; POLHAMUS et al.: 1934, pl. 2A, 4A, 5A; ARTSCHWAGER 1946 (several anatomical pictures); MAROHASY & FORSTER 1991, figs. 1, 2.

Branches glabrous, usually with numerous small lenticels. Leaf blade elliptic to ovate, 6-9 × 3-5 cm, cuneate to tapering at base, usually acuminate at apex, glabrous; petiole 5-15 mm long, glabrous to rarely slightly hairy.

Internodes of cymes 5-15 mm long; pedicels 3- 7 mm long, usually hairy; bracts 2-7 mm long. Calyx lobes narrowly ovate to ovate, 14-20 × 4.2- 8.8 mm, with reflexed margins. Corolla tube 18- 30 mm long; lobes 32-56 × 15-30 mm. Corona lobes 8-11 mm high, bifid near apex only or cleft almost to the base. Staminal cone 3-4.5 mm high; anthers 2.7-4.5 mm. Translator spathe rounded, 1.5-1.9 mm long, obtuse at the apex. Style 1.3-3.4 mm long; style including style head 4.8-6.8 mm long.

Follicles 8-13.5 × 2-3.5 cm, glabrous. Seeds 5- 8 mm long; hairs 3-4 cm long.

DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT. — Cryptostegia grandiflora   is distributed in the southern part of Madagascar, mostly in the drier southwestern and western domains. It grows from sea level up to 600 m alt., usually in full sun. It is found in dry forest (e.g. Didiereaceae   ), savannah, disturbed grazed grassland, on laterite soil often on river beds.

Flowering specimens seen from August, October, November and January to March.

SPECIMEN EXAMINED. — Alluaud 53, Mandrare inf., Ampasimpolaka, 1900 (P); Allorge 658, prov. de Toliara, Route Nationale 7, 1992 (P); Boiteau 363B, env. d’Isoanala, 1966 (P); Bosser 10458, bas Fiherenana, 1956 (P); Civeyrel 1221, nord de Toliara, route côtière de Toliara à Ifaty, P.K. 32, 5 m, 1994 (S); Croat 30753, prov. Toliara, along Route Nationale 7 in vicinity of Sakaraha, 700 m, 1975 (MO); Croat 31115, prov. Toliara, along Route Nationale 10 between Andranovory and Tongobory at PK 25, 1975 (MO); Croat 31120, prov. Toliara, along Route Nationale 10 between Andranovory and Tongobory at PK 25, 250 m, 1975 (MO); Croat 31429, prov. Toliara, along road between Ampanihy and Androka, 10 km W of Ampanihy and Etrobeke, 1975 (MO); Croat 31239, prov. Toliara, along Route Nationale 10 between Betioky and Ejeda, between 175-225 m, 1975 (MO); Croat 31321, prov. Toliara, along Route Nationale 10 S of Ejeda between second and third branches of Linta River, 200 m, 1975 (MO); Croat 32024, prov. Toliara, along Route Nationale 13, from Antanimora to Beraketa, 250-460 m, 1975 (MO); Du Puy, Du Puy & Ravonjiarisoa MB32, SW Madagascar of route national 10, south of Tranoroa, near village of Manova, 300 m, 1989 (MO, P); Decary 9347, Beteny, limite NE de l’Androy, 1931 (P); Descoings 1465, sud Ambovombe, 1956 (P); Geay 4790, plaines du Fiherenana, 1904 (BM, G, K); Geay 4790bis, 4793, ibid. (P); Humbert   6785, bassin supérieur du Mandrare, vallée de la Manambolo, 300- 400 m, 1928 (P); Humbert   & Swingle 5552, env. d’Ampanihy, 200-300 m, 1928 (P); Keraudren- Aymonin & Aymonin 24736, route Toliara à Betioky, 1970 (P); Leeuwenberg 14166, Andohahela Res., NW corner near Ihazofotsy, 200 m, 1991 (K, MO, WAG); Marohasy C1, Miary, Toliara, 1987 (K); Marohasy C3, Amboasary, 1987 (K, MO); Marohasy C4, Ejeda, 1987 (MO); Marohasy C5, Tranoroa, 1987 (MO); Marohasy C6, Marolinta, Menarandra river, 1987 (K, MO); Marohasy C7, Beloha, 1987 (K, MO); Marohasy C8, 10 km S of Betioky, 1987 (MO); Marohasy C9, Tsiombe, 1987 (K, MO); Marohasy C10, Etrobeke, Ampanihy, 1987 (K, MO); Marohasy C15, Mangoky riv., Beroroha, 1987 (K, MO); Marohasy C41, 30 km E of Betioky, 1987 (K, MO); Marohasy C63, Ambohimahavelona, 1988 (K, MO); Marohasy C75, 20 km N of Sakaraha, 1988 (K, MO); Perrier de la Bâthie 12859, Mangoky, 1919 (P); Perrier de la Bâthie 16660, vallée du Fiherenana, 1924 (P); Phillipson 1696, prov. Toliara, Beza Mahafaly reserve Betioky, near Sakamena riv., 1987 (MO, P, WAG); Phillipson 2532, prov Toliara, near Beza Mahafaly reserve, near Betioky, hills east of Sakamena river, near Ambinda, 140 m, 1987 (K, MO, P, WAG); Randriamampionona 515, Andohahela, Réserve Intégrale 11, Esomony, 1993 (P, S); Service Forestier: SF-4740, distr. Ihosy, canton Sakalalina, forêt de Menarahaka, 1951 (P); Sussman 327, prov. Toliara, 40 km NE of Betioky, on path from Beza Mahafaly Reserve to village Ambinda, 1987 (MO); Turnour 5, prov. Toliara, Ankoronga, 1986 (K, MO, P).

