Calyptranthera filifera Klack.

Klackenberg, Jens, 2007, Three new species of Calyptranthera (Apocynaceae, Secamonoideae) from Madagascar, Adansonia (3) 29 (1), pp. 113-121: 118-121

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5187204

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/481F878B-FFC1-5B41-33CC-FD62FB98FD9E

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Calyptranthera filifera Klack.
status

sp. nov.

Calyptranthera filifera Klack.   , sp. nov.

( Fig. 3 View FIG )

Species haec Calyptrantherae caudiclavae similis lobis coronae spathulatis et connectivi lobis filiforme prolongatis, autem differt pedicellis longioribus, connectivi lobis valde prolongatis, floribus majoribus, et lobis corollae parum pubescentibus.

TYPUS. — Madagascar. Province de Fianarantsoa, S of Farafangana near Manombo Reserve , 23°03’20’’S, 47°40’24’’E, 70 m alt., 2001, McPherson & Rabenantoandro 18448 (holo-, S!; iso-, MO!, TEF) GoogleMaps   .

DESCRIPTION

Suffrutescent twiner with younger branches densely covered by erect reddish hairs, glabrescent. Leaves somewhat coriaceous, shining green above, paler below; blade 6-9 × 3-4 cm, elliptic to obovate, cuneate at the base, acuminate to apiculate at apex, pubescent with reddish hairs beneath, when young sparsely so also above but here soon becoming glabrous, without colleters at the very base above; margin entire; venation pinnate and looped, reticulate; midrib when dry distinctly impressed above and raised beneath; primary veins divaricate to right-angled and secondary veins grossly reticulate, slightly raised on both sides when dry; epidermis ± smooth on both sides; petiole distinct, 0.5-1 cm long, with dense reddish mostly appressed hairs. Inflorescences extra-axillary, about as long as the adjacent leaves or shorter; cyme with few flowers in pairs near the apex with short internodes and with distinct scars of earlier flower-pairs below, hairy; pedicels 3-4 cm long; bracts and bracteols narrow, 1.5-2 mm long. Calyx lobes united only at the very base, c. 3 × 1.2 mm, much longer than the corolla tube, triangular to slightly ovate, acute, with reddish hairs outside, glabrous inside, without colleters at the lobe sinuses. Corolla ellipsoidal in bud, contorted with the left lobe margin overlying, not or only slightly twisted, with the lobes fused at the base only into a short tube, dull pale brown with dull red patches surrounding white centre; tube c. 0.5 mm long, glabrous; lobes c. 15 × 7 mm, elliptic, bluntly acute at apex, probably rotate, glabrous outside, finely hairy at basal half inside particularly along the veins and with a patch of straight erect longer white hairs near the base fenced by a submarginal c. 1 mm long row of long distinct somewhat bulbous hairs at each side, with 3-5 parallel veins. Staminal column c. 15 mm high (c. 2.5 mm with projecting connectives excluded); filaments broad with short sclerified margins (anther wings) and with five cup-like projections below (pollinium entrance), united into a distinct cylinder at base; thecae finely papillate; connectives much prolonged, at base dorsi-ventrally flattened and narrowly triangular standing together in form of a cone, apically narrowing into 5 free very thin c. 13 mm long filiform club-shaped appendages. Corona lobes club-shaped, c. 0.6 mm long, horizontal, much shorter than the connectives, glabrous but with warty surface. Pollinia ellipsoidal, c. 0.2 mm long, attached to minute soft corpuscula.Style narrow and cylindric at lower half but conical below the stylehead, c. 1.5 mm high; style-head c. 0.5 mm high, with a discoid lower part with 5 pads supporting the pollinia in between and with a narrower and short upper rounded part. Fruits unknown.

HABITAT AND DISTRIBUTION

Calyptranthera filifera   is known only from the type locality south of Farafangana in the southern part of the Malagasy east coast. It was found in disturbed forest at 70 m altitude in flower in November.

