Chamberlinius hualienensis Wang, 1956

Chen, Chao-Chun, Golovatch, Sergei I., Chang, Hsueh-Wen & Chen, Shyh-Hwang, 2011, Revision of the Taiwanese millipede genus Chamberlinius Wang, 1956, with descriptions of two new species and a reclassification of the tribe Chamberlinini (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae, Paradoxosomatinae), ZooKeys 98, pp. 1-27: 3-7

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.98.1183

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:5D58CFE9-D0FD-4F60-9F18-2DC800E165D1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/4BA0D0C4-3A25-42DE-EF7C-5F6FE6CE30BE

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scientific name

Chamberlinius hualienensis Wang, 1956
status

 

Chamberlinius hualienensis Wang, 1956   Figs 1 –833– 35

Chamberlinius hualienensis   Wang 1956: 155, fig. 1, 1958a: 341, 1958b: 881, 1963: 90, 1964: 69; Jeekel 1968: 70, 1971: 219; Hoffman 1973: 379, figs 19-21; Higa and Kishimoto 1986: 62-72, figs 3, 9-14; Wang and Mauriès 1996: 87; Korsós 2004: 32.

Material examined:

1 ♀ (NSYSUB-DI 38), Taipei City (台北市), Yangmingshan National Park (陽明山國家公園), Rd. BaLaKa (巴拉卡公路), under decayed leaves in a gutter, ca. 850 m a.s.l., 10 September 2002, leg. S. Y. Wu. 1 ♂ (NSYSUB), same locality, the first staff dormitory, 24 June 2003, leg. J. L.Chao. 1 ♂ (NSYSUB-DI 01), New Taipei City (新北市), Wulai District (烏來區) (formerly: Taipei County 台北縣, Wulai Township 烏來鄉), Wulai (烏來), 5 November 2001, same collector. 1 ♀ (NSYSUB-DI 07), same place, Neidong (內洞), ca. 500 m a.s.l., 16 August 2002, leg. C. C. Chen. 1 ♀ (NSYSUB-DI 06), Tauyuan County (桃園縣), Fushing Township (復興鄉), Hualing (華稜), 1,060 m a. s. l., 19 August 2002, leg. J. N. Huang. 2 ♂, 2 ♀ (NSYSU), Taichung City (台中市), Hoping District (和平區) (formerly: Taichung County 台中縣, Heping Township 和平鄉), Anmashan Forest Rd. (鞍馬山林道), 2,000-2,500m a.s.l., 1 June 2003, leg. J. D. Lee. 2 ♂, 1 ♀ (NSYSU), same district, Basianshan Forest Recreation Area (八仙山森林遊樂區), 900-1,500 m a.s.l., 23 June 2010, leg. H. D. Zhu. 1 ♂ (NCHUL), Nantou County (南投縣), Yuchi Township (魚池鄉), Lake Sun Moon (日月潭), ca. 750 m a.s.l., 16 July 2004, leg. S. H. Wu. 1 ♂, 1 ♀, same county, Lugu Township (鹿谷鄉), Siitou (溪頭), ca. 1,200 m a. s. l., 15 November 2002, leg. J. D. Lee. 4 ♂, 3 ♀ (NSYSU), same county, Xinyi Township (信義鄉), Tongfu Village (同富村), Provincial Highway # 21 (another name: New Central Cross-Island Highway 新中橫公路), in soil, 1,280 m a.s.l., 23°34'09"N, 120°53'29"E, 8 September 2004, leg. H. D. Zhu. 3 ♂, 2 ♀, 1 juvenile (NSYSUB), same township, Dongpu (東埔), Shalisian Stream (沙里仙溪), in soil under stones, ca. 1,020 m a.s.l., 23°33'24"N, 120°55'19"E, 9 April 2004, same collector. 