Nesocyrtosoma Marcuzzi

Hopp, Katie J. & Ivie, Michael A., 2009, A Revision Of The West Indian Genus Nesocyrtosoma Marcuzzi (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), The Coleopterists Bulletin (mo 8) 63, pp. 1-138: 11-15

publication ID 10.1649/0010-065x-63.sp8.1

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scientific name

Nesocyrtosoma Marcuzzi


Taxonomy of Nesocyrtosoma Marcuzzi  

As stated above, members of Nesocyrtosoma   can be recognized by a combination of four characters — 1) clypeal membrane concealed; 2) epipleuron very broad with subparallel margins in the anterior third, then gradually narrowing and terminating at the base of the fifth abdominal ventrite; 3) femora slightly to moderately emarginate on the inner surface near the apex; and 4) female genital tract with an abruptly expanded apical spermatheca connected to a bursa-less vagina by an apical spermathecal accessory gland, and a cylindrical stiffened cuticular tube with squared-off ends at the base of the spermathecal accessory gland. The stiffened cuticular tube is not unique to Nesocyrtosoma   as many tenebrionids seem capable of forming thicker cuticle in almost any location in the female genital tract (W. Tschinkel, pers. comm.), but it was discovered during this study that the particular structure of the stiffened cuticular tube in the species of Nesocyrtosoma   is unique. It is thus termed the Nesocyrtosoma   -stiffened cuticular tube (NSCT). There is a short section of either the vagina or accessory gland that is constricted at the beginning of the vagina (i.e., the point farthest from the vaginal opening), and the NSCT is located on the spermathecal accessory gland just above this constriction. The NSCT is unique in that it is a long, cylindrical tube that is weakly constricted near the apex. Both ends of the NSCT are squared-off, giving it a rectangular shape. The accessory gland can usually be seen within the NSCT and is weakly to strongly pigmented. This pigmentation becomes extremely weak at the point of constriction and then becomes very strong near the exiting point within the NSCT ( Figs. 77, 78 View Figs ).

The NSCT is different than the stiffened cuticular tube seen in Apsida chrysomelina Lacordaire   and Hesiodus longitarsus Champion   ( Fig. 81 View Figs ). The stiffened cuticular tube in these two species is located in the same place as in species of Nesocyrtosoma   . However, the stiffened cuticular tube begins as a continuation of the vagina and is lacking the constriction seen in the NSCT. The shape of the stiffened cuticular tube is more robust and ovate in A. chrysomelina   and H. longitarsus   , and the apical end of the stiffened cuticular tube is tapered into the accessory gland ( Fig. 81 View Figs ). Finally, the accessory gland is lacking pigmentation within the stiffened cuticular tube except for a faint portion near the apex immediately before it exits the stiffened cuticular tube ( Fig. 81 View Figs ).

With the discovery of the NSCT, H. caraibus   was eliminated from this study. Although the type series of this species was not examined, specimens determined by T. Spilman as H. caraibus   , and the types of H. longitarsus   , Hesiodus brasilensis Champion   , Hesiodus conspurcatus Champion   , Hesiodus debilis Champion   , Hesiodus egaensis Champion   , Hesiodus ellipticus Champion   , Hesiodus jasoni Champion   , and Hesiodus sordidus Champion   were all examined. Two females of H. longitarsus   , the type species of Hesiodus   designated by Lucas (1920) and subsequently by Gebien (1938 – 1942 a), were dissected. It was determined that H. longitarsus   has a distinctly different stiffened cuticular tube than Nesocyrtosoma   (as discussed above). The specimens from Dominica and Guadeloupe determined as H. caraibus   by T. Spilman have the same stiffened cuticular tube structure as in H. longitarsus   . Thus, based on these dissections, H. caraibus   should remain in Hesiodus   and is not included any further in this revision.

Nesocyrtosoma   is redefined based on Marcuzzi’s (1976, 1999) and Doyen’s (1989) work and current findings. Sixteen of the 18 species are redescribed, 27 new species are described, all but three species are illustrated, and a key to species is provided below.

