Nothogreniera occidentalis

A. Craig, Douglas, Currie, Douglas C. & Moulton, John K., 2018, Nothogreniera new genus, for two species of Australian " Paracnephia " (Diptera: Simuliidae), Zootaxa 4444 (4), pp. 351-380 : 368-378

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4444.4.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:4A12965C-0189-4138-B6A9-0F7CB4C847E4

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5979267

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/4C42647F-FFB5-FF9D-FF7D-B15CB3941550

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Nothogreniera occidentalis
status

 

Nothogreniera occidentalis   ( Mackerras & Mackerras 1949, attrib. Tonnoir). New status and new combination

( FIgS. 53–83 View FIGURES 53–58 View FIGURES 59–63 View FIGURES 64–67 View FIGURES 70–72 View FIGURES 74–79 View FIGURES 80–83 )

' Simulium fergusoni   occidentalis' Tonnoir. Unpublished manuscript name (nec Simulium occidentale Townsend 1891: 106   ; Smart 1945: 510). Nomen nudum.

Cnephia fergusoni (Tonnoir)   var. Mackerras & Mackerras 1949: 386. (Type missing).

Cnephia   ” ‘S. x. (west)’. Moulton 2000: 98. 2003: 43. Molecular examination.

Nothogreniera occidentalis (Mackerras & Mackerras)   . New status and combination. The authors are following the precedent set by Crosskey & Howard (1997), who recognized Mackerras & Mackerras, 1949 as the authors of occidentalis   . Curiously, Crosskey & Howard (loc cit.) did not comment on this muddy nomenclature.