2 ♂, 1 ♀ (NSYSU), same county, Zhushan Township (竹山鎮), Shanlinsi Stream (杉林溪), ca. 1,600-2,000 m a.s.l., 7 October 2004, leg. S. Y. Wu. 1 ♂, 2 juveniles (NCHUL), Chia-i County (嘉義縣), Alishan Township (阿里山鄉), 65 road-km of Provincial Highway # 18, near Shihjhuo (石卓), ca. 1,350 m a.s.l., 28 October 2000, leg. H. Z. Liang. 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 1 ♂ juvenile (NSYSUB-DI 02-04), same county, Fanlu Township (番路鄉), Longtou (巃頭), in bamboo forest, ca. 1,300 m a.s.l., 21 April 2002, leg. J. L.Chao. 1 ♂ (NTNUL-My 70), Kaohsiung City (高雄市), Maolin District (茂林區) (formerly: Kaohsiung County 高雄縣, Maolin Township 茂林鄉), Shanping (扇平), ca. 700 m a.s.l., 7-9 July 1986, leg. S. H. Chen. 3 ♂, 6 ♀ (NTNUL-My 16-24), 26 January 1989, same place and collector. 1 ♀ (NSYSUB-DI 05), same place, 13 May 2002, leg. C. H. Yang. 1 ♀ (NSYSUB), same place, 1 October 2006, leg. M. H. Hsu. 1 ♂ (NSYSU), same district, Duona Township Rd. (多納林道), 1,600 m a.s.l., 11 August 2004, leg. T. Y. Tei. 1 ♀ (NSYSUB-DI 58), same city, Taoyuan District (桃源區) (formerly: Taoyuan Township 桃源鄉), Tengjhih (藤枝), ca. 1,450 m a.s.l., 21 October 2001, leg. S. Y. Wu. 1 ♂, 2 ♀ (NSYSUB-DI 35-37), Pingtung County (屏東縣), Shihzih Township (獅子鄉), Neiwun (內文村), in humus under decayed wood, ca. 400-500 m a.s.l., 5 October 2002, same collector. 5 ♂, 3 ♀, 6 juveniles (NSYSU), same county, Mudan Township (牡丹鄉), Dongyuan (東源), about 300 a.s.l., 4 July 2006, leg. H. W. Chang. 1 ♀ (NSYSU), Ilan County (宜蘭縣), Jiaoxi Township (礁溪鄉), Ilan village street (宜6鄉道), Linmeishipan forest path (林美石盤林道), 200 m a.s.l., 8 September 2009, leg. C. C. Cheng. 9 ♂, 3 ♀ (NSYSUB-DI 18-29), same county, Datong Township (大同鄉), Ciilan Forest Amusement Park (棲蘭森林遊樂園), 460-480 m a.s.l., 20 August 2002, leg. C. C. Chen and Y.H. Lin. 2 ♂, 5 ♀ (NSYSU), same township, Renze Warning Spring (仁澤溫泉), 560 m a.s.l., 24°32'42"N, 121°30'16"E, 29 August 2004, leg. H. D. Zhu. 1 ♂, 4 juve niles (NSYSUB-DI 30-34), same township, Taipingshan Working Station (太平山工作站), under decayed leaves, ca. 480 m a.s.l., 20 August 2002, leg. C. C. Chen, Y. H. Lin, J. N. Huang etc. 8 ♂, 2 ♀ (NSYSUB-DI 08-17), same township, Sihji Forest Rd. (四季林道), ca. 1,060 m a.s.l., under fallen bamboo leaves, 20 August 2002, leg. C. C. Chen and Y.H. Lin. 2 ♂, 1 ♀ (ZMUM), 2 ♂, 1 ♀ (FMNH 6673-6675), 2 ♂, 1 ♀ (NMNS 4418-001), same place, date and collectors. 