Nesocyrtosoma Marcuzzi, 1976  

Cyrtosoma (Nesocyrtosoma) Marcuzzi 1976: 137   [ Nesocyrtosoma Marcuzzi   is a nomen nudum under ICZN Art. 13.3, because no type species was designated. We recognize the type species as Cyrtosoma (Nesocyrtosoma) inflatum Marcuzzi 1976   as per an application to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature by Hopp et al., submitted]; Marcuzzi 1984: 102; Marcuzzi 1991: 235, 246; Garrido and Gutiérrez 1996: 281–282; Marcuzzi 1999: 81.

Nesocyrtosoma   ; Doyen 1989: 280–281, 299; Doyen and Poinar 1994: 45–50; Poinar et al. 2001: 205; Arillo and Ortuño 2005: 22; Perez-Gelabert 2008: 115; Vitali 2008: 11.

Hesiodobates Kaszab and Schawaller 1984: 1–6   , Fig. 1 View Figs ; Doyen 1989: 279; Poinar 1992: 154 [Type species { Hesiodobates antiquus Kaszab and Schawaller   by original designation]. [Synonymy by Doyen and Poinar 1994: 45].

Cyrtosoma (Pachycyrtosoma) Marcuzzi 1999: 81–82   , Figs. 1–6 View Figs View Figs [Type species Cyrtosoma (Pachycyrtosoma) merkli Marcuzzi   by original designation]; Perez-Gelabert 2008: 115. New Synonymy.

Nesocyrtoma Perez-Gelabert 1999: 31 [lapsus calami].

Serrania Garrido 2003: 49–52   , Fig. 1 View Figs [Type species Diaperis viridula Zayas   by monotypy]. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis. The members of this genus are distinguished from all other genera of the Cnodalonini   by the combination of the following external characters: clypeal membrane concealed beneath the epistoma ( Fig. 4 View Figs ); epipleuron terminating at 5th abdominal ventrite ( Fig. 33 View Figs ); femur with apical portion emarginate ( Fig. 37 View Figs ). The females are unique in the combination of an abruptly expanded apical spermatheca connected to a bursa-less vagina by an apical spermathecal accessory gland with a cylindrical stiffened cuticular tube at the base of the spermathecal accessory gland termed the Nesocyrtosoma   -stiffened cuticular tube (NSCT) ( Fig. 77 View Figs ).