2. Cryptostegia madagascariensis Bojer ex Decne.  

In A. DC., Prodr. 8: 492 (1844); Bojer, Hortus

Mauritianus: 212 (1837), nomen. — Type: Bojer

s.n.,“ Cryptostegia madagascariensis   ” (holo-, P!).

Cryptostegia glaberrima Hochr., Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève   , 11 & 12: 89 (1908). — Cryptostegia madagascariensis Bojer ex Decne. var. glaberrima (Hochr.) Marohasy & P.I. Forst., Austral. Syst. Bot.   4: 576 (1991). — Type: Guillot 43, distr. Vatomandry, Sakarive, 1903 (holo-, G!).

Cryptostegia madagascariensis Bojer ex Decne. var. septentrionalis Marohasy & P.I. Forst., Austral. Syst. Bot.   4: 576 (1991). — Type: Marohasy C52, Antsiranana, 1987 (holo-, BRI; iso-, CANB, K!, L, MO!)   .

I LLUSTRATIONS: Figs. 2B View Fig (map), 4. — HEMSLEY 1904, pl. 7984; JUMELLE 1907: fig. 1; JUMELLE & PERRIER 1908, pl. 4; POLHAMUS et al. 1934, pl. 2B, C, 4C, 5C; SPELLMAN 1975, fig. 1; MAROHASY & FORSTER 1991, figs. 1, 2.

NOMENCLATURAL NOTE. — BOJER (1837) did not accompany his name with any diagnostic character distinguishing this species from Cryptostegia grandiflora   and consequently did not validly publish this taxon.