Description. Adult female: ( BASED ON FOUR PINNED PARATyPES, ONE SlIDE MOUNT ( FIg. 54 View FIGURES 53–58 ) AND A PHARATE SPECIMEN). Body ( FIg. 53 View FIGURES 53–58 ): TOTAl lENgTH 2.1–2.8 MM; MARKEDly BlACKISH gREy WITH POllINOSITy ON THORAX, lEgS BROWN. Head ( FIg. 55 View FIGURES 53–58 ): OVERAll BlACK, POllINOSE IN SOME lIgHTINg, FRONS TAPERED ONly SlIgHTly TOWARDS ANTENNAE, NARROWEST JUST ABOVE ANTENNAE; WIDTH 0.6–1.1 MM; DEPTH 0.50–0.86 MM; POSTOCCIPUT VESTITURE OF SPARSE, SHORT BlACK HAIRS; FRONS BlACKISH BROWN; FRONS / HEAD WIDTH RATIO 1.0:3.8–4.6. Eyes: INTEROCUlAR DISTANCE 0.09–0.14 MM; OMMATIDIA DIAMETER 0.017 MM; ca. 27 ROWS ACROSS AND 35 DOWN AT MID-EyE. Clypeus: WIDTH 0.25–0.27 MM; DARK BROWN, POllINOSE; VESTITURE OF SPARSE PAlE HAIRS. Antenna ( FIg. 56 View FIGURES 53–58 ): TOTAl lENgTH 0.6–0.9 MM; NINE ANTENNOMERES; TAPERED; SCAPE SMAll, PEDICEl MARgINAlly BROADER THAN ANTENNOMERE I, THAT AS BROAD AS lONg, REMAINDER gRADUAlly INCREASINg IN lENgTH, OCCASIONAl ANTENNOMERE MAlFORMED AND FUSED TO ANOTHER, DISTAl ANTENNOMERE SHORT, BUT lONgER THAN BROAD. Mouthparts: SUBSTANTIAl, ca. 0.6X lENgTH OF HEAD DEPTH; CIBARIUM MEDIAN DEPRESSION SHAllOW, SMOOTH WITH IRREgUlAR PIgMENTATION, CORNUAE SHORT, SUBSTANTIAlly SClEROTISED ( FIg. 57 View FIGURES 53–58 ); MANDIBlE MARKEDly EXPANDED DISTAlly, ca. 16 OUTER AND 40 INNER TEETH, SMAll, DECREASED IN SIZE PROXIMAlly; lACINIA WITH 16–18 AND 17–19 TEETH ON INNER AND OUTER SIDES RESPECTIVEly ( FIg. 59 View FIGURES 59–63 ); MAXIllARy PAlP ( FIg. 58 View FIGURES 53–58 ), TOTAl lENgTH 0.66–0.69 MM, PAlPOMERES I AND II SMAll, III DARKER BROWN THAN REMAINDER, SlIgHTly EXTENDED BEyOND ARTICUlATION WITH IV, WHICH IS lIgHT BROWN AND SHORT, V (DISTAl) PAlE AND MODERATEly lONg; PROPORTIONAl lENgTHS III—V PAlPOMERES 1.0:0.5:0.9; SENSORy ORgAN NOT MARKEDly ElONgATED, IRREgUlAR OR OVAl (VARIABlE), 0.3–0.4X lENgTH OF PAlPOMERE III, OPENINg 0.4X VESIClE WIDTH. Thorax: lENgTH 1.1–1.4 MM; WIDTH 0.9 MM; POSTPRONOTAl lOBE CONCOlOUROUS WITH SCUTUM, MARKEDly HIRSUTE WITH FINE HAIR lONgER THAN THAT ON SCUTUM, SCUTUM OVERAll BlACK WITH EVEN SPARSE FINE gOlDEN HAIRS; SCUTEllAR DEPRESSION CONCOlOUROUS, BUT POllINOSE WITH lONgER SPARSE gOlDEN HAIRS; SCUTEllUM CONCOlOUROUS WITH SCUTUM, VESTITURE OF SPARSE MARKEDly lONg FINE gOlDEN HAIRS; ANTEPRONOTAl lOBE WITH DENSE lONg gREyISH HAIRS; PROEPISTERNUM WITH DENSE lONg PAlE HAIRS; FORE COXA HAIRED; PlEURON AND ANEPISTERNAl MEMBRANE DARK BROWN, lACKINg HAIRS; KATEPISTERNAl SUlCUS WEll EXPRESSED; METATHORACIC FURCASTERNUM lATERAl FlANgES NOT MARKEDly DEVElOPED ( AS FOR N. fergusoni   , FIg. 8 View FIGURES 7–11 ). Wing: ( FIg. 63 View FIGURES 59–63 ) lENgTH 3.1–3.5 MM; WIDTH 1.3–1.5 MM; COSTA lACKINg SPINIFORM SETAE, HAIRlIKE SETAE ONly, R s WITH HAIRlIKE SETAE ONly; BASAl RADIAl CEll WEll DEVElOPED; A/B RATIO 1.0:2.7; M1 VEIN DOUBlE. Haltere: DARK yEllOWISH TO BlACKISH BROWN. Legs ( FIg. 60 View FIGURES 59–63 ): EVENly DARK BROWN; HIND BASITARSUS WITH ROW OF WIDEly SPACED STOUT SPINES; CAlCIPAlA MARKEDly POORly DEVElOPED, WITH A FEW STOUT SPINES CONCENTRATED IN THAT POSITION, DISTINCT INTERSEgMENTAl PlATE VENTRAlly BETWEEN BASITARSUS AND TARSOMERE II, HIRSUTE, AlSO BETWEEN TARSOMERES II & III; PEDISUlCUS ABSENT; ClAWS SMAll, THUMBlIKE lOBE MARKEDly SMAll TO ESSENTIAlly ABSENT—VARIABlE, SMAll ROUNDED HEEl ( FIg. 61 View FIGURES 59–63 ). Abdomen ( FIg. 62 View FIGURES 59–63 ): ABDOMINAl SCAlE DARK BROWN, DUll yEllOWISH MEDIAlly WITH lONg CREAMy-yEllOW HAIRS EXTENDED TO ABDOMINAl SEgMENT III; REMAININg SEgMENTS EVENly DARK BROWN, WITH MOTTlED yEllOWISH AREAS DORSAlly; TERgITE II BROAD, 3.3X BROAD AS lONg, TERgITE III QUADRATIC WITH ROUNDED CORNERS, TERgITE IV SMAllER AND QUADRATIC, TERgITE V THE SMAllEST, VI lARgER AND TERgITE VII BROAD, VESTITURE ESSENTIAlly ABSENT ON ANTERIOR TERgITES, INCREASED POSTERIORly; PlEURITES POORly DEVElOPED; STERNITES ABSENT. Genitalia: STERNITE VIII EVENly PIgMENTED VESTITURE OF MICROTRICHIA AND SPARSE SUBSTANTIAl SETAE; HyPOgyNIAl VAlVES WITH MEDIAl EDgES STRENgTHENED AND STRAIgHT, gAP SlIgHTly TAPERED ANTERIORly, VESTITURE OF MICROTRICHIA AND SPARSE SETAE ( FIg. 64 View FIGURES 64–67 ); gENITAl FORK WITH ANTERIOR ARM NARROWED AND CURVED DORSAlly (DISTORTED IN IMAgE), ANTERIOR APEX BAREly EXPANDED, lATERAl ARMS POORly SClEROTIZED, APODEME APPARENT, BUT WEll lATERAl, POSTEROlATERAl EXPANSIONS ROUNDED ( FIg. 65 View FIGURES 64–67 ); CERCI BlUNTly ROUNDED, STRAIgHT DORSAl MARgIN, ANAl lOBE POORly DEVElOPED ( FIg. 67 View FIGURES 64–67 ); SPERMATHECA OVOID, DARK BROWN, EXTERNAlly SMOOTH, INTERNAl FINE SPINES ( AKA ACANTHAE) SPARSE AND NOT EASIly APPARENT EVEN AT HIgH MAgNIFICATION, ClEAR REgION SURROUNDINg JUNCTION WITH SPERMATHECAl DUCT BAREly EVIDENT, POORly DEVElOPED SCUlPTINg ( FIg. 66 View FIGURES 64–67 ).