REMARKS

Calyptranthera filifera   shares several characters with C. caudiclava   and is thought to be closely related to this taxon. Both species have spathulate and horizontal corona lobes, prolonged connectives that

C,

basally are dorsi-ventrally flattened and form a cone (calyptra) above the thecae, but apically transform to long and filiform and somewhat club-shaped appendages.They also share the character of having two submarginal straight lines of bulbous hairs near the base of the corolla lobes ( Fig. 3D View FIG ), as well as having the basal part of the filaments, i.e. the part below the cup-shaped entrances for the pollinia, united into a distinct tube ( Fig. 3E View FIG ). Calyptranthera filifera   differs, however, by having larger flowers, twice as long pedicels, shorter connectival cone (calyptra) formed by triangular parts, and exceedingly delicate connectival appendages. Furthermore, C. filifera   is finely pubescent over a large part of the petals, C. caudiclava   having completely glabrous petals except for the patch of longer hairs at the base of the lobes which is characteristic for both species. Calyptranthera schatziana Klack.   from the Masoala peninsula further north along the east coast, is similar to C. filifera   by having rather large flowers on long pedicels. Calyptranthera schatziana   , however, differs by having erect and narrow, although short, corona lobes (vs. horizontal and club-shaped corona lobes in C. filifera   ). Calyptranthera filifera   differs also by its very long and filiform connectival appendages, that furthermore are dorsi-ventrally flattened and triangularly broadened at base, forming a short calyptra immediately above the thecae. In C. schatziana   these appendages are filiform all along to the base.

The epithet of this species alludes to the very long and delicate connectival appendages.

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CALYPTRANTHERA KLACK.  

Morphologic explanations and illustrations showing the structure of the Calyptranthera   flowers are given in Klackenberg (1997).

1. Corolla ≥ 6 cm in diameter; corolla lobes glabrous except for a small patch of hairs at the very base; coronal lobes ± filiform, ascending and distinctly longer than the thecae .... 2

— Corolla <6 cm in diameter; corolla lobes variously hairy, from a small patch of hairs at the very base to covered by an indumentum over most of its adaxial surface; coronal lobes usually spathulate and ± horizontal, and/or short (long and ascending in C. villosa   ) ... 3

2. Corona lobes longer than the connectival appendages; corolla 6-7 times longer than the calyx ........................................................................................................ C. grandiflora  

— Corona lobes shorter than the connectival appendages; corolla 4-5 times longer than the calyx ............................................................................................................. C. baronii  

3. Connectives prolonged into filiform appendages; appendages much longer than the thecae, often club-shaped ....................................................................................................... 4

— Anthers with only shortly projecting connectival appendages; appendages ± of the same length or shorter than thecae, not club-shaped ........................................................... 9

4. Connectival appendages at base dorsi-ventrally flattened forming a conical or cylindrical cap above the thecae but apically with 5 free, long and filiform, ± club-shaped tails; basal part of the staminal column between the cup-shaped pollinium entrances and the corolla tube being cylindrically prolonged .............................................................................. 5

— Connectival appendages clustered above the thecae but filiform all along to thecae, sligthly club-shaped or not at the tips; cup-shaped pollinium entrances not or only slightly elevated above the corolla tube ................................................................................................ 6

5. Pedicels 3-4 cm long; connectival appendages forming a short cone above the thecae by their triangular bases; filiform part of appendages very delicate, at least 4 times longer than the rest of the staminal column ............................................................... C. filifera  

— Pedicels 1-2 cm long; connectival appendages forming a longer cylinder above the thecae; filiform part of appendages at most 4 times longer than the rest of the staminal column ................................................................................................................ C. caudiclava  

6. Corolla> 3 cm in diameter ...................................................................... C. schatziana  

— Corolla <3 cm in diameter ........................................................................................ 7

7. Corolla yellowish ....................................................................................... C. sulphurea  

— Corolla rose to brownish red ...................................................................................... 8

8. Corolla densely villous on inner surface; indumentum when dry seen with the naked eye .................................................................................................................. C. villosa  

— Corolla only finely pubescent on left half (seen from above) of the corolla lobe, not seen with the naked eye ....................................................................................... C. gautieri  

9. Corolla lobes shaggy inside in addition to a patch of straight ± erect hairs near the base; corolla 1-1.5 cm in diameter ................................................................... C. pubipetala  

— Corolla lobes glabrous except for a patch of straight ± erect hairs near the base; corolla c. 2 cm in diameter ............................................................................... C. brevicaudata  

S

Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History

MO

Missouri Botanical Garden

TEF

Centre National de la Recherche Appliquée au Developement Rural