Redescription (modified from Marcuzzi 1976, 1999 and Doyen 1989). Male. 3.5– 12.0 mm long, 1.5–6.5 mm wide. Variable in color, usually black, sometimes purple, metallic greenish blue/purple or shining bronze. Body variable in shape, ranging from short and extremely convex to elongate and weakly convex ( Figs. 116, 117 View Figs , 157, 158 View Figs ). Glabrous, except with extremely short setae extending from punctures on head, legs and abdominal ventrites. Head small, round, punctate; punctures variable in size with short golden setae; frontoclypeal suture present; clypeal membrane concealed. Antenna 11-segmented; clavate to weakly clavate, nearly filiform; apical 4, 5 or 6 antennomeres apically widened forming a loose short to elongate club ( Figs. 15, 16, 17 View Figs ); apical antennomere either subcircular or longitudinally ovate; apical 4, 5, or 6 antennomeres with stellate sensoria ( Fig. 14 View Figs ). Mandibles barely projecting beyond labrum when closed; usually bifid at apex; prostheca present; molar lobe present, mola flat with small serrations on surface ( Figs. 5, 6, 7 View Figs ). Apical maxillary palpomere securiform or triangular ( Fig. 19 View Figs ); apical labial palpomere rectangular ( Fig. 21 View Figs ). Mentum with median keel raised anteriorly to a point ( Figs. 10, 12 View Figs ); ventral portion of eye sometimes reaching subgenal sulcus ( Fig. 9 View Figs ); postgena with or without distinct punctures ( Fig. 12 View Figs ). Dorsal surface of pronotum punctate, punctures variable in size and density. Pronotal marginal bead complete laterally, anterior and posterior margins usually with marginal bead effaced medially ( Fig. 24 View Figs ); anterior edge evenly emarginate; posterior edge bisinuate; anterior angles of pronotum acute ( Fig. 159 View Figs ) to obtuse ( Fig. 101 View Figs ), strongly ( Fig. 159 View Figs ) to weakly ( Fig. 249 View Figs ) produced and apically narrowly ( Fig. 159 View Figs ) to widely ( Fig. 101 View Figs ) rounded; lateral edge of pronotum usually evenly curved to base or sinuate at base ( Figs. 23, 24 View Figs ); pronotum usually evenly convex. Hypomeron with or without distinct punctures ( Fig. 27 View Figs ). Prosternal process usually apically rounded; marginal grooves opposite coxae either joined or not apically; setose to glabrous. Elytral striae variable, ranging from distinctly impressed striae to seemingly absent ( Figs. 213 View Figs , 116 View Figs , 221 View Figs , 108 View Figs ); scutellary striae variable, from 1–10 punctures long. Mesoventrite thin or broad antero-posteriorly, excavate, receiving prosternal process ( Figs. 123 View Figs , 135 View Figs ). Epipleuron extremely broad at base, gradually narrowing toward apex until terminating at the fifth abdominal ventrite ( Fig. 33 View Figs ). Metaventrite either 1/2 antero-postero length of mesocoxa or subequal to antero-postero length of mesocoxa; discrimen present; katepisternum present. Metathoracic wing vestigial or fully developed ( Fig. 34 View Figs ). Legs long and slender to short and broad; usually punctate with short, golden seta; trochanter off-set, highly reduced and setose ( Fig. 36 View Figs ); apical portion of femur emarginate ( Fig. 37 View Figs ), usually reaching beyond edge of elytron; tibiae straight to strongly curved; two apical tibial spurs on each tibia; pro- and mesotibia often with highly reduced apical ventral tooth, usually difficult to see; metatibia usually modified with apical ventral tooth varying in proximity to apex and variable in size, with a ventral longitudinal patch of setae, ventrally apically emarginate or rarely unmodified ( Figs. 39–73 View Figs View Figs View Figs ); tarsal formula 5-5-4; tarsi long, slender; first metatarsomere usually subequal in length to 2nd and 3rd tarsomeres; apical metatarsus usually subequal in length to first three tarsomeres combined; all but last tarsomere with dense pad of golden setae on venter; apical tarsomere with two distinct longitudinal rows of sparse setae. Abdomen with visible ventrites 1–3 connate, 4 and 5 movable with visible membrane; abdominal depressions on 4th and 5th ventrites usually reduced to indistinct slits, but sometimes present as strongly impressed pits ( Figs. 74, 75 View Figs ); intercoxal process of first ventrite usually rounded at apex, sometimes with nipple at apex ( Fig. 76 View Figs ). Ventral surface variably punctate; punctures variable in size, density and degree of impression; short golden seta emerging from each puncture. Aedeagus with basal piece and parameres simple; curved, canoe-like; parameres approximately 1/3 entire length of aedeagus. Ends of parameres range from blunt to sharply rounded ( Figs. 270–304 View Figs View Figs View Figs ).

Notes. Male genitalia do not provide useful characters for diagnosing species of Nesocyrtosoma   . There is some variation in the degree of curvature, entire length (which correlates to species size), and the degree of sharpness of the apical portion of the parameres. However, these differences are difficult to quantify and are therefore not used to diagnose species.

Female. Identical to male, except tibia usually straight and always lacking apical tooth on metatibia. Ovipositor with pair of basal paraprocts, shorter than coxites; proximal coxite considerably longer than the three distal lobes combined ( Fig. 83 View Figs ). Spermathecal accessory gland extending apically from the bursa-less vagina; stiffened cuticular tube long, cylindrical, with squared-off ends; spermatheca greatly enlarged at the apex of the spermathecal accessory gland ( Fig. 77 View Figs ).