Adult male ( REARED SPECIMEN IN POOR CONDITION AND TWO PHARATE SPECIMENS). Body: IN ETHANOl, OVERAll COlOUR BlACK; TOTAl lENgTH 3.7–3.9 MM. Head   : WIDTH 0.97 MM; DEPTH 0.92 MM. Eyes   : UPPER OMMATIDIA, DIAMETER 0.030 MM, ca. 19 ACROSS AND 22 DOWN   ; lOWER OMMATIDIA SMAll, DIAMETER 0.015 MM. Antenna: MARKEDly NARROWED, TOTAl lENgTH 0.76 MM; OVERAll BlACK, PEDICEl SMAll, SCAPE TWICE AS lONg AND ROUNDED, ANTENNOMERE I SlIgHTly NARROWER THAN SCAPE, REMAINDER TAPERED SMOOTHly TO SMAll APICAl ANTENNOMERE. Mouthparts: MARKEDly INSUBSTANTIAl; lENgTH 0.26X HEAD DEPTH   ; MAXIllARy PAlP 0.74 MM lONg, PAlPOMERES I AND II SMAll, PAlPOMERE III EXTENDED SlIgHTly PAST JUNCTION WITH PAlPOMERE IV; PROPORTIONAl lENgTHS OF III–V PAlPOMERES 1.0:0.6:0.7, SENSORy VESIClE IRREgUlAR SPHERICAl SHAPE, OCCUPyINg 0.3X WIDTH OF PAlPOMERE III. Thorax: ONly MODERATEly DOMED, lENgTH 1.4 MM; WIDTH 1.0 MM; PRONOTAl lOBE, ANTEPRONOTAl lOBE AND PROEPISTERNUM HAIRED; SCUTUM EVENly VElVETy BlACK, VESTITURE OF SPARSE SHORT FINE PAlE HAIRS, DENSE AND lONg IN SCUTEllAR DEPRESSION; DENSE AND lONgER ON POSTPRONOTAl lOBE; SCUTEllUM CONCOlOUROUS WITH SCUTUM, BARE MEDIAlly, WITH SPARSE lONg PAlE HAIRS lATERAlly; POSTNOTUM CONCOlOUROUS WITH SCUTUM; PlEURAE DARK BROWN, MEMBRANE lACKINg HAIRS. Wing: DETAIlS NOT AVAIlABlE. Haltere   : BASE OF STEM BlACK, KNOB DARK TAN. Legs: DETAIlS NOT AVAIlABlE. Abdomen: DETAIlS NOT AVAIlABlE. Genitalia: HEAVIly PIgMENTED; gONOCOXA WIDER THAN lONg, VESTITURE OF SPARSE HAIRS; gONOSTylUS BROAD, CURVED ON OUTER EDgE, TWO SUBSTANTIAl SHORT, BlUNT, APICAl SPINES (FIg. 68); VENTRAl PlATE COMPlEX (FIg. 69), 1.3X WIDER THAN lENgTH, BROADly ROUNDED POSTERIORly AND EXPANDED, NARROWED MEDIAlly, VESTITURE OF DISTINCT HAIRS; SMAll CENTRAl CARINA; BASAl ARMS BROAD, PARAMERE CONNECTOR WEll DEVElOPED; MEDIAN SClERITE APPARENTly NOT MARKEDly DEVElOPED; PARAMERE BlADE-lIKE, lIgHTly STRENgTHENED AlONg MEDIAl EDgE, ARTICUlATION WITH THE VENTRAl PlATE BASAl ARM EXTENSION NOT DISTINCT, BUT IS SO WITH THE gONOCOXAl APODEME, NO APPARENT TERMINAl SPINES; AEDEAgAl MEMBRANE WITH SMAll SPINES.

Pupa (BASED ON THREE IMMATURE SPECIMENS AND ONE EXUVIAE). BODy lENgTH ca. 3.0 MM ( FIg. 70 View FIGURES 70–72 ). CUTIClE COlOURlESS AND THIN. FEMAlE HEAD CUTIClE BROAD BASAlly, lENgTH 1.5X BASAl WIDTH. SETAE NOT APPARENT ( FIg. 72 View FIGURES 70–72 ). MAlE HEAD CUTIClE, UNKNOWN. THORACIC CUTIClE SMOOTH TO SlIgHTly RUgOSE ( FIg. 71 View FIGURES 70–72 ), THORACIC DORSOCENTRAl SETAE ElONgATE, WITH SlIgHTly CURlED TIPS. GIll: WITH SHORT BASE, BRANCHINg INTO THREE; DORSAl AND MEDIAN BRANCHES SUBSTANTIAl WITH MUlTIPlE BRANCHINg POINTS, 15 lONg, lIgHT BROWN, MARKEDly FINE FIlAMENTS, lENgTH ca. 3.8 MM, SUBEQUAl TO PUPAl lENgTH. SURFACE STRUCTURE FINEly PSEUDOANNUlATED. ABDOMINAl ARMATURE AND PlEURITES AS FOR N. fergusoni   ( SEE FIg. 36 View FIGURES 34–38 )   ; ARMATURE EVEN lESS WEll DEVElOPED. Cocoon. APPARENTly JUST A FEW THREADS OF SIlK OVER THE POSTERIOR OF THE PUPAl ABDOMEN.