When describing the new species Cryptostegia glaberrima, HOCHREUTINER (1908)   also discussed possible type material of C. madagascariensis   . Unfortunately, HOCHREUTINER ascribed this species to DE CANDOLLE and consequently lectotypified it, effectively although not formally, by a specimen in G-DC. The type specimen was collected by BOJER and said to be from Malagasy material cultivated in Mauritius. This lectotypification was accepted and formalized by MAROHASY & FORSTER (1991), who however, corrected the author of this species from DE CANDOLLE to DECAISNE, who treated the family Asclepiadaceae   in DE CANDOLLE’ s Prodromus. However, the selected G-DC specimen was collected in 1839, two years after the publication of BOJER’ s Hortus Mauritianus, and consequently could not be the type material. Collections and types of BOJER as well as of DECAISNE are usually deposited in the Natural History Museum in Paris. Furthermore, DECAISNE (1844) clearly stated in the protologue that the specimen studied by him came from Madagascar and was kept in Paris (“in insul. Madagascar cl. Bojer [v. s. h. M. p.]”). Consequently, the type material should correctly be sought in Paris and not in Geneva. There is a single corresponding BOJER specimen in the Paris herbarium identified by DECAISNE himself as Cryptostegia madagascariensis   , that should be considered to be the holotype. This specimen has glabrous leaves. As DECAISNE in the protologue described this species as pubescent he might also have studied other material, e.g. the BOJER collection from Mauritius in the de Candolle herbarium, which is a mixed collection with both hairy and glabrous leaves present. There is no doubt, however, that the type is the Paris specimen. As a consequence, C. madagascariensis   , C. glaberrima   and C. madagascariensis var. septentrionalis   are in fact all based on glabrous-leaved specimens. The type material of Cryptostegia glaberrima   is most probably from a cultivated plant as it was collected at the Malagasy east coast, i.e. far outside the known distribution of Cryptostegia   in drier western Madagascar.

Branches glabrous to hairy, usually with few conspicuous lenticels. Leaf blade usually oblong or elliptic to ovate, sometimes broadly ovate to rarely obovate or almost orbicular, 2-11 × 1.5- 5.5 cm, almost truncate to usually tapering at base, usually acuminate at apex, glabrous to hairy below or on both sides or along veins only; petiole 3-10 mm long, glabrous to hairy.

Internodes of cymes 5-15 mm long; pedicels 3- 7 mm long, usually hairy; bracts 2-7 mm long. Calyx lobes narrowly ovate to elliptic, 5.7-12.8 × 2.7-5.4 mm, with non-reflexed margins. Corolla tube (9-) 15-25 mm long; lobes (20-)25-44 × (8-) 14-26 mm. Corona lobes 6-9 mm high, entire. Staminal cone 3.2-5.2 mm high; anthers 2.7- 4.5 mm. Translator spathe ovate, 1.3-1.8 mm long, acute at the apex. Style 1.3-3.4 mm long; style including style head 4.8-6.8 mm long.

Follicles (5-)7-9 × 1-3 cm, glabrous to finely pubescent. Seeds 5-8 mm long; hairs 2-3 cm long.

DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT. — Cryptostegia madagascariensis   is distributed along the whole of the western part of Madagascar, mostly in western phytogeographical domain but is also found in the Toliara region in southwestern domain.

Habitat preferences are similar to those of C. grandiflora   . It has been found from sea level up to 700 m alt., usually in full sun. It grows in dry forest (e.g. Didiereaceae   , Euphorbia   ), savannah, tsingy, disturbed grazed grassland, on lateritic soil and sand, often on river beds.

Flowering specimens seen from July to May.