1 ♂, 1 ♀ (NSYSU), same township, Sihji Village (四季村), ca. 780 m a.s.l., 24°29'32"N, 121°25'43"E, 9 April 2006, leg. M. H. Hsu. 1 ♂ (NSYSU), same township, Nanshan Village (南山村), ca. 1,380 m a.s.l., 24°27'08"N, 121°22'51"E, 8 April 2006, same collector. 3 ♂, 2 ♀ (NSYSU), Hualien County (花蓮縣), Xiulin Township (秀林鄉), Tongmen Village (銅門村), Provincial Highway # 14 (台14線), ca. 210 m a.s.l., 23°58'39"N, 121°28'28"E, 13 February 2007, same collector. 1 ♀ (NSYSU), same county, Xincheng Township (新城鄉), Beipu Village (北埔村), productive road (產業道路), ca. 80 m a.s.l., 24°03'22"N, 121°35'35"E, 1 March 2007, same collector. 2 juveniles (NSYSU), same county, Fengbin Township (豐濱鄉), Hualien village street 51 (花51鄉道) (Baliwan Productive Road 八里灣產業道路), ca. 250 m a.s.l., 23°35'15"N, 121°30'15"E, 6 May 2009, same collector. 16 juveniles (NSYSU), same place, 23°35'06"N, 121°30'04"E, same date and collector. 3 juveniles (NSYSU), same county, Rueisuei Township (瑞穗鄉), Rueigang Highway (瑞港公路), Houzihshan (猴子山), ca. 130 m a.s.l., 23°29'50"N, 121°25'23"E, 7 May 2009, same collector. 2 juveniles (NSYSU), Taitung County (台東縣), Changbin Township (長濱鄉), Sanjianwn (三間屋), ca. 150 m a.s.l., 23°21'37"N, 121°27'33"E, 7 May 2009, same collector. 2 ♂, 3 ♀ (NSYSU), same county, Haiduan Township (海瑞鄉), Xiangyang (向陽), mine, under stones mixed with fallen leaves, ca. 1,280 m a.s.l., 26 June 2003, leg. S. Y. Wu. 2 ♂ (NSYSU), same township, South Cross-island Highway 175 k (near Lidao 利稻), ca. 1,070 m, a.s.l., 26 June 2003, same collector. 1 ♀ (NSYSU), same township, tunnel entrance of Wulu (霧鹿隧道口), in fallen leaves in a gutter, ca. 710 m a.s.l., 26 June 2003, same collector. 1 ♂ (NSYSU), same county, Beinan Township (卑南鄉), Lijia Forest Rd. (利嘉林道, also called Lijia Productive Road 利嘉產業道路), ca. 1,340 m a.s.l., 22°49'56"N, 121°00'34"E, 18 August 2004, leg. Y. J. Fan. 9 juveniles (NSYSU), same township, Yanping Forest Rd. (延平林道), ca. 1,070 m a.s.l., 22°52'58"N, 121°02'18"E, 3 June 2009, leg. M. H. Hsu. 1 ♂, 1 ♀ (NSYSU), same place, 22 February 2007, leg. S. Y. Wu. 1 ♂, 1 juvenile (NSYSU), same county, Taimali Township (太麻里鄉), Yima forest path (依麻林道), 6 December 2004, < 800 m a. s. l., same collector. 1 ♀ (NSYSU), same county, Jinfeng Township (金峰鄉),Forestry Research Institute Forest Rd. (林試分所林道), ca. 850 m a.s.l., 30 August 2003, leg. M. H. Hsu.