Larva (BASED ON FIVE lAST INSTAR lARVAE). Body (FIg. 73): lENgTH 5.8–6.7 MM. Head ( FIg. 74 View FIGURES 74–79 ): lENgTH 0.8 MM, WIDTH 0.6 MM, COlOUR lIgHT yEllOW AND BROWN, VARIABlE, SOMETIMES COlOURlESS; HEAD SPOTS POSITIVE. EARlIER INSTAR HEAD MEDIUM BROWN. ANTEROMEDIAN AND POSTEROMEDIAl HEAD SPOTS POSITIVE AND DISTINCT, lATERAl SPOTS lESS SO; ECDySIAl lINES SINUOUS; CERVICAl SClERITES ATTACHED lATERAlly TO POSTOCCIPUT. Antenna ( FIg. 75 View FIGURES 74–79 ): EXTENDED BEyOND FAN STEM, 0.6 MM lONg, DISTAl ANTENNOMERE ElONgATED AND SUBEQUAl TO MEDIAN PlUS BASAl ANTENNOMERE, PROPORTIONS 1.0:0.7:1.6. DISTAl ANTENNOMERE WITH MARKEDly FINE SClEROTIZED BANDS ( FIg. 75 View FIGURES 74–79 ; INSERT). Labral fan: STEMS COlOURlESS, FANS MARKEDly DEVElOPED, ca. 70 FINE RAyS, 0.75–0.90 MM lONg, MID WIDTH ca. 0.006 MM, lONg MICROTRICHIA SUBEQUAl TO RAy WIDTH, INTERSPERSED WITH 4 OR 5 SMAllER. Maxilla ( FIg. 76 View FIGURES 74–79 ): NOT HEAVIly PIgMENTED. Mandible ( FIg. 77 View FIGURES 74–79 ): ElEgANTly CURVED AND ElONgATE, NOT MARKEDly PIgMENTED, ANTERIOR BRUSH WEll EXPRESSED, APICAl TOOTH WEll EXPRESSED AND PROTRUDED, PREAPICAl TOOTH HAlF SIZE OF APICAl TOOTH, SPINOUS TEETH MARKEDly FINE AND ElONgATED, SERRATIONS AND SENSIllUM DISTINCT AND WEll EXPRESSED, BlADE REgION FlAT ( FIg. 78 View FIGURES 74–79 ). Postgenal cleft ( FIg. 79 View FIGURES 74–79 ): POORly EXPRESSED, SHAllOW V-SHAPE WITH IRREgUlAR ANTERIOR APEX, DISTINCTly AND BROADly PIgMENTED AlONg EDgE, POSTgENA ESSENTIAlly COlOURlESS, PROPORTIONS OF HyPOSTOMA   TO gENAE AND ClEFT 1.0:1.8:0.4. Hypostoma   : TEETH MARKEDly PIgMENTED, IN THREE UNITS, TEETH 0, 1, 2 MARKEDly VARIABlE, TOOTH 0 EITHER NOT PROTRUDED OR DIRECTED DORSAlly (APPEARS ROUNDED AND FORESHORTENED IN VENTRAl VIEW, e.g. FIg. 79 View FIGURES 74–79 ) WITH TEETH 1 AND 2 SMAll, SUBEQUAl IN SIZE, OR ( FIg. 80 View FIGURES 80–83 ), TOOTH 0 DISTINCT WITH TOOTH 1 lATERAl ON BASE, TOOTH 3 SMAll ON BASE OF ENlARgED AND PROTRUDINg TOOTH 4, TEETH 5 & 6 lATERAlly ON BASE OF TOOTH 4, VARIABlE AND OCCASIONAlly POORly EXPRESSED, TOOTH 7 SMAll, TOOTH 8 EITHER NOT EXPRESSED, OR POORly SO ON ONE SIDE ONly; lATERAl SERRATIONS DOWN CONVEX SlOPED SIDES OF HyPOSTOMA   SMAll, BUT DISTINCT. ONly ONE SUBSTANTIAl HyPOSTOMAl SETA WITH TWO POORly EXPRESSED OTHER SETAE MORE PROXIMAlly, VARIABlE. Anterior proleg ( FIg. 81 View FIGURES 80–83 ): HOOKS MARKEDly FEW, lATERAl SClERITE POORly SClEROTIZED AND D-SHAPED. Thorax ( FIg. 82 View FIGURES 80–83 ): PHARATE PUPAl gIll HISTOBlAST WITH FIlAMENT BASES CURVED VENTRAlly, TURNINg SMOOTHly POSTERIORly AND THEN DORSAlly AlMOST TO DORSAl ORIgIN OF gIll, THEN BENDINg RAPIDly VENTRAlly TO RECURVED DORSAlly AgAIN. Abdomen: MOTTlED gREyISH yEllOW, lIgHTER POSTERIORly; SOMETIMES WITH DORSAl SPOT PAIRS DORSAlly ON SEgMENTS V–VII, EXPANDED SlIgHTly TO SEgMENTS V–VII THEN DECREASED SMOOTHly TO POSTERIOR PROlEg. Ventral tubercles: ABSENT OR POORly EXPRESSED. Rectal papillae: THREE SIMPlE lOBES. Anal sclerite ( FIg. 83 View FIGURES 80–83 ): WITH DORSAl AND VENTRAl ARMS SUBEQUAl IN lENgTH, MEDIAN REgION NOT MARKEDly DEVElOPED. Posterior circlet: 50–54 ROWS OF HOOKS, 10 OR 11 HOOKS PER ROW (TOTAl ca. 550).

Types. THE TAXONOMIC HISTORy OF N. occidentalis   IS SOMEWHAT MURKy. ACCORDINg TO MACKERRAS & MACKERRAS (1949: 386), TONNOIR INTENDED TO DESCRIBE THIS ENTITy AS " Simulium fergusoni occidentalis   ", EVEN DESIgNATINg A HOlOTyPE THAT SUPPOSEDly WAS DEPOSITED IN THE SCHOOl OF PUBlIC HEAlTH AND TROPICAl MEDICINE, SyDNEy   . TONNOIR DIED IN 1940 ( MIllER 1940: 37) AND THIS DESCRIPTION WAS NEVER FORMAlly PUBlISHED. THE PUTATIVE ‘HOlOTyPE’ IS MISSINg AND CONSIDERABlE ATTEMPTS By DAC TO lOCATE IT HAVE PROVEN UNSUCCESSFUl. HOWEVER, ‘PARATyPES’, APPARENTly lABElED AS SUCH By IAN MACKERRAS, ARE NOW HOUSED IN ANIC, CANBERRA.  

Nothogreniera occidentalis   POSSESSED SUFFICIENT MORPHOlOgICAl DIVERgENCE FROM N. fergusoni   TO BE CONSIDERED A VAlID SUBSPECIES By TONNOIR—WE CONCUR, AlTHOUgH AT FUll SPECIES lEVEl.

Holotype. WHEREABOUTS CURRENTly UNKNOWN, POSSIBly lOST; HOWEVER, IT MAy EVENTUAlly BE DISCOVERED IN AN AUSTRAlIAN COllECTION. ACCORDINgly, AT THIS TIME, WE REFRAIN FROM DESIgNATINg A NEOTyPE FROM ONE OF THE AVAIlABlE PARATyPES.