SPECIMEN EXAMINED. — d’Alleizette s.n., env. de Mahajanga, nov. 1906 ( P)   ; Baron 4578, 4636, Central Madagascar ( K)   ; Baron 5323, 5817, NW Madagascar ( K)   ; Bernardi 11240, de Ihosy, 47-49 km ad SE per viam ad Ivohibe , 650-700 m, 1967 ( G)   ; Bernier 172, Nord de Madagascar, 1839 ( G)   ; Bosser 3553, Ambato Boeni distr., Anjiapia , 1952 ( P)   ; Bosser 8395, Marovoay , 1955 ( P)   ; Bosser 9714, Morondava, à 20 km sur la route de Belo sur mer , 1956 ( P)   ; Civeyrel 1236, 20- 25 km à l’est de Toliara en direction de la rivière Onilahy, première route sur la droite de la Route Nationale 7 après la “Montagne de la Table”, 20 m, 1994 ( S)   ; Cours 3977, station de Marovoay à Madirokely , 1951 ( P)   ; Decary 8211, Maintirano , 1930 ( P)   ; Decary 14523, massif de l’Ankara , 1939 ( P)   ; Decary 15573, Besalampy , 1940 ( P)   ; Decary 15595, distr. Maintirano, Antsingimavo , 1940 ( P)   ; Decary 15747, Soalala distr., Namoroka , 1940 ( P)   ; Dequaire 27144, Mahabo ( P)   ; Descoings 765, bas Mangoky , 1955 ( P)   ; Edmonson 95-23, Mahajanga, on road S of Katepsy , c. 100 m, 1995 ( P)   ; Gentry 11472, vicinity of Lac Ampijoroa , 30 km W of Tsaramandroso on highway to Mahajanga, 1974 ( MO)   ; Gentry 11787, prov. Mahajanga, 51 km N of Mampikony, c. 150 m, 1974 ( K, MO, P)   ; Goudot s.n., baie d’Antsiranana , 1833 ( G)   ; Grevé 64, Morondava ( K, P)   ; Harder et al. 1698, Antsiranana prov., Vovo village distr., c. 6 km from Antsiranana on road to Vovo village , 85 m, 1993 ( MO, P)   ; Hildebrandt 3053, Beravi , 1879 ( BM, K, P)   ; Hildebrandt 3053a, Nosi-Andiana , 1880 ( BM, G, K)   ; Hladik 17, 50 km N de Morondava, forêt de Marosalaza , 1973 ( P)   ; Humbert   & Perrier de la Bâthie 2018, env. de Mahajanga, 2-15 m, 1924 ( P)   ; Hure s.n., secteur de Miandrivazo ( P)   ; Klackenberg 93.03.10-1, 7 km E Antsalova along trail to Tsingy of Bemaraha , 1993 ( S)   ; Klackenberg 93.03.11-25, 11 km E Antsalova, at dry tsingy near the edge of the Tsingy de Bemaraha ( S)   ; Lam & Meeuse 6070, Antsiranana, montagne des Français , 50 m, 1938 ( P, WAG)   ; Leandri 114, Tsingy du Bemaraha , 1932-33 ( P)   ; Leandri 533, Maroarivo, Ambato , 1932 ( K)   ; Mabberley 737, near Ambohibe between Morondava and Antananarivo, 240 m, 1971 ( MO)   ; Marohasy C17, Morondava, Ankilizato , 1987 ( K, P)   ; Marohasy C18, Belo Tsiribihina , 1987 ( K, MO)   ; Marohasy C19, Ambatolahy , 1987 ( K, MO)   ; Marohasy C20, Mahajanga, Boanamary , 1987 ( K, MO)   ; Marohasy C21, Mahajanga, 1987 ( K, MO)   ; Marohasy C29, Maromandia , 1987 ( K, MO)   ; Marohasy C51, Antsiranana, Ramena , 1987 ( MO)   ; Marohasy C52, Antsiranana, 1987 ( K, MO)   ; Marohasy C53, Sadjoavato , 1987 ( K, MO)   ; Marohasy C54, 20 km N of Ambilobe, 1987 ( K, MO)   ; Marohasy C55, Ambilobe , 1987 ( K, MO)   ; Marohasy C61, Ambohimahavelona , 1988 ( MO)   ; Marohasy C62, ibid., 1988 ( K, MO)   ; Marohasy C67, Ankaraobato, Manombo river , 1988 ( K, MO)   ; Marohasy C68, ibid., ( MO)   ; Marohasy C69, Analamisampy , 1988 ( K, MO)   ; Marohasy C70, C71, Bevoay , 1988 ( K, MO)   ; Marohasy C72, C73, Morondava , 1988 ( K, MO)   ; Marohasy C74, Andrevo , Manombo river ( MO)   ; Marohasy C76, Ambohimahavelona , 1988 ( K, MO)   ; Marohasy C81, 5 km N of Maromandia, 1988 ( K, MO)   ; Marohasy C83, 10 km S of Maromandia, 1988 ( K, MO)   ; Marohasy C84, 33 km S of Maromandia, 1988 ( K, MO)   ; Marohasy C85, C86, Maintirano , 1988 ( MO)   ; Marohasy C87, 22 km S of Maintirano, 1988 ( K, MO)   ; Mathuen s.n., Toliara, 9 Sep. 1911 ( K)   ; Morat 964, Rés. Nat. 8, 1964 ( P)   ; Omlor 12, Concession forestière du C. F. P. F. 55 km north of Morondava , river Kirindy , 50 m, 1992 ( MO)   ; Omlor 17, Belo sur Mer, 70 km south of Morondava , 0-50 m, 1992 ( MO)   ; Peltier 5301, Amborovy , 1965 ( P)   ; Perrier de la Bâthie 73, Boina, bords de Bemarivo , 1906 ( P)   ; Perrier de la Bâthie 4584, bords du Iabohazo, à Ankirihitra , 1902 ( P)   ; Perrier de la Bâthie s.n., env. de Marovoay , 1910 ( G)   ; Perrier de la Bâthie s.n., Toliara, 1910 ( P)   ; Pervillé 172, Antsiranana, 1841 ( P)   ; Pervillé? 694, Ambongo , 1841 ( P)   ; Phillipson 2622, prov Toliara, near Beza Mahafaly reserve, near Betioky , ridge east of Sakamena river , valley of Analafahy , 1987 ( K, MO, P, WAG)   ; Rahantamalala 105, Morondava , 1990 ( P)   ; Villiers, Klackenberg & Badré 4857, 10 km E Antsalova , 1993 ( S)   ; Villiers, Klackenberg & Badré 4864, 10 km E Antsalova , 1993 ( S)   ; Villiers, Klackenberg & Badré 4959, 4960, 15 km E Ankiliromotsy , 27 km SE Antsalova, 1993 ( S)   ; Villiers, Klackenberg & Badré 5005, piste de Bekopaka , 10 km SSE Antsalova, 1993 ( S)   ; Réserves Naturelles: RN-1108, RN - 1109 Ratoto, distr. Ambato Boeni , canton Tsaramandroso , Ampombilava , 1947 ( P)   ; Réserves Naturelles: RN-2131 Sajy, distr. Mandritsara , canton Antsirabe , 1950 ( P)   ; Réserves Naturelles: RN-s.n. Rakoto, Mahajanga distr., canton d’Ambalakida , Marohogo , 1947 ( P)   ; Service Forestier: SF-16, Tsingy de Namoroka ( BM, P)   ; Service Forestier: SF-179 Capuron, Marohogo , SE de Mahajanga, 1949 ( P)   ; Service Forestier: SF-1287, Antsiranana, montagne des Français , 1950 ( P)   ; Turnour 4, 6, Toliara, Maroamalona, lower Onilahy riv., 1986 ( K, MO, P)   .