Description:

Length 30-34 (♂, n=5) and 32-37 mm (♀, n = 5); width of midbody metaterga 10 ca. 4.0-5.0 (♂) and 5.0-5.2 mm (♀). Coloration of both sexes in alcohol (Fig. 1) almost uniformly very light brown to brown in both sexes; head, collum (except posterior edge), anterior end of metaterga 2-4, sometimes also of 19th, brown, subtrapeziform (Fig. 3) on presulcus halves of metaterga 5-18, separated by an axial line, closer to axial line with narrower sides but closer to paraterga with wider sides; antennae entirely light brown to increasingly blackish distally; tip contrastingly pallid.

In width, head < collum (c) (Fig. 2) = segment 2 > 3 < 4 < 5 < 6-9 < 10 < 11 < 12 < 13 < 14 < 15 ≥ 16 in ♂, but head < collum = segment 2 > 3 < 4 < 5 < 6-9 < 10 < 11 < 12 < 13 < 14 in ♀; thereafter body gradually and gently tapering both in width and height towards telson. Antennae medium-sized to long, slender, reaching behind middle to posterior end of metatergum 4 (Fig. 2) dorsally in ♂, or posterior end of segment 3 to anterior edge of segment 4 in ♀. Surface generally shining and smooth, rugulose on metazona (Figs 3, 4), also evidently and densely granular below paraterga 2-19 in both sexes. Paraterga (p) (Fig. 3) very well-developed, sometimes slightly more strongly in ♂ as compared to ♀, calluses (Fig. 4, down arrow) delimited by a sulcus dorsally and ventrally on segments 2-19, ventral sulcus finer than dorsal one; paraterga like high ridges, subhorizontal, extending increasingly beyond caudal tergal margin on segments 2-19 in both sexes, especially strongly spiniform caudally on segments 17-19 (♂) (Fig. 5) or 18 and 19 (♀); anterior corner of paraterga thinner dorsoventrally and depressed much more obviously in ♂ (Fig. 4). Axial line (Fig. 3) absent or traceable in places, usually present. Transverse sulcus (Fig. 3, up arrow) evident on metaterga 5-17, poorly traceable to evident on metatergum 18, wanting on segment 19 in both sexes, narrow, shallow, slightly deeper in ♂, neither beaded at bottom nor reaching bases of paraterga in both sexes. Limbus thin, caudal margin entire. Segments poorly constricted. Stricture (Fig. 3, bottom) dividing pro- and metazona (Figs 3, 4) shallow, moderately wide, densely and roughly beaded at bottom dorsally down to paratergal level, contrastingly more roughly so in ♀ as compared to ♂. Pleurosternal carinae (Figs 2, 4) well-developed, contrastingly more strongly so in ♂ as compared to ♀, well-developed on segments 2-9(10), traceable on segments 10-14, like low bosses on segments 15 and 16 to sometimes only traceable on segments 11-17 in ♂, or well-developed on segments 2-10, traceable on segments 11 and 12, like low bosses on segments 13-15 to sometimes only traceable on segments 11-16 in ♀, with small caudal teeth on segments 3-7(8) (♂) (Fig. 2, left) or (2)3-8 (♀), thereafter wanting. Tergal setae fully abraded, pattern untraceable in both sexes. Ozopores (Fig. 4, triangle) lateral, lying on callus ca. one-third metatergal length in front of caudal edge. Epiproct (epi) (Figs 5, 6) flattened dorsoventrally, long, somewhat longer in ♂ as compared to ♀, curved (especially well so in ♂) and directed caudoventrad in lateral view (Fig. 6), ratio of epiproct length to pre-epiproct (pre) length of telson 1:1.8 in ♂ (Fig. 6), tip subtruncate to slightly concave (♂) or emarginate (♀) in dorsal view (Fig. 5); pre-apical papillae (pap) evident (Fig. 5), situated close to apex. Hypoproct (hyp) (Fig. 7) subtrapeziform, caudally rounded (♂) or convex to rounded (♀), 1+1 setae at caudal corners situated on well-separated knobs, sides slightly concave at base in both sexes.

Sterna moderately setose in ♂, more sparsely so in ♀; an obvious, short, round ridge supporting spiracles lateral to gonopod aperture (Fig. 8, arrows); each cross-impression with an evident transverse sulcus, but without axial groove. Legs (Fig. 4) without tarsal brushes, long, ca. 1.5 times as long as midbody height in ♂, slightly shorter in ♀. Each ♂ coxa 2 perforated by a vas deferens with a very small pore opening apically.

Gonopods (Figs 33-35) simple; coxae (co) long, subcylindrical, setose distodorsally; prefemur (prf) large, short, almost 1/4 femur length, densely setose; femorite (f) about midway evidently thinner and broadened, with a thin membranous lobe on mesal side (l); cingulum marking the end of femorite very clear, expecially so on lateral side, common stem of postfemoral region (pof) short, very quickly branching into a remarkably long and strong solenomere (sl) crowned with a narrow apical lamina (m), and a similarly long, simple, less strong and unequally bifid solenophore (sph) with a short, strong, dentiform process (dp).

Distribution:

Chamberlinius hualienensis   Wang, 1956 is currently known from Taiwan, as well as on Kyushu Island and on most of the islands of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan ( Higa and Kishimoto 1986, 1989, Yamaguchi et al. 2000, Niijima and Arimura 2002, Nakamura and Korsós 2010). The occurrences of C.hualienensis in Japan are likely to be introduced from Taiwan through human agency. Moreover, it is this species in Japan, but not in Taiwan, that occasionally shows swarming, like repeated massive outbreaks in Okinawa ( Higa and Kishimoto 1986) or one at Kagoshima in early winter 2000 which caused serious railway traffic problems ( Niijima and Arimura 2002).

Such a distribution pattern vividly reminds of that demonstrated by still another basically Taiwanese paradoxosomatid genus, Aponedyopus   Verhoeff, 1939. Of its three currently known species ( Chen et al. 2010), only one, the most widespead Aponedyopus montanus   Verhoeff, 1939, has been recorded in the Ryukyus, Japan, but its identity still requires verification ( Nakamura and Korsós 2010).

In Taiwan, Chamberlinius hualienensis   is likewise the most common and widespread among its congeners, with altitudes ranging from about 80 m to ca. 2,500 m a.s.l. (Map).