Paratypes. PINNED FEMAlES. LABEl DATA:- [ONE HIND lEg MOUNTED BETWEEN COVER SlIPS BITS] [BRIDgETOWN, W. A./ 29 AUg. 1926./ E. W. FERgUSON] [PARATYPE. (PRINTED)/ SIMUlIUM   / FERgUSONI/ OCCIDENTAlIS/ TONN (BlUE, HANDWRITTEN)] [ CNEPHIA   / FERgUSONI VAR./ DET. MACKERRAS] [ANIC DATABASE NO./29 029386] [AUST. NAT./ INS. COLL. (gREEN)].

[BRIDgETOWN W.A./ 29 AUg. 1926 / E. W. FERgUSON] [PARATYPE/ SIMUlIUM   / FERgUSONI/ OCCIDENTAlIS/ TONN] [ANIC DATABASE NO./ 29 029385] [AUST. NAT./ INS. COll.], PlUS NO./ 29 0 29387 AND NO. 29 029382—NOW MOUNTED ON SlIDE.

A PINNED SPECIMEN (NO. K67560), INDICATED AS A PARATyPE, IS HOUSED IN THE AUSTRAlIAN NATIONAl MUSEUM, SyDNEy. COllECTED By E. W. FERgUSON. DATA gIVEN IS, IN PART— "PARATyPE: SIMUlIUM FERgUSONI OCCIDENTAlIS   TONNOIR, MSS NAME: SIMUlIIDAE   : DIPTERA   : INSECTA: …….”. THE DATE OF COllECTION WAS 31-VIII-1926, TAMMIN, WA (S31.6400° E117.4800°). IT IS NOT ClEAR IF THIS SPECIMEN IS STRICTly A PARATyPE. IT IS lISTED UNDER " Paracnephia fergusoni   " IN THE “ATlAS OF LIVINg AUSTRAlIA” <HTTPS://BIOCACHE.AlA.ORg.AU/OCCURRENCES/ SEARCH?Q=lSID:URN:lSID:BIODIVERSITy.ORg.AU:AFD.TAXON:ED160F9B-A369-4D87-9EDD-F5B1B298C009#TAB_RECORDSVIEW>. SIMIlARly, A SPECIMEN ‘K179806’, 30-VIII-1926, NARROgIN, WA (S32.9300° E117.1700°).

Additional material. PINNED FEMAlES:- [3M. S. MT. COOKE/ WA./ 30.VIII.56 / O/L/ MCINTOSH] [ CNEPHIA   / FERgUSONI/ VAR. (TONN.)/ I. M. MACKERRAS DET.] [AUST. NAT./ INS. COll.] AND [TAMMIN/ 31 AUg ‘26/ NICHOlSON] [WESTERN/ AUSTRAlIA] [ CNEPHIA   / FERgUSONI/ VAR./ DET MACKERRAS] [AUST. NAT./ INS. COll.]. SlIDE MATERIAl:- FEMAlE [ANIC DATABASE NO/ 29 029359] [ CNEPHIA   / FERgUSONI VAR./ {F}/ BRIDgETOWN W.A./ 29/8/26. A.J.N]; ON BACK OF SlIDE [AUST. NAT./ INS. COll.] ( FIg. 54 View FIGURES 53–58 ); FEMAlE [ Nothogreniera   / occidentalis   ] [WESTERN AUSTRAlIA/ DAlE RIVER TRIBUTARy/ S32° 21’ 30”/ E 116° 27’ 30”/ ElEV. 300M. 7-IX-1996 / COll. JK MOUlTON] [ANIC DATABASE NO. 29 026653]. LAST INSTAR lARVA, AS ABOVE [ANIC DATABASE NO. 29 026652]. All STAgES (UASM# 353138–353145). AlCOHOl MATERIAl:- TWO lARVAE AND A PUPA. LABEl DATA:- [ Nothogreniera   / occidentalis   ] [AUSTRALIA, WA/ LAST STREAM ON N. METRO RD./ BEFORE X-INg WITH MCCAllUM/ RD. TRIB. OF DAlE RIVER/ S32° 21’ 30”/ E 116° 27’ 30”/ 7 SEPTEMBER 1996 / COll. J. K. MOUlTON] [ANIC DATABASE NO. 29 026651]. LARVAE, PUPAE, REARED MAlE:- [DAlE R. TRIB (11-5)/ 11-VII-81 JP (AKA JANE PRINCE)] (UASM# 353367) AND [AUSTRALIA, WA/ LAST STREAM ON N. METRO RD./ BEFORE X-INg WITH MCCAllUM/ RD. TRIB. OF DAlE RIVER/ S32° 21’ 30”/ E 116° 27’ 30”/ 7 SEPTEMBER 1996 / COll. J. K. MOUlTON], (UASM# 353365, 353366). THE PUPAE ARE OF VERy EARly STAgE AND SUBOPTIMAl FOR DESCRIPTION.

Etymology. ORIgINAlly 'OCCIDENTAlIS' WAS AN UNPUBlISHED SUBSPECIES MANUSCRIPT NAME By TONNOIR ( MACKERRAS & MACKERRAS 1949: 386), AlBEIT WRITTEN ON SPECIMEN lABElS. WHIlE NOT USED By MACKERRAS & MACKERRAS (loc. cit.), WE DO SO HERE FOR HISTORICAl VAlUE.

