Herpestes Illiger 1811
Wilson, Don E. & Reeder, DeeAnn, 2005, Order Carnivora, Mammal Species of the World: a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3 rd Edition), Volume 1, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 532-628 : 566
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|Herpestes Illiger 1811|
Herpestes Illiger 1811 , Prodr. Syst. Mamm. Avium: 135.
Type Species: Viverra ichneumon Linnaeus 1758
Synonyms: Calogale Gray 1865 ; Calictis Gray 1865 ; Herpertes Illiger 1811 ; Ichneumon Frisch 1775 ; Mangusta Horsfield 1822 ; Mesobema Hodgson 1841 ; Onychogale Gray 1865 ; Taeniogale Gray 1865 ; Urva Hodgson 1837 ; Xenogale Allen 1919 .
Species and subspecies: 10 species with 50 subspecies:
Species Herpestes brachyurus Gray 1836
Subspecies Herpestes edwardsi subsp. nyula Hodgson 1836
Species Herpestes fuscus Waterhouse 1838
Subspecies Herpestes fuscus subsp. rubidior Pocock 1937
Subspecies Herpestes fuscus subsp. siccatus Thomas 1924
Subspecies Herpestes ichneumon subsp. cafra Gmelin 1788
Species Herpestes naso de Winton 1901
Species Herpestes smithii Gray 1837
Subspecies Herpestes smithii subsp. smithii Gray 1837
Species Herpestes urva Hodgson 1836
Subspecies Herpestes urva subsp. urva Hodgson 1836
Discussion: Revised by Pocock (1919, 1937, 1941 a), Bechthold (1939), and Taylor and Matheson (1999). Coetzee (1977 b) and Hayman (in Sanderson, 1940) included Xenogale (see discussion under naso ). Allen (1924) included only ichneumon in this genus and separated sanguinea and pulverulenta into Galerella ; for support, he contrasted the large ichneumon with the smaller sanguine-pulverulenta complex and reported proportion differences in measurements of skeleton and skull. His rationale has been repeated, in some cases verbatum, by Rosevear (1974), Ansell (1978), Smithers (1983), Meester et al. (1986), and Watson and Dippenaar (1987). Taylor et al. (1991) presented an allozyme analysis and argued for generic recognition, however, they did not include Asiatic Herpestes , and their consensus tree made the placement of the sanguinea / pulverulenta clade equivocal. Fredga's (1972) comparative chromosome analysis looked at variation including Asiatic and African Herpestes , and based on this, recognition of Galerella would make Herpestes paraphyletic. Comparison of measurements from Allen (1924), Rosevear (1974), and Smithers (1983) for African forms, and Bechthold (1939) and Pocock (1941 a) for Asiatic forms reveals that the large morphological gaps originally identified by Allen (1924) dissolve when Asiatic species are included. Ellerman and Morrison-Scott (1953) and Wozencraft (1989 b) suggested that differences between these taxa and other Herpestes are less than those found within Herpestes . Morphological criteria similar to that used by Allen (1924) have been used mostly at the specific level in other carnivores. Although the case is not strong, many recent authors have separated Galerella and this is provisionally followed here (see comments under Galerella ) as nearly all agree that this is a monophyletic group. McKenna and Bell (1997) included Galerella . Taylor and Matheson’s (1999) phenetic analysis illustrated interesting parallel developments between Asiatic and African mongooses. Veron et al. (2004) suggested that placement of H. auropunctata and H. ichneumon in the same genus group to the exclusion of Ichneumia would make Herpestes paraphyletic.
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