Specimens intermediate between Cryptostegia grandiflora   and C. madagascariensis   :

Marohasy C2, Tongobory, Betioky, 1987 (K, MO); Marohasy C64, Toliara, Tongobory, 1988 (K, MO); Marohasy C65, ibid. (MO); Perrier de la Bâthie 16584, versant W de l’Isalo, 1926 (P); Phillipson 2594, prov. Toliara, near Beza Mahafaly reserve, near Betioky, 1987 (K, MO, P, WAG).

BRI

Queensland Herbarium

CANB

Australian National Botanic Gardens

K

Royal Botanic Gardens

L

Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch

MO

Missouri Botanical Garden

P

Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants

G

Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève

S

Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History

W

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien

N

Nanjing University

BM

Bristol Museum

E

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

WAG

Wageningen University

C

University of Copenhagen

F

Field Museum of Natural History, Botany Department

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Gentianales

Family

Apocynaceae

Genus

Cryptostegia

Loc

Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R. Br.

Klackenberg, Jens 2001
2001
Loc

Cryptostegia madagascariensis Bojer ex Decne. var. glaberrima (Hochr.) Marohasy & P.I. Forst., Austral. Syst. Bot.

Marohasy & P. I. Forst. 1991: 576
1991
Loc

Cryptostegia madagascariensis Bojer ex Decne. var. septentrionalis Marohasy & P.I. Forst., Austral. Syst. Bot.

Marohasy & P. I. Forst. 1991: 576
1991