Distribution ( FIg. 84 View FIGURE 84 ). Southern Western Australia: MT. COOKE, S32.3500° E116.3300°, ElEV. 300M., 30-VIII- 1956 ( ANIC); BRIDgETOWN, S33.9700° E116.1400°, ElEV. 200M., AUgUST ( MACKERRAS & MACKERRAS 1949); NARROgIN, S32.9300 E117.1800, ElEV. 360M., AUgUST ( MACKERRAS & MACKERRAS 1949); TAMMIN, S31.6400° E117.4800°, ElEV. 240M., 31-VIII-1926 ( MACKERRAS & MACKERRAS 1949); DAlE RIVER TRIBUTARy, S32.3586° E116.4583°, ElEV. 300M., 7- IX-1996 ( JKM); DAlE RIVER TRIBUTARy, S32.3500° E116.4500°, ElEV. 300M., 8-IX-1996 ( JKM); DRyANDRA, S32.7200° E116.9300°, ElEV. 300M., 31-VIII-1956 ( ANIC); DONNyBROOK, S33.5900° E115.8200°, ElEV. 80M., 1-IX-1952 ( ANIC).

Bionomics. All ORIgINAl FEMAlE ADUlTS WERE COllECTED IN AUgUST. IT CAN BE ASSUMED THAT THEy WERE NETTED WHIlE ATTEMPTINg TO BITE THE COllECTOR. NOTHINg ElSE IS KNOWN. THE IMMATURE STAgES COllECTED By JKM WERE TAKEN FROM A SMAll TRIBUTARy OF THE DAlE RIVER ON THE DARlINg ESCARPMENT, WESTERN AUSTRAlIA IN SEPTEMBER. THE lOCAlITy WAS JUST A SANDy DITCH WITH lOW FlOW AND A FEW SUBSTRATES OF STICKS, lEAF PACKS, AND EVEN RARER TRAIlINg gRASS—IN FUll AgREEMENT WITH THE PHySIOgNOMy OF THE lARVAE. LARgE POROUS lABRAl FANS HAVE BEEN SUggESTED ( PAlMER & CRAIg 2000; AND OTHERS) AS AN ADAPTATION TO SlOW FlOW AND HIgH SESTON lEVElS, AND THERE IS THE WEll KNOWN CORRElATION (e.g. PAlMER & CRAIg loc. cit.; KONURBAyEV 1973; AND AgAIN, OTHERS) BETWEEN lOW VElOCITy AND SMAll NUMBERS OF HOOKS IN THE POSTERIOR CIRClET—FOR N. occidentalis   SOME 550. WHIlE AMONgST THE lOWEST NUMBERS RECORDED By CROSSKEy (1990: 163) AND PAlMER & CRAIg (loc. cit.), " Paracnephia   " umbratora   lARVAE POSSESS A MERE 390 HOOKS. SIMIlAR lOW NUMBERS ARE KNOWN FOR Bunyipellum gladiator   AND EVEN lOWER FOR UNDESCRIBED WESTERN AUSTRAlIA SPECIES RElATED TO " P. " umbratora   .

THE lONg ANTENNAE ON lARVAE OF N. occidentalis   AND, lESS SO THOSE OF N. fergusoni   , POINT TO ADAPTATION TO THE SlOW FlOW OF THEIR KNOWN HABITATS. BOTH CROSSKEy (1990: 108) AND ADlER et al. (2004: 53) COMMENT THAT lONgER ANTENNAE ARE COMMON FOR SIMUlIID lARVAE INHABITINg SlOW FlOWS. THIS AgREES WITH A STUDy By CRAIg (1990: 349) ON THE EPHEMEROPTERAN Cloeon dipterum   (LINNAEUS), WHERE lONg ANTENNAE ARE USED TO PENETRATE THE BOUNDARy lAyER SURROUNDINg THE BODy WHEN THE lARVA IS MOVINg SlOWly.

DATES OF COllECTION INDICATE THAT N. occidentalis   IS A UNIVOlTINE AUSTRAl SPRINg SPECIES, SIMIlAR TO N. fergusoni   .

Remarks. AS NOTED ABOVE, THE N. occidentalis   HAS A SOMEWHAT CHECKERED TAXONOMIC HISTORy. TONNOIR PROPOSED THE NAME IN A MANUSCRIPT, BUT IT WAS NEVER FORMAlly PUBlISHED. THENCE THE ‘TyPES’ HE DESIgNATED AND NAMES ON MATERIAl STIll IN EXISTENCE, HAD NO VAlIDITy. HOWEVER, MACKERRAS & MACKERRAS (1949: 386) HAD ACCESS TO TONNOIR’S ‘PARATyPES’ AND DESCRIBED THE SPECIES AS “ Cnephia fergusoni ( TONNOIR)   VAR.” (e.g. FIg. 54 View FIGURES 53–58 ). PRIOR TO 1960, THE ICZN AllOWED SUCH AS VAlID SUBSPECIES.