Larvae. Unknown.

Biology. Very little is known about the biology of Nesocyrtosoma   , however, there is some general knowledge of the biology of the subfamily to which it belongs, Stenochiinae   (5 Coelometopinae   ) ( Bouchard et al. 2005). According to Doyen (1989), stenochiines primarily occupy forest and woodland habitats in the tropics and subtropics. Larvae inhabit rotten wood and adults are frequently found associated with various sorts of dead wood, and most are nocturnally active.

Nesocyrtosoma   follows these generalizations — it has primarily been collected on dead wood, on trees, under bark and rocks, and by beating dead tree limbs, dead vines, thorn scrub and other vegetation. Specimens found under bark are often found during the day, while those on the surface are usually found at night, indicating they are nocturnally active. Specimens have also been taken at light and in flight intercept traps and Malaise traps, indicating some species may fly.

The males of most species of Nesocyrtosoma   display sexual dimorphism in the form of a very small to large tooth on the ventral apical surface of at least the metatibia (there is usually a tooth on the pro- and mesotibia when one is present on the metatibia, but these are generally more difficult to detect than the tooth on the metatibia). In some species this modification is simply a patch of setae extending from the apex up to 1/3 of the length of the metatibia, but others have an apical tibial tooth, ranging from vestigial, which is generally difficult to detect, to quite sharp and large. These are likely used to help the male grasp the female during mating.

The larvae remain unknown, but are expected to be found in some type of rotten wood or debris.

Distribution. Species of Nesocyrtosoma   are known from the West Indian islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, St. John and St. Thomas of the U. S. Virgin Islands, and Montserrat ( Figs. 262–269 View Figs View Figs View Figs ).

Etymology. Nesocyrtosoma   is a Greek word in the neuter form. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1999) states in Art. 34.2 that the ending of a Latin or latinized adjectival or participial species-group name must agree in gender with the generic name with which it is at any time combined [Art. 31.2]; if the gender ending is incorrect, it must be changed accordingly (the author and date of the name remain unchanged [Art. 50.3.2]). Thus, the following species names are changed to agree with the neuter form of Nesocyrtosoma   : Apsida cubanensis Kulzer   to Nesocyrtosoma cubanense (Kulzer)   , Cnodalon turquinensis Zayas   to Nesocyrtosoma turquinense (Zayas)   , Cnodalon parallelus Zayas   to Nesocyrtosoma parallelum (Zayas)   , Cnodalon cristalensis Zayas   to Nesocyrtosoma cristalense (Zayas)   , Cnodalon cuproso Zayas   to Nesocyrtosoma cuprosum (Zayas)   , and Cnodalon elongatus Zayas   to Nesocyrtosoma elongatum (Zayas)   .












Nesocyrtosoma Marcuzzi

Hopp, Katie J. & Ivie, Michael A. 2009


Garrido, O. H. 2003: 52

Cyrtosoma (Pachycyrtosoma)

Perez-Gelabert, D. E. 2008: 115
Marcuzzi, G. 1999: 82


Perez-Gelabert, D. E. 2008: 115
Vitali, F. 2008: 11
Arillo, A. & V. M. Ortuno 2005: 22
Doyen, J. T. & Poinar, Jr. 1994: 45
Doyen, J. T. 1989: 280


Doyen, J. T. & Poinar, Jr. 1994: 45
Poinar, G. O. 1992: 154
Doyen, J. T. 1989: 279
Kaszab, Z. & W. Schawaller 1984: 6

Cyrtosoma (Nesocyrtosoma)

Marcuzzi, G. 1999: 81
Garrido, O. H. & E. Gutierrez 1996: 281
Marcuzzi, G. 1991: 235
Marcuzzi, G. 1984: 102
Marcuzzi, G. 1976: 137