HERE WE FORMAlly RAISE THAT ENTITy TO SPECIES STATUS AND ASSIgN IT TO Nothogreniera   AS N. occidentalis   (MAKERRAS & MACKERRAS). IT IS SIMIlAR IN MANy RESPECTS TO N. fergusoni   , WITH POSSESSION OF A ClUMP OF STIFF SPINES ON THE INNER APICAl MARgIN OF THE HIND BASITARSUS (i.e., IN THE VICINITy OF THE CAlCIPAlA, WHEN PRESENT), MINUTE TOOTH ON THE FEMAlE ClAW, STRENgTHENED INNER MARgINS OF THE HyPOgyNIAl VAlVES, STRIATIONS ON THE DISTAl ANTENNOMERE OF THE lARVAl ANTENNA AND THE MARKEDly TRIlOBED APPEARANCE OF THE HyPOSTOMAl TEETH. ADUlT N. occidentalis   ARE OVERAll DISTINCTly MORE BlACKISH IN COlOUR, WITH ASHy REFlECTIONS ON THORAX, WITH lEgS lIgHTER BROWN (cf. FIgS. 1, 2 View FIGURES 1–6 , 53 View FIGURES 53–58 ). THE lARVAE HAVE lARgE lABRAl FANS, lONgER ANTENNAE, A MORE ACUTEly POINTED POSTgENAl ClEFT AND MORE yEllOWISH BODy COlOURATION. COllECTIVEly, THESE DIFFERENCES ARE CONSIDERED SUFFICIENTly DISTINCT TO WARRANT RECOgNITION OF N. occidentalis   AS A VAlID SPECIES. INDEED, MOUlTON (2003: 50), IN A MOlECUlAR STUDy, SHOWED N. fergusoni   AND N. occidentalis   (AS “C.” ‘S.X. (EAST)’ AND “C.” ‘S.X. (WEST)’ RESPECTIVEly) TO BE SISTER SPECIES WITH HIgH SUPPORT.

Discussion. WITH MORE STAgES NOW AVAIlABlE, NAMEly THE IMMATURES, IT IS ClEAR THE AUSTRAlIAN SO-CAllED " Paracnephia   " SPECIES DO NOT BElONg IN THAT AFRICAN gENUS AS ASSIgNED By CROSSKEy & HOWARD (1997).

Nothogreniera   , WHIlE SHARINg SOME CHARACTER STATES WITH AFRICAN Paracnephia   (SEE DE MOOR 2017: 712), DOES NOT FIT EASIly INTO ANy OF THE SPECIES-gROUPS OF THAT gENUS. THE BEST FIT WOUlD BE IN THE muspratti -gROUP ( CROSSKEy 1969). EVEN THERE, HOWEVER, AT MINIMUM, THE TERMINAl SPINES ON THE PUPAl ABDOMEN OF Nothogreniera   ARE SHORT AND HOOKS ARE ABSENT FROM STERNITE IV. NO MENTION IS MADE By CROSSKEy (loc. cit.) OF EXTENDED ANTENNAE OF lARVAE IN ANy DESCRIPTIONS OF Paracnephia   SPECIES, OR FOR THAT MATTER OF ANy PATTERNINg ON THE DISTAl ANTENNOMERES. THAT lATTER CHARACTER STATE ( FIgS. 41 View FIGURES 39–43 , 75 View FIGURES 74–79 ) IS SEEN IN SEgREgATES OF Greniera   (ADlER et al. 2004: 280) AND IS CERTAINly UNIQUE IN AUSTRAlIAN SIMUlIIDS. NEITHER IS THERE ANy MENTION FOR Paracnephia   s.s. OF THE AggREgATION OF STIFF SPINES ON THE CAlCIPAlA THAT TONNOIR (1925: 221, HIS FIg. 2 G View FIGURES 1–6 ), IllUSTRATED FOR N. fergusoni   . THIS SPINE ClUMP, AT THE TIME UNIQUE IN AUSTRAlIAN SIMUlIIDS, IS NOW KNOWN FOR Bunyipellum gladiator   AND AlSO FOR UNDESCRIBED SPECIES RElATED TO Paracnephia umbratora   .

FURTHER, IN SOME SPECIES OF THE muspratti -gROUP OF Paracnephia   THE ADUlT FEMAlES lACK TEETH ON THE MANDIBlE—REPlACED WITH HAIRS, WITH MAlES POSSESSINg AN ARRAy OF TERMINAl SPINES ON THE gONOSTylUS; CHARACTER STATES MARKEDly AT VARIANCE TO THOSE IN Nothogreniera   .

Nothogreniera   IS MORPHOlOgICAlly PERHAPS ClOSER TO SOUTH AMERICAN Araucnephia   OR Araucnephiodes AND IS CERTAINly OF THAT gRADE OF DEVElOPMENT. NONETHElESS, Nothogreniera   DIFFERS IN A NUMBER OF CHARACTER STATES FROM THOSE TWO gENERA, WITH N. fergusoni   ADUlTS NOT KEyINg OUT EASIly IN THOSE By OF WygODZINSKy & COSCARóN (1973: 141). MAlE gENITAlIA MATCH MODERATEly WEll WITH THOSE OF Araucnephia   , IN PARTICUlAR THE FORM THE VENTRAl PlATE AND PARAMERES (WygODZINSKy & COSCARóN loc. cit.; PESSOA et al. 2012). LARVAE HAVE A SIMIlAR ARRANgEMENT OF HyPOSTOMAl TEETH BUT DIFFER IN THAT Nothogreniera   lACKS RECTAl SCAlES

WygODZINSKy & COSCARóN (1973) COMPARED Araucnephia   TO AUSTRAlIAN “ Cnephia   ”, NAMEly strenua (MACKERRAS & MACKERRAS) AND tonnoiri (DRUMMOND) AND CONClUDED THAT THEy WERE NOT CO-gENERIC—WE AgREE. GIl- AZEVEDO (2010) IN A PHylOgENETIC ANAlySIS USINg MORPHOlOgICAl CHARACTER STATES, SHOWED (HIS FIg. 1 View FIGURES 1–6 , PAgE 265) N. fergusoni   + N. occidentalis   AS SISTER TAXA, AlBEIT UNRESOlVED TO OTHER SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE gENERA. MOUlTON (2003: 47) REFERRED TO THESE TWO Nothogreniera   SPECIES AS " CNEPHIA   " 'S. X (EAST)' AND " CNEPHIA   " 'S. X. (WEST)' RESPECTIVEly. IN HIS STRICT CONSENSUS ANAlySIS FROM THE 28S gENE, THESE ARE SISTER SPECIES, UNRESOlVED TO OTHER SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE SIMUlIIDS, IN AgREEMENT WITH GIl-AZEVEDO ABOVE. HOWEVER, A NEIgHBOUR JOININg ANAlySIS (HIS FIg. 2B View FIGURES 1–6 ) USINg THE EF-1 α NUClEOTIDES SHOWED THE TWO SPECIES AS SISTER TO Greniera denaria   + Mayacnephia   (NOW Tlalocomyia   ). Greniera   IS A NORTHERN HEMISPHERE gENUS, AS IS ONE SEgREgATE OF Tlalocomyia   , ANOTHER IN CENTRAl AMERICA (ADlER & CROSSKEy 2017: 120). THE PUTATIVE ClOSE RElATIONSHIP BETWEEN Nothogreniera   , Greniera   AND Tlalocomyia   IS IN AgREEMENT WITH THE EXPRESSION OF THE lARVAl HyPOSTOMAl TEETH AND DETAIlS OF THE MAlE gENITAlIA (e. g., ADlER et al. 2004).

THE SPERMATHECA IS AN UNDERUTIlIZED SOURCE OF CHARACTERS IN PHylOgENETIC STUDIES OF SIMUlIIDS. EVANS & ADlER (2000) SURVEyED VARIATION IN A NUMBER OF CHARACTER STATES THROUgHOUT THE FAMIly, INClUDINg (AMONg OTHER FEATURES) THE DEgREE OF SClEROTIZATION AT THE JUNCTION OF THE SPERMATHECAl DUCT AND THE MAIN BODy OF THE SPERMATHECA, AND THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF INTERNAl SPICUlES (ACANTHAE). A SPERMATHECA WITH AN UNPIgMENTED RINg SURROUNDINg THE JUNCTION OF THE DUCT WAS HyPOTHESIZED TO BE PlESIOMORPHIC—THE CONDITION FOUND IN Nothogreniera   . EVOlUTIONARy PATTERNS OF INTERNAl SPICUlES ARE SOMEWHAT MORE COMPlEX, WITH EVANS AND ADlER (loc. cit.) HyPOTHESIZINg THE INDEPENDENT ACQUISITION OR lOSS OF SPICUlES IN CERTAIN TAXA. NONETHElESS, THE PRESENCE OF INTERNAl SPICUlES IS ARgUABly IN THE gROUND PlAN OF THE SIMUlIINI   BASED ON THE PRESENCE OF THAT STATE IN Nothogreniera   AND SEVERAl OTHER PRIMITIVE-gRADE SIMUlIINE gENERA INClUDINg Araucnephia, Araucnephioides, Cnesia, Cnesiamima, Gigantodax, Lutzsimulium   , AND Paraustrosimulium   .

ON BAlANCE, THE COMBINATION OF CHARACTERS STATES INDICATES THAT Nothogreniera   SHOUlD BE CONSIDERED A SEPARATE gENUS. THE DEgREE OF EXPRESSION OF NUMBERS OF SUCH STATES (e.g., WINg VENATION, CAlCIPAlA EXPRESSION, lARVAl HyPOSTOMA   ) INDICATES A PlESIOMORPHIC gRADE OF DEVElOPMENT.

THE EAST/WEST DISTRIBUTION OF SISTER SPECIES IS A COMMON PATTERN IN AUSTRAlIAN BIOTA (e. g., THOMPSON & STIllWEll, 2010) AND WEll EXEMPlIFIED FOR SIMUlIIDS (e.g., MACKERRAS & MACKERRAS 1949: 380, CRAIg et al. 2017, CRAIg et al. 2018). SUCH POINTS TO A VICARIANT EVENT OF GONDWANAN AgE—lIKEly THE SOUTHERN EXTENSION OF THE INlAND EROMANgA SEA THAT BROKE THROUgH CENTRAl-SOUTH AUSTRAlIA IN THE EARly CRETACEOUS (ca. 145 MyA), WHEN AUSTRAlIA WAS SEPARATINg FROM ANTARCTICA, AND WHICH lED TO THE FORMATION OF THE NUllABOR PlAINS, A MAJOR ARID BARRIER FOR AUSTRAlIA BIOTA. CERTAINly, SIMUlIIDAE   WERE IN AUSTRAlIA THEN; FOSSIl lARVAE OF ClEAR SIMUlIID gESTAlT ARE KNOWN FROM THE CRETACEOUS APTIAN STAgE (116 MyA) ( JEll & DUNCAN, 1986, JEll 2004).

BUT

Butler University

NOT

Nottingham City Natural History Museum

FOR

Forssa Museum of Natural History

ARM

County Museum

SUCH

Sukhumi Botanical Garden of Georgian Academy of Sciences

IAN

Embrapa Amaz�nia Oriental

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection

HAS

Funda��o Zoobot�nica do Rio Grande do Sul

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Simuliidae

Genus

Nothogreniera

Loc

Nothogreniera occidentalis

A. Craig, Douglas, Currie, Douglas C. & Moulton, John K. 2018
2018
Loc

Simulium fergusoni

Townsend 1891 : 106
Smart 1945 : 510
Loc

Cnephia fergusoni

Mackerras & Mackerras 1949 : 386
Loc

Cnephia

Moulton 2000 : 98